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M 2,2 


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1.4 1.6 

.= ^PPl,_\f=n if./^^P Ir- 



The Durham Forces 

in the Field 



Captain Wilfrid Miles 

(I. ate l^th Durlmni I,i«ht Iiif«nlr>) 

Volume II 

The Service Battalions 

of the 
Durham Light Infantry 

With I y niastratiom and 34 Map* and Plans 

Cassell and Company, Ltd 
oiidon, New York, Toronto and Melbourne 




(>!■ IMl. 


WHO DIED O.N Tin-: field of honour 

' i. I 

//leiy s/k.// ii'iw :v)l old, us ue thai are left ifinw aid 
As;<: ^hall not u-fary them, nor the ycuM condemn. 
4l the going down of the iun iind in the mornini; 
H'e uill remember ihem. 


I am ^.'hiil lll:tt 'lir liislulA (p| llir ililltiriit liluls 
,it 111,- i)\i:li:im l.i-iil hikinliv. Imlli and 
ijr\\. tiall,ilic>n->. i to III' wiiltrii. I kli'iw Ilia! --m li 
a hi>l(>i'> miiM |.iii\i(U' a it'ccinl ,M whiih. ail Durhani 
lllrll I'T all tillir \vili !■'■ ii'jhli\ liHMl.l. 



I <Ad-\l: hul 



This Vdluinf ^ippcars in ailvuru •■ ol tliat wliicli will 
lairv i'.iuard the Ilistotv uf tlic Durliain Li^lit InfantiA 
(r.Mli add H(<;ts.) Ihnaif,'!! tlir (.rcat W'ai ami 
will also mi-lMdc tlic War Ili^toiA ol thr First Lnw 
r. irilnrial Hattalioii'- of the Hcjiinuait . The cvplana- 
iHui is to he louiid 111 tlic ri'LTt ttalilc d.ctas'' of t'oloiici 
the M<iii. \V. L. \"aiif while tn;,'a^'ril upon this task 
\vlu( !i was to form a I'ontiiiuat ioii of liis larinr Work. 

Thr iollowmf,' pa<,'t's deal with tlir iU\tii Service Mal- 
talioiis of the Diirhani Liyht Infantry iii such a inanii''- 
as to hriiii: them all within the compass of a smt;lf 

1 am dccpK indelited to those u ho have put tiiem- 

srKcs to iiiiich trouiiic in assisting,' me v ith their pei- 

sMiial kno\s!edj,'e of events . they niiniher far toonian\ for 

111, to mention lluin all hy name. My ^'rateful ackn.iu- 

!, dHtiieiits are als,, due to the courteous staff of the 

Historical Section (Militarv Mraiu'li) of the C'omimtt.e 

I Imperial Deh'iiee and 1 have to thank the Durham 

Irrritorial Force Association for their advice and 

isNj^tance on many occasiuns. 

.\oveuibf'\ isrjii 




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Al.V.XSCE OF 20rH UlHUAM I.h.ih Imxmkv mum 

N'lA Is I. 


IN THE FIELD, 1914-18 


Till, incl.ilisatioii of tlie Hnlish Army wlucli f;)ll()\v.(l 
til,. Declaration of War with (uTiiiany on Aii<;ust Ul\, 
i:tU. I.roiiyht an iiiiincdiato call for rtcruits. In his 
!, U.r of August 7th Lord Kitchener asked tlic counties 
ti, provide I'ix*. 11(10 men for tiic N\\v Armi. s, and tliesc 
forthcoming in a fortnij,dit^ at tlic time when a 





(,.rman wu-eless mcssa<;e i)roelanned tlic failure of his 
, Men continued to offer themselves m iuinil)ers 
fir .'ivater than could be dealt with hy the military 
.Milhorities, and in no part of the kingdom was the re- 
sponse -reater or more spoi.tai'cous tlian in the county 
,,f Durham. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in winch are the 
l),pr,ts <,f the Durham Li«:ht Infantry and the Noidi- 
unrnerhuKl Fusiliers, was thronged with recruits, who 
;,|le,l all tlK puKlic l)uihlm.!S wliicli could he utilised [or 
then- accommodatum and crowded tiie Town Moor and 
, • . rv oiieii space to learn the rudiments of drill. 

On \mmst •J-.'nd .')()(» men left the Depot of the 
Durliam I-il'ht Infantrv for WokiiiK- Surrey, to form the 
Tenth (Service) Hattalion of the Rcfrim.nt. Lieut .-lot. 
H IL S.Morant.a Hejiular ollicer of many years service 
V 111 the 1st Hattalion. was there to receive ami e<>m- 
1 them Other d<-tachments follow.'d so (lUickly that 
..v the end of the month ov.r •_'.<MK) men were assembled, 
niid the surplus hecame the Kl.vcnth Hattalion. 

No less than 'l,\Hi) recruits were despatched from 
\, ucastle on September imh t<. Hullswater Camp, near 
l»irhri<rht. in Surrev. These men were divided into the 




The Durhani I'orccs in the I'ickl 

Twt-lltli and Tliiilcc-iith Battaliuns. Five days later 710 
iiifii c'uiiu- south tw liilKts ill Ayk'sliiiiy, ]}i;ckin^diaiii- 
shiiT, iifii! a hiili.r ••.iiitini,'f!it i.f iOO joined them on 
SiptcmlHT 'Jitii to coMipli tf the I'ourtef'nth Hattalion. 
Thf Fiftet'iill; iisscinllcd at Hall-iii I'ark. iitar Ayh-s- 
hury. SOU nun startin;,' from the Depot on Septeinht.T 
•_'(;tli ainl '_'K» on l!;. Tnst (la\ of Oetolier. 

TIiiis within iNii months ai the lie-jinuini.' of tlie War 
six stroll;,' lialtahons of Durluoii men had lieen con- 
trih'ited to t!ie New Armi( s, {liciuh d wi ic ni'Te correct 
to st ;ie t!;. in the raw materiid oiit of wliieh tlie bat- 
talions were made. 'Iht y had e\crytiiin!,' to h;;r!i and 
the path of U-arriin:.' was ]■■<<.[ ".W], (lit'ieiill ii -. iis will 
he rtdaled. 

Hccruits continned to come in at a vale that 
j)romised easily Id iriake '■'eod thic wa.sii'i.H' of wai' when 
the new hattalioiis shinld tak-e the Held. ]5nt Durham 
was doin^r more even than lindimr lli*' men. As tlic 
result of a sn;r._rcstioM of Maj':;' F. T. Tristram cordained 
ill a letter to C^.loii-l H. !h!r<lo!i, WD., i! W'ss decided 
to rai-e and eoinph I- 1\' eqiiip a hat'ahon fii e of all 
exT'cn^e l(i the ( e iN'ei no leu f . Au influential Committee, 
o\cr wliidi the l',arl of Di'ihou presidecl. wns foriiM d 
ear!\- ill Sej'ti-ml" r for this purpose. DuLham City, 
Darlmu'ton, the Hai t le|-ools. NFiddleshro-i-li. Moeklon, 
Sunderland, Bishop .Vuekland ami a host of siiiallcr 
|)hiees hastened to pro\i(h' their share of the men ami 
money recjuived. More than 'J 10.00(1 was su'oserilied 
and recruit in;,' Ik j^'an at \aiious centres in the I'ounty, 
while some men enhst'd at the 1)( pot. I''roin an im- 
sympatlietic War Oiliee ('oloiiel I'nrdoii had wrunir 
othcial sanction for tlie selurae. 'I'he (|iustif!n of 
housing' tlie recruits would ha\t' lien ho'li ditl'M u!t and 
exiiensive to sohe liad not Ford Durham lent Coeken 
IFill, will re, lai S( pti mill r •_'Mh. ih*- mt n assemhh d to 
form the County Fiattalion of the Dnrliam Ij.'^lil Iii- 
faiitrv soon to he kno^^n as the Fi;diteenth the only 
hattalion, in Durham or aio. ottiei' eouiity. raised and 
e(pli['ned free of t \pi li'.e !,> the \atloll. Three other 
li.attaliiiiis were raised .".nd liltei! uut hy Durha.m, hut 
the <'o>t ilieliiiid li\ eaeli Was nfunded iiV tla- War 


The Hirtb oi the New Battalions 

At tlir lu-iiiiuiig (.[ Dtr.P.ihcT. I'.Ht. tl;- Duiliaiu 
1' irlianu;:tarv I{ccnutiii;r t'oiisniit tii' was formed, with 
111,. i:;irl of Diirliam as j) , Mr. C. U. Harratt ..f 
IMtMi, l-'cll as (liaii-iiaii. and Mr. A. 1?. Horsl.y as 
triisiircr. TIk' duties of srcr.'tary were s!iar<d \>y Mr. 
.1. (urn,, ol Ncwcasfl.-. Mr. F. W. Slat.r of Dtirham 
ind Mr. 'r. V.'. Dawson of (rook, wlio ni>r.s, ntrd rv- 
sjHctivcIv the I.ilH-ral, Vnionist and Lal.our jiartirs. 

As a rtsult of a iirolonj^i-,! c.rr.snond.aicc wi'li tin- 
War ()tric<- oH'uial sanction was i,'i\xn on .January i:itli. 
I'.tl."!. for the Coniinitt.'c to raise tin Nini trcnth, one of 
til,, first of tl-e •■ Hantain "" l.attalioiis. H.crnits liad t-) 
!„• not less than .') fe<'t or more than ."> feet .'5 inches m 
!;,i^rlit. .ijid tile imnimnni chest mcasnremeni was ;U 
iiirli-s! Manv e:iL,er applicant-, stoni of heart if small 
,,f statnre. Iiastencd to < nlist ;it tlie first onp')rtnnity. 
There was some dithculty with r.eard to accommodation. 
IIS a new battalion wi\s not allowed to coix'entrate m the 
Coast Defence Area or, in<Ieed. within ten miles of the 
coast : hut special permission was ;L,'i"-en to asstinhlc not 
more "than '.(Mi in. !i at \V( st Ilartl. po.,! anil ••Robs" 
Durham Hantanis "' commenced to arrive there on 
Mareh .'^-d, T.U:.. Thev were (|uartt red in the Co-Opera- 
tiv,- Society's Inildm-Zs and Lieut.-Col. W. Th..mlinson. 
V.D.. assumed command. 

In ,Iiine, I'.U:). the War Othcc approacheil the Mayor 
(Alderman Stanslield Hichar.lson) and Hecruitin^' Com- 
mittee of Sunderland as to tli<- possibility of raisim.' an 
iidantrv battalion in Sun<lcrlaiid and distrnt. The 
We.irsiiio folk liad |ust contributed to tlic New Armies 
a c.implete briL-ade of field ^'uiiners. but tliey accej.t.d 
the new commission and in ,Iuly authoritv was -riven to 
raise tlie Tweiitietii liattalion. HccruitmL' commenced 
,.,; Au.'us! P.Hh. after Major K. .T. W. l,eather then 
secon.l-in-c.)mmand of the tth (p:\tra Reserve) Rat- 
talion of the Resjimeiit had been s,cured as com- 
maiidiTiL' oKai r. The men }M"j:an to assemble at St. 
.T,.lin"s Weslevan Schools. Sunderland. (;n .\u<,Mist v;:5rd. 
On AuiTUst <ith the ( nuntv Rt cruitini,' Committee 
was ask.d^bv the War (Mlice if d could proM.le a bat- 
hdio.i of Enlistnu'iit for the :<rd ( ounty 
Hattiihon. the Tw.nty-Secoiid of tlie Renun, id. ev.ntu- 





The Durham I'orccs in the l-"icld 

allv opeiR-(l on Octnl.iT 1st, aiui tlir first cniit mm lit of 
rfc'ruits went into hilltts at West Hart 1. pool tin days 
latiT. Til.- ranks tilUd st.adily, tliou;:li Lord Derby s 
(;r()Ui. Svstcni of attestation was rather a lini<irane<-, 
nianv iiii'ii pnf.rnn^ t(. await llie eallln;; nj) of tlieir 
t,'ro;i|)s instead of eniistniir at once. Lieut.-C'ol. W . 
Thonilinson, who had supervised the early trairin<,' of the 
\ni(t(cntli to such excellent purpose, now performed a 
similar task as eomman<liii','on!icr of the Twenty-Second. 
The Twentv-Ninth. who did rol cr.iuc into I . m^r tdl 
I'.llS. need n(")t claim attention at Ihis junctme. init 
there existed many reserve formations who supplied 
drafts to the Service battalions in the held. 

Tl,,' KUh Hattalion of the i)nrh:mi l/i'.'ht Inlatitry 
Nvcr.' formed in Xoveniher. I'.tU. \>y men f'M.ii the Mrd 
(Special Ueserv.) Hattalion. who were s.i.n .join-d l.y a 
draft of recruits from the D.pot. In th<' san>e manner 
and at ahont the s;ime time the 17th spramr from the 
tth (Extra I',, servt ) l^attaiion. Th sc lu w nmts were 
h.eated at Hni-elev. Stidforddiire. in June. I'.ti:,. when 
the .s'.lth l?ri;,'ade. to which they lulom^eii, l.ieame the 
•>ii(l Trainin" Reserve Hri-ade for the sup.ply of rem- 
f'ore.nicuts. "The Itith and ITtli Battalions added •' C-'nd 
l?..s,rvc)"" to their titles. I.ut they lost their County 
name- on Sentcmher 1st. lOKi. when they were re- 
ehrist.Mie.l. resp.Ttivelv. th.' 1st an.l -'n.l Training 
H.-serve a;..! with the KHh N..rth Staff.-r.l- 
shire Refit. (r.Miamed the lird T. U. Battalion) fornie.l 
the Is! Trainin^r 1?' -..rve Bnira.l.'. 

disliaiul. .1 

Heserve Battalion 
Xoveinlier. l'.)17. 

The 'Jlst (Bes(rvel B.iltalinn ..f 
Infantry .lates from .Inly -J'.t. V.>1 
teenth l.'ft Cocken Hall r s. 
h^ft li.'hmd an.! joined with t 





ellil of 

e Durham I-ij^dit 

When the Nine- 

r\i' comjiaiiies 

ic reserves .)f the 


pyiL'hteenth t.. form tins unit. Th.e Imttalum w. iv a stati.MU'.l at W.nsley.lalc Richmond .•uul Iloni- 
sf>a. hut while at W.'Mslevd;..!.- th-'v lost the n s.TV, com- 
panies of the •■ Balitan^s " ;'t 

forme.- ■ i i 

Battalion wh.. mov. .1 to S.'ottoii (amp. Catteiick eari> 
in November. In January, l(»lf.. it was deei.l, .1 that 

!|,,. ,.,;d ..f O.tober. I'M,-,. 
The latter forme.l the -uu'l. .is of the -J.-ir.l (R.serv.) 




.^ - 


The IVirlh of the New Battalions 

n,,v n.ov.-.i to Atwu'k, Horns..,, u. A,.nl. l.Uh, 
l>i.,iir( IS went to I'raiicf. |.,\,()iir 

, . -Ist (IWrvf) battalion. N..rtlunn u rla.ul 
:::;.;. Hat.alH.ns w..nMlivid..dn.t<, four .^..^.sju^^^^^^^ 

,,..h mils to Luu- lU'fxiinciits, and the '.^.stli and ...mi 
:;::!;,;;"tlu^lst a,.d fi^n.i ((iraduat.d) Hattahons ..f th.> 

niirlrmi l/'olit Infaiitrv. . , ti ■ » 

Tl -.: i (VouM,' Hattalu.n of the Uofzmunt 

.,„u nto he m.' in ().'t.,hcr. li.lT, fr.,.n the -nd Traunufi 

U;:;:,-" Banalu>n. .h.. were ori,.nally the 17th Durha.n 

'"The"^;iv; SohHers Battalion reee.ved recru.ts .i 
,s V. rs and .7ne nionth (hUer the a«e was n.ereased -> 
':.: onth) and. aft.r tranun, then> or f-- -'-:^- 

'a MX .nontl. sent overseas -ui t!>e,.eeforward 
,1h. :,8r.l Battalion aeted merely as a <'';11'-^'* "^;^^^^*' ;' 
for the vounj: reeru.ts. who were passed on to the olst 
,.1 .VJnd'Cira.luated Battalion almost at onee. 





It is h:uil!v an .xa^rjiiiation to si>y that tlic lirst six 
St-rvicf l}at"tali..ns('i tiic Durham I.i-ht Infaniry t>fgan 
their traiiuiij,' iiniKr tin- worst jiossihlc conditions. In 
conitnon will, the ninain(KT of the - First Hnniiivd 
Thousand" the T.lith h;:d soin.- a(lvat.laf,'cs over the 
otii.r hattalions. Thnr CoinniaiKhnt,' Olliccr. Adjutant, 
and l{('^Minrntid-Srrj,'iant-Major were a!l U.-uiars, and 
this alonf countrd lor a >;;■<■.,! <!r:'l. l^it th. re was a 
gtiural hick of competent instructors, and ollicers, non- 
connnissioned ollicers iiud men all to he trained at 
the same time. 

Many ol the camps turned into <iu,i enures when the 
liiK- wci"itlier of the early autumn of I'.tlt was foilowcd 
hv ram: and winter arrived wliil.' sevrai of the hat- 
talions were still m tents. Tiie hiod supplied was yood 
and sullicH ut. l.ul rnskillcd cooks, workm-: with impro- 
vised kitcii. n arraiifxements, were at tirst unahle to fiive 
tile men Ihe full h.nelit of their r.itions. Tlu- 'reiilh h;'.d 
httle dillicultv m ^'cttinj: their men clothed in kiiaki, 
thoufzh greatcoats and caps wcie more dillicult to pro- 
cun 7l>ut the men of most of the hattalioti.s had to \vear 
their old civilian attire until hhi.- serye uniforms were 
issu.'d. and lh.- lit and (piality of the latter left much to 
he desired. Khaki was ncn ;;< iierally avaihihle m tli-" 

spntii: of 1'»1,"). 11,1 

It was mi,' hefore arms and e(piipment reacheil the 
iMW l.altalions, thou^ih in tins particular the Tenth were 
a-'ain better served. Drill was (hn-.o with the ohl lou},' 
riHe and even wif'j wooden dummies, rantre i-ractiee- 
except with iniir.alure weapons lu-ii.;,' mostly out of 
the question for the first six months, Wnnxnh much 
tlicorv-lieal instruction was imi^artcd. 

1:-. the autumn of I'.H t there was a medical re- 
exiinuii.inou of the troops, and many men win. had hecn 
passed In til. doctors on enlistment wen- found to be 

Training at Home 


Thov wtTf (liscliarcjed, ami 

• iic\v (!!a[i ■. fi'ii'i (he Depot 


until fur ;.'-tivc scrvicr.^ 
tl.rir pi;!!''"- wi ic illli'il i,_ 
,|,i,i the 15rservc Battalions. 

■ In spite of these han.i.eaps Koo,i prnfrross was UKuie 

, ,, nls the attamnuM.t of the hi^'h standar.l of et .c.e.uA 

I u had prevailed in the Re.n.lar Anny. 1 nunnifz 

;;.';;„ the lan>e l.nes, so far as tnnc rnd opport.nuty 

■,•„„,,, ,,|^ l„„ „„,re ihoiimii was done ami tae men had 

,-' . praetuv .n U.uh throwmt:. Although ev.reises 

■ 1,,'vm^ trem.hes were ..arru-.l ont, the arts of tremh 

navfare ren.ained to he learnt l.v aetnal expenenee aft<r 

''■^'M;|.t'n:d!tr;h,e to the He.uh..>iW^ 
,„.,j,,|,,) ,,„i ,l„vcted the- tramni- of the new ';ittaliuns 
:•> ec work uas also dom- hy te.nporry e.theers w t h 

:L mil.tary serviee au<i other ex per. nee "j - » ; 
l,„„ M „„.„ : hut the truly adnurnhle spn . of the n < r s 
....nunands our greatest adm.rat.on. / ^-y u u . - 
hdnue n. then- oUiee-s, lluy emmred l"""'' ' p ' ' ' 
„,.,„.,,.,ny patience and .•heerfnln.s. and tiux 
w. IT always eaiier to learn. i i ^. 

■n,, men of the hu^ally raised battahons. who bore 

,l,,,„.,.Ke, .quallv u.ll. starte.l the.r nul.tary earerr m 

wXreireun/st I-r .he most ,, art they djdu. 

,.arlv training' ^vitiiin Ih.' (ountv and loea! .nt.rpris. 

t,..s eould do for their eomrades who were eoneentrated 
,11 th'- south ( f K!it,'liind. 

Wl'.n th. T.nth a-sunl.K.l at Wokin-: m the last 
w..,k of August. l'..H. they w;ent under eanvas on the 
,.,,,,,,,„„, ,„,,;m<!. tlw harraeks hem- ..e.M.p.ed !•> th. 
, , n.'-s Own Vorkslnre l..i:ht Infantry. The two 

n ho,7s. together wdh the^.^h i>^^" ''i -';;^;t; 

,,,.,,„ n,f,ntrv and the .Uh (I'r.nee Al Wrt s Some.^t 
|,, InfantVv, fornud the v:ird Hnt/ade of th. 

1 (til (l.iu'ld) Duisioii. , , , V, 1 . ),,,i 

On Nptem!.er -JMnM!.' Tenth niareh.d to Aid.rshol. 

wliere thev went mlo l,nls at Merkslnre ( npse. I : »nn- 

^^as hurried .m. as ,1 was understood Ujat the due^mn 

v.vre to .n, overseas before Christmas. While at W okinu 

,H0 M-rviee nfles and about the san>e number of -ts 

The Durliaii! luiccs in the lielcl 

of O'lUipiiKMil liail Itcfii is.siiol, Imt iiiv>st ol tlir !illrsaii<l 
all tilt' packs ufrr j,'radually tj'kcM awny to r(i)lacc 
\vasla<,r.' II! France. 'I'hi n the old loiij,' ritli- was used, 
hotli .iviiis and e(|ui|)nient l)eiiiy handed from man to 
t,i;in. . ihere Were Uol sliliicicnt for all. 

Ham set in after th<' Tenth moved to Witley Camp 
on \o\<ml)er •_';}rd. The huls there wer,' unlimshed 
and le.ikeil and no roid, oi' drams existed, with th.e 
conse<iuen<H' tha' there were many cases of sickness. 
In Deccmtier 100 men from euh hattalion in the t.'^rd 
Hrijjadc w<'re warned to mo\c at three hours* notice in 
case of invasion. Complete hattalions eould !i(;t he used 
owinj,' to lack of arms and e(|iiipnicnt, and the transport 
was to consist of farm (arts. 

When the Ttiith mov'/d lo .Mdershot oii Kehruary 
•Jlst the transpor' was complete, and each mati had a 
service rilh' and new leather .qnipiiKn'. Tin hattahon 
now sharc'l Corunna Barracks with tlie ;' h K.().\.I..I.. 
and lirifrade and divisional traimii;' is carried on. 
N'ew s( rviee riihs v.i re issued m Marcli and the ^hortinj,' 
of the Tenth proved lo he the hest in the l)ri;,-ade. 

Hy the time that the division were r. adv loj;io<eed 
overseas Colonel Moraiit cousidired that his men were 
cpiite uji to the standard of pre-war trainiiij: in the 
Heijiilar .\rm\ with the < xceiilioii of tin ir musketry. the command of Colonel (i. M. l)a\idson the 
Klcvcnth l.e;,'an their career at Woking and remained 
there unti^ the end of Xovemher. v.hen they moved to 
the camp at l'iriiri<,'ht which the (iiiards hattalions 
were wont to use when at musketry. 'I'h.e Durhanis 
found hut' in poc(ss of liuildin</, hut th<y were not 
linished lief.. re the hattahon moved a;;ain. 

The Kleveiith wre in liic r.lst l^rijrade of the '.'Otli 
(I/i^ht) Dixisioii, hut in Deeemhcr. I'.tl t. the War ( Ulicc 
decided upon the formation of jiioneer hatt.dions as 
divisional troops, l-'.arlv in .lainiary, iui.-). the I'levenlh 
wre rcjilaccd in tin ir hri<radi' liv the I'-'tli KinL'"s H<'!,'t. 
.•iml liecame the I'mni er I^attalion of tl,. -juth I)i\ision. 
This in\(il\ed some reorganisation. A numhi r of men 
wen- sent to tlic Tenth in ( Nchanjje f<a- others who were 
considered to he of suitalih j.ii.nt(r typt . >kill<d arli- 

Trainiiif.^ at Home 


1,.mii;l; ii"!''ti 111 nq 

U'.^t as till' ( 



KmI to 111' niiiiiy ail 

il \an(iiis. ><niii' 

i)( cial ira 

iiiii!'^ ami (wjx. li' iii'f r 

■A t!i 

l.:i,v(iit!i ill Marcli 

In 1\ liruary 

I'.ti:.. tin- Pium 1 IS mo 

vcd to vtiv coiii- 

fiivt ai ill' 
tia!'n<_' a 

hillr!N a 

1 !i,r 1 

a \'>it 

t North Lliap.l, the (iivisioii conct n 
cai.U' at Vvitlrv, wiiciv tlic Durha,;.! 

I • ., ... :.. (in,., 

k later. OiiL- (•oir\i)aiiy tlun put m 

,ks V rv iHC'tssary wor 

NVhllr V, ir ll.r I 

k n llu- roads and drains. 

alioi! wen- i. 

riaduallv tittfd vviMi 

inpnifiii. iiMl Khaki rlo.lnii;: v.a 

s not rt(<i 

vi'd till al!<'r 

riiiin\al. "D 


irch •!*> 

il, to I>arkliill. tluir hist si 

irldir {. 

oin;: (jNcrscas. 


li ami 



1, !!ic im!i and IHli Ni)rtnu'n 
)f (hi -Jljrd Division. 

it HiiilsWiitcr. fonm 
l)i'rhind Fn^, ti 

i'.slh l?n;j.idc 

ii:lttidlnns \\ 

These two Dnrhaiii 

■re coinniamied res|!e( 

tivelv liv 1. 



l-:i\ses, D.S.O., and C'ohaiel C. A. .\shl.y. i A 

1.. i:. c 

'Ihr uiioh' liiii.'a(h' con 

i.iU'l am 

tinned nnder eai 

ivas at HuUswaler 

1„. .,,„i of Xovtinlur, l>y vvhieii tune tlie nun and 
1 ,,,id had tried all ranks seven iy. Marehmt: 

Aldershot, tin Tu.lith and Thirteenth share. liarra.'ks and enntinued l"Te till the en- .d 
IM 'rnarv. Ihou-h a fortnight was siunt hy the Tuelf h 


ilhts at ^auul\ 

nrst, whii 

the Thirieeiith went to 

Wi.kniLjIiani for the same perioo 

The next move was 

iV rai 

1. the Thirteenth <,'oinfi in 

to billets at Ashford, in 

Kent, while tlu 


I'welfth were loeated just oi'tside tl 
i ti>eir khaki and some 

men now ree( l\e( 


trv wa-; done, w 

,hile '.iri^ade exercises aiK 

1 ti 


instinetion of spei 

•lalists were 

features o 

f a i-er 



;rd trainiim. 

On Mav '.i.'Jnl the C.sth Hri<:ade entraine< 

1 of 

fnr l?ramshott. a lar<;e \n 

i{(iad lietw.'ell 

l.ninimoor were u 

Nv camp off tlie rortsinouth 


Hmdheiid and l.iphook. The raii-'es 

tilise<l for musketry, and tlan 

III Una 

weeks of preparation h)r 


tive service 


rwelftii. like the Tenth and Eleventh, were taken to 

1' taiiee 
It :.'ret 
tcenth on 

the oilicer who had eomnuindei 


hold their triiiniiifi 

hut Colonel Ashl)y, to the 

f all ranks, vacated the command of tlie Thir- 

.Inlv Stli. H< 

WHS siie<(C( 

h(l l)\ Major 


'i'h.c Durham I'orccs in the licld 

J. \{. OX'oiiiiill. Imt the haltalion tvtntually wfiit out 
under Major N. T. Hulilulph. a forin.r otiiccr of the -Ind 
Durhaiii Liyht Inlaiilry, who h:,(l Ic-n srcoiid-iii- 
con-.inand siiicr S( pi.nidicr. l'.»l I. 

ihf Fnurtc.ntli moved from tlicir Ayhsbury billets 
,,ii Oetofxr ;ird to Ilailon I'ark, where tiiey joined the 
Fifteditli. With ili.' 'Mh and 10th Kiiit,'*s Oun \ ork- 
sluiv Ij^'ht Iniinlry ihe Iwo hattahoiis i(,riue(i the Cith 
Hrij.'ade'of tlie -.Ist'Divisioii. During' the ensuing' weeks 
prehmniary trainin;: was carried out under wretehed 
w.-allier e()iidilioii^, v.hieh eaus< .1 nnich sieki'.< ss. I'n'.d 
tlie michlle of Oetolu r the men v.( re still in their civilian 
c!othe> and Ih' re a yreat shortage of oiliccrs. The 
move ti. (-.mhiilahl.- hillels in lli,-h Wycinne ano the 
vicinity a( tin 1» ;;,' of he.eniher. I'.tl !. was an 
inuiiensc improvenunt. ^^ 

'!'r.!i;';:i ; \'j-\v r.-'i\> s'c:<d<- pToirn'ss. Wi'h C..l;.nel ti. 
Kcclt > m .ommand nf the Fourth enlh, and with tlic 
Fifteenth undrr FimiI.-C'I \{. A. Sunth. During' the 
fourteen weeks spent h he <lespiscd dunnny rilh's 

\s,.,-.- n-|)!:..-l !.\' v:.; if servwe patter!', and the 

men were i^mio<I witji khaki clotliinf,'. The (Uih Bri.tzadc 
marched back to Ilalton I'ark early m April, I'.H:). and 
found a vastiv unproved camp of huts. Hattalion, 
hrij:ad<' and divisional exercises anu.n^' the wooded 
slopi's of tlu' fhiliern IliUs continue.) until .Inly, wlrn 
the -Jlst Division marched to Witlcy Camp, a <iistanco 
of 7:> nulcs w!;ieh V. :>s (•.i\cn(l in li'. i- ('nxs. l,,cut .-lol. 
A. S. Hamilton, tth Notts and Derby Hej,'t., was now 
connnan.lin<,' the Fourteenth. At Witlcy the battalions 
work-d verv hard in hot and dus y w. at her dnrinu the 
remainiiu,' weeks before cnibarkatiMii. In Aui;iist Lieut. - 
Col. K. T. Fo;,'an. D.S.O.. .'5rd ( heshire Ib-'t.. was 
•ra/etted U< the <'nmmaud of the Fifteenth, replacim,' 
Colonel Smdh. 

'I'tie Fii'htecnlli. locat<'d at Cocken Hall, were re- 
eruited to full streiiL'th larly m Oetob.r, I'.tU, and two 
(oiiipauies ino\..i into billets as further aec.nnmodation 
became necessary. !<outhampton, the first eom- 
tnandin^' otliecr. was soon succeeded by Lieut. -(ol. iL 


■;sims^'.-ritssps^-st^,iaa^.-^!^~-si:^I^^ ^IS K BK Wi 

Training at Home 

15,)\vt s. Tho colli 

iiiittcc now arranged for 0\v \m\\d\n<i 

KilWtS. 1 111 I wiiini" >>^ > -- 1-. rill 

t iHits, so rhat Corkc-n Hall soon h.oam. a coin fort able 

n U l-a,.po.ntca camp. Hv the ini.Uilc of Nov.n.l.c 
\ .',,,ttahon had nuuic gnnt progress ,n training and 
. .a.usMfon: Ihe nun Nvere all a, u.iforn. and m en 
..l^npn.ciit had been receive.l. On the ICth of the ino.ith 

wn companies, u.der the command of Major 1,.. 
rnstram! -.venl to IlarlUpool for coast defence ditus. 
n.ev provided guards at points, improve.! the 

sMu!.. hencii.s ;.-:! e:mtn.ued tl;nr tr.uimg. _ 

\ nionth later, on December l»it!i, the lumdunoiueiu 
,,f I'h, Ilartlepools bv a Mpiadron of (ierman %varships 
..i,,,,.,! f,,r the Ki-zhternth tlu distinction of bemg t ;e 
Ursl' of the Durham Service battalions to come under 
licir role u-as :> j., -r.e one .■uid the 

iniani rv 

storv of the fight very properly belongs O the Durhain 
Hoval (.arnson Artdhry; but the I>'\f ;r"'\'*f.. •; 
k,l!nl ai 1 n wounded bv th.- .nemy shell fire, and tlu 
,;„,1 and gallant bearing of the two ,nm|.anies was be- 

1 all ,. raise. Sergt. W. K. Ib.d and Corp. M 

;.,!..,. ,!o„ went down to tlie beach .iurmg the bumbanl- 
„„,,, ;,,ul n scued an m.iure.l fisherman. 

,„ iv.rmber. tl. Kightcenih w.lh the loth st^h 
.,,,1 pull \..rthumlKiland Fusiliers were l-,Mv:i.!e<l ... 
i,,.;,,, ilu. l--„d Hri-ade of the list Division, l-.a-lv m 
,,n llu^ Hartlepool deta<hm. at rej<.med the a.tahon 
^vho were ealle.l upon to slrcn-lhen the Mid<. 
,l,.f..n.'es in the April. Th.s a week s 
,,„nost dutv for three eompames. On >1;^V •^'^' f 
,....,.1 Hngade ..o.N.ntrated un.ler .'anvas at Cramlmg- 
,.;■. but later m the month the i:ighleenth were post... 
,,, ,h,. ',.Mrd Hngade of the .-'.Ist Division an<l .l<""''d the 
,t Hipon. The other battalu-ns of this brigade weu tli- 1th an 1 isth W.St Yorkshires 

Th.- Kighte.nth <leriv.-.l great b.n.- it from th.'ir 
.,,„,„,,- at UM'on and m Aieni.t t'. Uer OMwe t.,.,k 
„ver'a v.TV finV battalion in.l.'cd. The n.-xt inove was 
,„ ,h.. unfmish.Ml eamp of Fovaid. near Salisl,ur>, on 
Sept.inb.T ■r.'.rd. H. re musketry was .lone an.l oh.' 
training earru.l out in ba.l weath.T. At th.' .n.l .. 
N„v.mber a.ivan.-e parti.'s of th.- :51st Division .-msse.! 
Mi.- rhannel. but .^nl.Ts f.-r th.- Western Inmt wr- 



The Durham forces in the liiid 

raiic !1(<I and .-.uh-Ik-IiiuK utrc issued. I'.arlv in 
J)fr( nihtr llir Earl of Dmiiam insji. ( t. .1 tiic J j-hlr. iitli 
ami had-- tliijii larcwrll iii tlir naiiif nf tin (.(.luily. 

I'ucruitiiifi fur the ?>initriiitli had to hr t( niiiwianly 
suspended when no more men eould lie neeomniodated 
at liait!.j„,oi. l.ii! in Alay, I'.ti:). t!ie C'orken iiall eamp 
lieeame \aeant. The hallalion moved there in the 
middle of Uie inonlh. and were then»(> siron<:. On 
.Inne -J'-'ud they went to Masham. m \dskshire, and in 
.Iul\ came south to Perham Down on Salisliui\ Plain. 
Lieiit.-C'ol. \V. Thoi.ilinson liad hei'U succeeded m the 
command tiy C'(.Ion< 1 A. \V. Newhold. and m Sej)!. inher 
th.' latter handed o\<r tiie NnK'teeii'.h to Major L. S. 

SI V. Ii'" Kovr.l I:,-h !''usil;.rs. \h,. lock iImm! to 

Kraner m .lamiary of the foHowni^' yeai'. 

Tie- i:',i'-:u<.' oi liie •" i!;intam '" hat i :,litin-. \\a-. oi 
eouise. in the nature of an experiment, hut all inspect- 
in<r otliecrs wliM saw the Nmelcenth on parade or at 
work lej.Mted them a \ t ry \-,ihi,diie addiiloJl te> the 
Armies. Lord Dmham inspteted them m August and 
a^ain in Deeemher. I'.tl,'). and eNpress( li his complete 
satisfaction on hoth occasions. 

It cost the County upwards of *;il, ".<>(> to raise and 
■.•(lui]) the h.itlahon. this sum heinj,' refunded l.y the War 
Otliee. The Nineteenth. With the 17th \Vt si Yorkshire 
Hci,'t.. the 17th IJoyal Scots and the istii Ili'.ddand 
LitTht Infanirv. formed the lOdth liriyaile of the .'{.Mh 
Division. .\il the inhintry of l!ie division were 
•■ Hantam "" lialtalions. 

'I'he Tw, nlii Ih soon removed from tlun- lullcts in 
Sunderlarid. On .Xuinist 'JSth. I'.tl.-.. the l.attali(.n en- 
trained for \V. iisley. in Yorkshire, win re tents had l>een 
pitched m pleasan! surroundin'.'s. No rifles or cquip- 
naiit were a\;iilah!c at this period, hut Colonel Leather 
was able lo irel his men disciplined and phvsically fit 
while otli ■. rs .and N.C.O.'s wer<' luin;: traine<l. In 
Octolier. when the weather cliaiiiied very much for the 
worse, the 'rvventicth moved to liillets at laniard I'astle. 
and here the hattalion made rapid pro;.'T"ess as (fpiip- 
ineiit < r all kinds arrived. In Nov.'ml'er, I'.tl."). the 






Training at Home 


Wrnsult IS w.Tf pi.strd to tlu- V-'anl lirif,'a(le of tli.' Ust 
Division thon {ormiuij at Aldcisliot, hut tlu-y did not 
,,„nr south till tlK' War Oilier took over tin- haltal.on 
from the Sundt-rlaud Ufcruitin.i,' Committee at the 
iKf'inniii^' or January. H'lC. 

On arrival at AldtTslu.t tlu- Twcntu-th found tlicni- 
s.lvcs l)ri<.ad<(l Willi tlu- 'JUrd Middlesex, the 11th 
(^Ki,,ii-s and the IDth Quem's Own (Uoyal kiut 
1{, ,rt ). Without delav the luittaiion were completely 
,.,m|.i).d 111 (verv detail for service overseas, hut tram- 
i,a varied hy frc(iuent inspections continued t-ll the 
. iid of April. 

Til.' Twcnt\ -Second, \vho were taken over hy the 
\V-,r OUiee oi'i March '.tth. I'.nc, remained at West 
HartleiM)ol until March -Jlsl. Colonel Thoinhnson ahly 
,'M,-eled the trji^'ir-.:'- throicihout this perio.l and h.' was 

.istlv proud of his Pioneers when lie reviewed them on 
i'l,,. -Mith handing over the command to Lieiit.- 
t nl C n. Mor'NUi of the West India Uvai. Next day 
!he Tweiitv-Stc^md inovcc' to Scottoii tamp. Cattcriek. 
tiicir last" station heforc proccedin<z overseas. As 
Pioneers th. y w-re not attached to any infantry division 

II Knu'laiid. 





Tin- Ten!!. K'fi Al.I.rsla.t on M;'.y -Ist ;niM .toss,.,! 
from Folkcstuiu- to Boulojzno the same ni{,'ht. t)n the 
•>-,th tliey left hv train for Cassel and niarehed to billets 
at Volkerinekhove. eventually naehinj,' Bailleul on the 
last dav of the month. Here work was done on the 
local defences till the battalion nuA( d to Diekebuseh, 
after which parties were i iiiployed al hi. K!oi. 

The tirst experidK'e of trench iluly commenced on 
.Unv VliU. ^^iw■.i i!ie Tenlh we,- .(;;.!.■! t,, i!:e !(,t-| 
Division and went into the line, first by i)latnons and 
then bv companies, west of Wytsehaete. Dunn- this 
tour thVn- -1 easii;dti. s. inchi.iin- -p i S-'v"'!-/.;; ^•• 
Fairbann, mortally wi>unded. A few days "i btuets 
near Poperin-he followed, and then on June -'»h tiie 
battalion took over the line astride the Memn Hoad 
opposite Hoo-e. The treiiclus here were m a bad state 
•ifter a sueeessbd Untish attack. Next morning Capt. 
C. James was killed, and on June -JTtli the Germans 
shelled the su|)port position occupied by A coinpany, 
killui" Major IL li. Vh:<\;uniu and w.^inunt;- Mi.l buut 
C E^Sewart. Capt. J. T. Saunders was also wounded 

it vi d aiMl CA.ui 

ties in 

before the bat!:il! >!' v.i 
ranks amounted to 50, 

Now came a few davs rest near \ lamertin{,'he and an 
opportumtv to fraternise with the -.'ml Durham Lipht 
Infantrv l)."fore th. Tenth moved into reserve at \ pres 
ramnarfs. On Julv '^-.'nd the battalion took over the 
Hailwav Woo-l sector ..n the left of the Im.' previously 
held "\ m<dit of rain ^'ave some indication of what 
wmter m the innclies would be like, but this tour was 
,„,,,,. il,au the iirst luul been. The were reheve<l 
in pea.'c on the nif,'ht of July -jmh an.l returned to their 
camp near Vlamcrtiufihe. 



l-iist Months in France, 1915 

At .i A.M. on 
huMi'"'^ notici- 

Julv yoth caiiu' urdcrs to uiovr at lui'f 

luaiis in 

It \va> on tins niornuifi; i 


troduced a ntnv wea 

:iU;icl< o 

n the l)attalions o 




before Hooge. 

i.ltci- losnii; heavily, ami 

poll — the llanie-thrower- in 

of the Ust iJrijiade holding 

The Rifles had had to give 

a coi'.ntt r-al 1 ac 


w in i)repara 


■_' 1>.M. 

tioii. The "Tenth were hnrried forwai 



i readied the rain|)aris s.un 

is Vi 
to learn that tlie eounler-a 



?:i iii>'ht they wc 



„ ,,.,. tiaek had failed. At 

»vnt forward to unfamiliar ground south of 
Road and relieved the Riileinen as best they 


1 in the darkness 

The trenehes wt 

re lilled with killed and woui 

av as 

tliev had fallen. Soon after niidnig 

'lit both 

lintish" and Ciernians began a 

terrilie bombardment, 



,lo Z 



>Vood',"and tlie froops holding tlie front edge appeare 

to have retirei 

The division as 

ked Colonel Morant if 

is II! 

were lost 

md said it must i>e he 



I'd; Hilt 

had been in rosei 

rve, went forwar( 



(i ()c(upie( 

hriii \vn:i<i 


: ii 


h trouble. At dawn Major 

J. S. Unthank was 


\ th 

e ('rowing 

scrue o 

f slaughter 

(iernian snipers. 

d. t: 


light revealed a terrible 

V.'ood suffered from the 

and here Capt. R. W. Braithwaite was 

nd the Teiitli spent tiie 

Zona VI 

no orders a 


V reselling woun 

ded and striving to improve tht 


At nidit the enemy pou 

red in a storm o 

mortar s 

hells, hut the Durhams lield on 

t heavy trench 
to tl " 

leir (laia- 




Marchant an( 

Capt. II. M. Atkinson,^ 

Lieut. W. R. 

l'-2nd Lieuts. Ritchie and Emlcy wer 




1 in these two inghts am 

1 a (lav the Tenth 

st 170 nun. 

On August 1st A company were 

lieved and with- 

(lr( w 

to the weslirn e( 

[ipanv were relieved ano \miii- 
Ige of Sanctuary Wood, l'<it 

tufore the rest of the battahon did likewis. 

next dav 

;i LTood supi)ort line ca 

the woo 

hard to stringtheii the front, am 

lied Durham Trench wa 

s duL' in 

d. The Tenth and the sapi)ers now w(H 

1 the whole line was 



ler the direction 

of Lieu 

t. c. E. r 


wrin Wo 

11 the Military 


for his activity on patro 


rh 'Jud Durham Light Infantry came 


in on August 



The Durham l-Orccs in the I'icld 

.-,;l,, a.ul thr 'IVnth in-vnl hark m thr nm. to Vlai.u-- 

""tIu-v vnuH- up ajra,.. on Auj,M,st an.l took ..ver 
,1,. r.n. in tl>r V Won.l sal-nt '1 ..■ rrnch -s 
so ,'aliautlv .•arrud by tlu- -.'.hI Durnan, L.,' ht In an 
..nrlur in the .lav wf.v now occni..od by neither Bnt sh 
;r(;'.nlKnK but^vere a .ar.n.t for tlu. art, lery of bo^ 

rnfortunately tl.c heavies dropped ^''"h; s - J 
,„„on.' the Tenth, kilhn},' several n.en On Au-ust maelnne-^mnners ^vere bur,ed by onr <nv 
ire but were pro.uptlv duy out under the direetmn of 

if Major J. S. 

%v!!unded<"n' tins day. Mmjoi- t!ir Hon. 
assuniiii',' command mitd the return 
Tnthank a fortiufxht later. 

The Tenth wer.- reh.ved and w.llid revs to \pns 
,,,„ 'ris on the n.,dd -f Au,mst Uth. Here they were 
s;dMeet..d to a b.Tnd.ardn.ent by ITMPeh ^.'uns. bu 
e' u. U e were not heavy. Nun- days we,e s,.ent at 
W',^ west of Poperin^'he. before the ny.nth end<' 1. 

1 uri ' Septendur the battabum ha.l a fa.rly ton 
I,; Uadway Wood tren-^hes. a week in reserve and nn>eh 
work on the defences. ,. i- ,t ,.„ S,ot ember 

ex erience ...mnt,' the preliminary bombardment. The> 

Iv 1 'ivilv shelled while comin^^ np by trau. m ope > 

Vu k t w rd Ypr.'s and lost K. killed and woun.led 

, f tlu battalion assisted to dij: assembly 

Parties of the haTraiion a p.,rke with :5'2 an.!, t. ■ > viirorous (lerman 

«, iv^ iiiit stroll" eUollLMI to resist im * if,v 

as th.' mornmt: wore on. LuuT. t .irw . 


lirst Moiitbs in France. 


,,;'; h'ul l.H.l on alo,u- .n the (iortn.n tlunl hue t.ll 

'"ll; ul'l'vc-ninj: the Tenth canu- up through pounny 

,,, ' ."aU. ovi the h„e on the left The trenehes 

;,;,., iust heaps of earth an<l tumbled sandbags, 

■ ' next dav the Durhams hibourc.l to uuprove 

,;■'- u n- em' of the woun.U^i was completed bv 

, ;,i, ;hM,abn.htn...naroseandC;enn..nss,npe^^ 

!.; n Iv from the erater. Suddenly at nudn.^ht the 
, .. alt.u'ke.i the ^rd Divisum, further s.uth and 
;,::;;; bmnbanhnent swept the trenehes of the lenTh, 
l,nt few easuaitics were caused. 

' "( , Sei-ten.ber --'Hth an informa truce resulted m 
M., seue of two Hritish wounde.l vmg ou side he 
: t. r and at ni-'ht the Te.dh were relieved. Casualt.e 
:::.;;;':;. heas^' as m.Kht have been expectc.1. Cap^ 
v.. r. Wsllie. Lieut. ;u.d -..'nd Ih'hI. Jordan 
V . r.' ainonir the oflicers wounded. ■ , i t< „ 

la ee-CV.rpl. Chicken won the D.stmpu.shed Lon- 
,luet Mclal on •'.Uh f- /'^^^'"K ""^ y^f ^/^ 
t, , to several wounded who lay betw-een the ^}-^^-^^ 
:„t.,„pted to br.nj,' one in, but the (.erman fire kdk<l 
the man before he could do so. 

The Eleventh crossed to France on July 'iOth by 
,1,.. Sout!Kunt)ton-le Havre route. S.x>^r;.l <i^'vs %n.^v- 
. ...n spent at Esquerdes, but before the end of he 
„„.!t./the -:..iecrs were engage.l m cleanrng ditches 
UH repairing roads near the forest of Nieppe and in 
aki i brushwood lu.rdles. On August 3rd C company 
v>,,v en,-.>lny.d. -M^'m stron-r p.-mts behind the Mh 
Division front at Fleurbaix. 

Th.. "Oth Division soon took over the line, soutli o 
,lH. Sth, in the Hat lands north of Neuve Chapel e and 
three companies of the Eleventh worked_ on the 


, inches. C comi-anv were still making hurdles in ht 
::,.;!;t and eonHmied to do so when tlic rest o he 
nttalion assembled at Estair.-s m readiness for the 
;! vatioiis of September 'irMu On this ^'ay;*--'" -"- 
.f the iJOth and Meenit Divisions was attended %Mth 



I ml 

"i I 

The Durham I'orccs in llic licid 

lu'uvv loss Mil, I nil j^aiii of jrruiiiKi. s(j lli:it tin- Pioneers 
were not called uiH)ii; Imt Mirer days hitrr !lu- Klcventh 
were wanted to liohi a portion of the line taken over 
from the Indian troops on the rij,dit. Thr hattalion 
relieved thr '.)>li (.urkhas in li'iieiits whieh were, lor the 
most part, \(ry v.c! and nmddy. '1 here %v!is li!f!e enemy 
action, Imt the weather hindered the work of draininju' 
Ihf tn/iches. r-iiairini,' the parap'-t and stren<,'theninj,' 
the wire ill front. Al (his time several platoons were 
away working.' with the tunnellinj.' companies at 
Fau(p:issart . 

'i'l;.' 'I'wvlftti and ■I'liiilc.-iiii.. luiiiLr l"illi III 111-' f.sth 
Hrijradc, liai! similar experiences on proceediiif,' to 
Kranee. Arrivini,' at Hon!o<.'ni m tiie .arly hours <jf 
AntrnsI •_'f)th, the hir-iK r entrained, lat.r, h'r Watten 
and reached billets at llonlle. The Thirteenth followed 
hy the same route some hours afterwards and were 
located in tlie nei;;lil)oiirin^' villaj,'c of Moiillc situatrd 
on the Calais-St. (Jmer road hy Au<,'ust 'JTlli. Train- 
ing was carried on till Septemher (itli. when tlw whole 
brifjadi' in.':rcheil to lla/cbrouik and on the following; 
dav to llic vicinity of Stienwerck. 

On Sej.temlicr '.»th both Twelfth aixl Thirteent'i 
m;irched south, and svt re atiachtil to troops of the "JOti, 
Division fur iiistructio'i in actual Ireiich duties. Eacli 
l)attalion sui'feifd a few casualties while in the line. 
A move t(. the vicinity of l",r<]i!iie/lu in was made on 
SeptemlHr ITtli, the Twelfth -,'oiuu '" I'lbdlobeaii and 
tlie Thirteenth to I'etit Moulin, near the river Lvs. 
The olh-r l.rij,'ad<s of th- "iMrd Divisioii now look over 
the line fron- the \ieinity of Hois (;reiiier to .Vrnicn- 
tieres. and tiie Durham battalions (irovnled wnrkiiii: 
parties for the const met ion if strong; fKUiits and the 
improvement of tn nches in piejiaralion for the I'landers 
winter. On Septenil>er -Jlth six men of (' conipanv 
of the Thirt.-eiith were wouiuled in their bivouac by a 
{.iTinan aiti-aircraft shell. 

The Twelftli and Thirteenth stood to arms wlim the 
Britisli offensive bet.'nn upon ScptetTiber '2'Ah. On the 
afternoon of the next day a (iernian coiinler-attaek 
was feared on the fr.nt held i.\ the Meerut Division. 


I'irst Months in I'rancc, 1915 

who had sufftred cruel lossfs, so tlu- two l)attali()ns 
!iiiirilii(! down throtij:li Kslams and wtic luUtttcd for 
the ni^jlit on the la Bassrc road. On tiit- -.'Tth thty 
Iliad-' tin- return journey- only to he hroufrh.t l>aek to 
Kstaires a<,'ain on the following,' (hiy aiui plaeed uiuh r 
the orders ''of the I'Oth Division. I.arj,'e workiny-parties 
Wire now jirovided and assistance was fjiven to the 
t iiiim Hers. 

On the in',dit of SeptcndHr "Jstli Pte. .liinicson of the 
lliirteeutli fell into the riv.r Lys. which contained (luite 
, i(_rlit feet of water. In darkness and heavy rain Lance- 
( ..rpl. H. Hoajri'y promptly juniped in and rescued him. 
wiiumiu' therein- the hronze medal of th' Toyal Humane 



rilK iJAilLH (>; i.oOr., i;i. 

Tui; I'ourl. t iiih iuid Fifii-enlii itft Witley ciMnp on 
Sfptcinl)^ T lltli iiiid crossod froiii P'olkfsti")!:!- lo I'.uu- 
loijiic tit-.- s;u!u ni^'lil. Tiicy tiih-aincd on the r.'tii for 
the St. Oiiicr district, where most of ilu divisions 
were sent .o prcpan for sirvie*. in (he line. The l-'our- 
teeiith went to Niclics-kz-.Vrdre.s, some miles east <;f 
tl;e forest of Kperlei qiies ; liie to XorJausijiies, 
further down tiie Anlres — St. Omer road. 

A we. k later tii-' 21 sf Division eomtneneed their 
forward march into as Ira^^ic an ex[)erience as troops 
can he called ui)on to endure. Moving' mostly hy 
iiijudit. th( Fourteenth eanie hy Arcjiies and Lami)re"s and 
Kcfiiiedec<|iies to Noeux-les-Mines, where they hivou- 
aeked on the afternoon of Sr[)tenih{r -'."dh. The Fif- 
teenth. ni()\in.i,' in similar fasliKm, iiad n aehed Iloiiehin 
on the '2U\\ and were iiear-l.y. The eoiieludin;,' march 
of l-.)th liattalions was partieolarly wearisome hy 
rea-oii (if the fr( (pient delays at level crossin;.rs. 

At 7.1.-) !'.M. on Septcmlier 'J.lth the (;;th linjzade 
moved (ilf thnniLrh ^^lzin^,'arl)e in thi rain, jjassitifr 
divisi(nial head(iiiartcrs at Vermelles about an hour 
later. All thai the hattnlions knev/ was that liny w. re 
f.illowinj,' m siiiiport of tlie «!;$rd Ih'it'ad. . I'hi nun 
were uet, tired and liuuirry, for all had l)een saentieed 
to 1,^1 the division inlo the hatfle with the least pnssjlih- 

At '.I CM. the CHii IhiL'ade halt. (I in th.' darki'.ess. 
It ♦ook three hums to pri-p.are for the .advance to the 
line. Orders had to he issued, ami it was neeessar\ lo 
ml'iad Lewis ^uns, ninmunition, homhs and tools he- 
I'ore the transport .eiihl he withdrawn elear of the 
troops. was n.) tint.- In n'connoitre th.' {.'round, 
hut the (i;{rd Hri<;ade Wi-n- pres-imed t.i h< somewhere 
in front. 

•At f!iiihii;,'lit th. iUlh nicvid f(ii\\ard .ill a front of 

riic B;iitle ol l.oos. IMLS 


•Ao huttalidiis ill line of CDiiipaiiics in coluniii. the 
luuilcfiitli and I'lfteonth Uadm},'. 'I'lic rain had 
-topped uhtn thr oid IJritisli front luif was passed at 
about i \.:.;. o:i .Stiili'mii; r "Jfli ii. Some of tlit' trendies 
(diilil iie juniped, others were hrid<,'ed l)y phinks or 
narrow causeways; hul the cheeks and dehiys in order 
t.i reform after ne<,'otiaiin;,' each obstacle seemed in- 

' ruiiiialile. It was moonhj^ht now. On tlie left a 

..liiMiii of waj^nms was seen followinj,' a track which, 
J Its e\i>lei;(f had heeii known, vvonld ha\e sa\ed the 
' tii,':i(ic miicii valuable time in tlie advance. Now and 
liun siicils burst iica.-. ."^oon after 'J a.m. the old del 
Hiaii front line was reached, and abo'd an hour later 

lie l)ri<,'ade haltetl. Patrols went out but could lind 
no trace of the (i3rd. 

The I''unrteciith wen- sent forward to oecn[)y a 

i.-serted (Jernian battel/ jiosition which had l>een dis- 
covered, v.hih one company were located on the L(jos- 
Hnllueh road. The Fifteenth settled down in a trench 

• i' .ut a (juarter of a mile in rear, but there was not 
' i iiii for ;'!1 of them, so one company fell back to tlie 

I 15 issi'c load, on the northern oid-kirtsof l,oos, where 
'liey were in touch uith tiie ri^d, f the K.O. Y.L.I. 
\ ii» Id conuian>' of IM... with llie horst■^ and 

i k-ami'.als. wen m the old ( riiia!i front line, 
'i'he w liercab lut^ of the eneni>' and ttie disposi! lop.s 
"f the Hritish troojis in this jiortion of tiie field were 
e, vet unknown; but, soun after da ii. touch was ob- 

• lined by th.' K. O.V.I,. I. with tlie -JUh Di.isioii, 
ur'lier north, and tiu" <i;<r:i Hri'.'ade were found lo bi- 

holdin',' the I.eiisIIuliucli roa<i, north of l?ois lliij^o. 

I'lie transjiorl, which had been ordi-ied to mo\e to 

boos by road auil ie|oin the biitrade m daylii;lit, was 

' . (1 for in vain. The eoni:estion of tratlie <lnrin^ tlie 

ii was the cause of the dt lay, and when tlie sun 

iispers«'d the morniiij,' mists the (ierman sIm 11-lire 

' • ped all nio\t nient on ihe road. The enenn bat- 

\oo|i be;;an to take their toll of the bri;_'ade, 

r-iidties ini'ludin:' I.ieiif. \'. ^^. Odhanis. of the I'lf- 

■ ! th, who was mortally wounded about this time. 

< U irrs had Im en iv^sued for an attack by tin- '.Mtli 

■ 1 -'Ist Divisions, th • latter ha\iiii,' for their hnal ob- 


Tlic Durham I'orccs in tlie Im'cIcI 

jtctnc till' tn'Aii uf Aiiiiay, suiim tour mil-s cast of Loos. 
i{ut liiiv was nil tiif siijtpositioii that i :il T(» was in 
Hritisti hands, ai. .ow it a|)[nai<il that a n doulit on 
tlie iiorth-castcri po of !hf liili wa.s to In- tak' ii l)t'f(.rr 
the (>',ird Brij^'au. attaiki'd north of Piiits It bis at 

11 A.M. 


At nine o'ch)(k the r.Hh |{ii;,'a(h' watilud tiic tr()o|)s 
on tht ri<,'|il 'u> foiwai'd fi'oin Loos and up tlic siojics of 
Mill T(t. Ahoiit lifl\ ininutcs .iftcrwards tht' tllird 
Hriyadc. tvho ajiptart'd lo lit- facing' n hostdr counttT- 
attack. aski d for a lialtahon to rnnforcc their rlfrht in 
Chalk I'll Wool). Hie I'ourtrt ntii were srh cTcd for the 
task and wcic soon adxamni;' stcaddy. H\ half-past 
ftii. when they wt'rc m arin>,' the western ed^e of the 
wood mull r eonsideralile sh.ll and niaelnne-i^nn tire. 
troo|!^ of tiii- ti.'ird Uripadr tie^an to retue (ii their 
h'ft. I't r!\apv tlicsc troops mistook tlie Durliani men in 


The Battle ol l.oos. 1915 


flieir (ixcrcuatN for di rmans. Id oIim i\crs iii r(.ir tlitv 
soi'iiiid It) rliaii<.'c (iii( I'l ioi,. .t. ili(iu;,'li to tiikr tlic Four- 
tcciitli 111 Hank, aiui t!itn to (ii^covcr tluir inistakr. 
'I'lu-v -^ooii t'ontiiHii'd to uitiiiiiaw. involviiii; the Foiir- 
ticiith in tlie process. At this tinu-, too, Bntisli troops 
were liavini,' Hill T(» and tlic r( iircnicnt titcainr 
irciirral, though carried out in </ood order. No (.crinaiis 
Wire seen to advance, liiit the line came hack over the 
i,;.os-la I?assee road and ralh( ti liehind the three re- 
iiKiiiiint,' l)attalions of the (lUii Ikiyade. 

'I'heii at 11 A.M. the •JUli Division on tlie left ad- 
\aiieeil accor(hn<; to orders, and the whole line folloui-d 
-lilt. Tiic Fcurteentii. with the Fiftviiitli m siip[)ort. 
iiuw linked up the riL'lit of th'- n;!rd 15rit:'ide with the 
tri'iips advancMiy fri'iii Loos. Kecjiini.' touch on the 
!ii.'ht tiie Dnrliaiiis wire pulled rouiii towards Hill TO. 
!!id siiff<red heavilv throti{,di enliladc niaclune-{,nin i\rc 
f:.Mn ( halk IM Woiul. Li: nt.-Col. F. T. Lo;r:,n, i).S.()., 
had idrcaiiy fallen, inoitally wounded, while {lallantly 
leadiiiLr the Fiftrenth. l)eclinin<r all aid Jic handed over 
llic coiiiiiiand to tilt ad.intant. (apt. Mahliajjc, and 
iir^'ed forward the advance. Soon the troops on the 
iiL'lit if the Diirlijinis liej,'an lo retire, and hy l-»..'i(» p.m. 
the whole line was in retreat, l^'ollowcd l>v heavy shell 
'ire. tJK' troops caira' hack over the I,oos-la Hasscc road 

It was intcnd((l to launch another attack, hut before 
.' ^.^^ came a spontaneous advance, in which tl;p sur- 
viMirs of the hiirliam l>atta1ions joined the K. O.Y.I,. I. 
..f the fiHh UriLrade. H( a\ il\- [)imishcd m Hank hy 
-hrapn-l and machinc-j.'un bullets, and unsupported by 
iiM Hritish "^uniicrs who ha-! n.>t bee!i w.irned ol the 
ittriiipt. the infantrv hid no chance of success. Tlic 
III! \ it.ijile retreat was coiidiuted under ml" n-e shell 
tire, and the <.erman bombardment continued till dusk 
oil the (Uth '{ri;„'a<ie position. Many of tht severely 
wounded had to remain uherc lhc\ fell. The » \h;nist(d 
survivors, sufferin<.' tortures from thirst they had no 
ehanor of rcfilliiiL' their water-bottles rrnmined in the 
mM (icrman trenches till they were relieved b\' the 
(.iiards in the <'arl\- niurnint.' of Sejiteinbcr '.'Tth. 

i'lie hisses of the hiuhaiiis \ser" very heavy. In the 


The Durham Forces In the Field 

rourtctiiUi, Luul. \V. T. 'riiomiis..n ami I'lul Lieut. 
F. E. Bnrkttt witv kilk'd, and Licul.-C.-I. A. >. llaiiul- 
ton, wlio li;i<l led his men well, ^Vud ui his wounds. 
Capts. 11. W. Ivistcolt. P. C. IMa.'krtl and M. Mac- 
kenzie; Lieuts. Muss IJiinidell, (.. K. Mrinjrh-llov, . ... H. 
Kdwards. 11. Haich and C. Ih.df^son, I'nd Lieiiis. '1. U. 
Cox, R. Kavnes, E. J. \V. (.ray and (;. llyd.n, 
all wounded". Losses in tlie ranks amounted lo ^27T. 

Resides the oiriecrs already mentioned, the Fifteenth 
liad Major R. R. .foimson ; Calais, L. .\. de V. Carey, 
II. Wardell and (1. T. I'lt/irerahl ; Lieut. K. .^i. Carter; 
"nd Lieuts .;. W. \,. oiiklHck. K. Pari r.d<.r, li. A. 
Roulton. ( . 11. Readin.m and O. de I'u'ron wounded. 
There were no less than. l.">0 easualties m the ranks. 

Cant. Fitzpraid kej>t his Lewis {,nms in action after 
l.rin.r wounded. C.-.S.-M. Herhert and Ser<,d. Ruslull, 
also'of the Fift<enth, did Jiood and hrave work, the 
former rescuin-; ttii wounded men. The streteher- 
l)car<'r'-, of both Durham battalions worked with L'reat 
<'ailanlrv and persevenuiee, whih C;i;>l. Roureliier, the 
eliaplaiii of the I'ourti . nth, displayed irreat e.' m 
tendinj,' the wounded under firr. 

The -.Mst Division soon moved north aj'uiii. Kn- 
trainiiif at NoeuN-!es-Mines for Rertrm tte, <m Sep- 
tember '-".tt!!. tjie Fourteenth reached billets at Fi. tre 
on October -Ind. The Fifteenth had arnved at Rer- 
.niett.' even <a;li. '•. and. w re hn-t. d at Cae^trc by 
October 1^'. The\' leai hed ArnuntiiTcs nmr days hiter. 


(K: lOBKK, 1V15- J. \H, 191() 
■|iii. ■i'.nti. nli.vfd the f.tli Dur.M-^ lU--t. in the 




thr \vi 

!iil (III 

OcuiIkt iili. TiTii<hes wciT l)iul ami 
rt- |)oor, hut thi-ri- was litik- Gi.rinun uctivity. 

Nine liiivs later the hattalioii withdrew to rest at St 

.Jau-U r-Biezeii 





Soon after arrival 

here Lauce-Corpl. Ciecir^e Alderson was fatally wounded 
hy the aceideutal explosion of a honil). He had {^al- 
laiilly taken a jjreat nsk in order to pri serve his eoni- 
rades from injury, and was awarded the Albert Medal 
of the First Class. 

The battalion were now t niployed buildinir huts of 
wattle eovered with mud, \Thieh would not luirden in 
•iir wealher- neitiier eould tlie mud lloors be dried- 
A detachment v,as sent to the Kinj,'"s inspeetion a! 
Abeele on (Jetober 'JTth. Drafts reeelved brou{,'lit the 
strenirth of the Tenth up \o over 1,000, thoufzh easual- 

ties, since coiniMf,' to Frai 
oflicers and ."iHO men. 


alre!ul\' amoun 

ti-d t( 

On Xoveinlicr 11th the Durhams moved ui> \o ihi- 1 


wlueti ran no 

iiUl o 

itli-westvvard from Wieltje, and were m and 
f tluse trenches— really a chain of isolated bits of 

Iwork until the end of the month. The weather 

was wet, tlun cold and frosty, and the prevention of 
trciich-foot was an important probh-m. Capts. Jerwood 


d P.ofrers ! !■ 1 I/ieut. Kelh'un were all woundci 


11 1 




ber was a wet montli. On flu- r.'lii 

tiic battalion took over the line to the ri}.'li 

t, which ill- 

eluded the villa{,H' of Wielt 

and had to subi.iit to a 

luavv (.crman bombardment two days later, which 
killed '.'nd Lieut. A. Hines, wounded -Jud Lieut. C'iiniuy, 


1 caused 'J 1 casualties m the ranks 

Before (.'hrislmas 

the Durham^ wei 
pro^^jjcct of h'avin 

if l>ack to .St. Jan-ler-Hiezen, with the 
I'ViUicc f(»r iiiiotlier theatre of war. 

The Durham Forces in the Field 

\il rank-. \v( !f disappoint. •<! wiuii it liccaiiu- kiiowii that 
Ih. A wen ti. Slav in tlic siilitiit. 

'•riic srctor ..('•(■upu'd on DcctmlKT 'J'.ttii forin.d tlir 
;.ft of llu' .livisional fiont. iistri.ic \hv Lan^fiimrcU road. 
Hire till line was luid l)V liomlniij,' and Ltnvis giui posts, 
whi.l. w. ic isolate! dunnt: da-li-'it. Thf tour %vas 
Mimt, l)iil wlicn tlH- Durlianis 'ainc up ii>;ani, afUr 
stiviiiL' m tiltliv liuts „n foiii ^'lound at \ lanu-rtii.Kiu- 
a honil-anlnunl of tin' front Inir kiUfd i nini and 
wound.d 10. 'riK'^nition of tlu- -ildi.rly (inalitifs 
..f poi)ular H.-S.-M. A. Nol.'u'. D.C.M.. Mratilicd rvtry- 
,,1K- al.oul tills tinir. Ilf Nvas awardi^d a bar to lus 

"" Before .lanuarv had passed, the Tenth had to .iidure 
further inl.ns.' sh. IhuK. Nvhich kiUrd and wounded '20 
„;,.i,. (Mlitr loss.s incliKh'd -.'nd Luut. i. I. Hatty 
(kilK(l) and Lifut. Krause (wounded), and on Jainuiry 
.•Ust. -Jnd Lieut. W. H. Huthuid (hed of liis wounds. 

•\ he-i\ V (ieriiKin honiliaidnient started on the luorn- 
,M.r'.,f Fel,ru;uv -Jiu!. and laste.l for over tno hours. 
The iiiemv infant rv came forward with fjreat (h'termina- 
tion l>ut the leadini: trroups were dispersed l.y nlle and 
Lewis L'un lire. Larjrer hodies m rear were broken up 
l,v tlie British artillery, and the .luixrs of the leiith 
shot inanv (;erina!is eiawlm- in the h-n- jrrass of - -No 
Man's Land."" Several honours w. re won on this (la\ . 
i I'ellt (.. L. Wood was eoni|.!etely huiied 1)V a shell 
.,,,,1 ,„i h, uv (iu^ out n„,ny (hre.ted the repulse of the 
(;eriuans v.ho ha.l rea.hed hi- %,nv. He was aw'arded 
Itu' Mihl^'.rv Cros.. Cnvpl. W. i'.l. nkmsopi) crossed op,, n 
.rroun.l s..veral tnr,.s uiul.r th.' (i.-rnuin honihardni.^nt 
To visit an isolat.d h.ani'in^' jiost, and torpl. H. ^^ • 
Chaiiii. v. ..f Kirkhv St. plan, w.iit out under hre to 
res.'U.' a' woun.i.'.f man. Kaeli of these N.C.O. s ree.'ivd 
the l)Tstu!fMiishe.l Con.hiet Medal. , , , ,i r . 

On F.l.ruarv IJlh. wh.ii tlu- hattalion held the front 
astnd.' th.- I'lh' roa.l. tlw Crnian tr.'uoh mortars 
;,,„,,.,.„, ,,,,,,1 ,,,„,„ th. in. No infantry attaek (hA-eU.ped, 
hut f..r f.»ur hours and a half the homlmrdment con- 
j„„H.i. Losses amounted to '12. inHudm.c jL-^-->i; 
Nnl.le. who was ki;'- .L - He was l.e!ov,-d l,y all 
wrot. C-olon.l Mor i. (orpl. .L L.lw mis and Pte. 



I icnch Warfare, Oct., 1915 -June, 191(3 

W . Lali.> won the Dist iiiL'nisli<.'il Coiulnct Mt'flHl for 
, iirrvirif,' iiussa^Ts uikIct hfuvy tiro on this day. 

i'lir Tcnili \v(iv n lu'Vid ' iirly next inorninR. aiui 
v.ithdnw to Popfriii^'lii', rcachint' lloutkcrque lattT m 
t|K- (lav. Tlieir loiij,' tour in the Vprcs sahent was over, 
iiul after inspeetioii Ijv the Coinniandcr-ni-Chief they 
riitrained at Cassel. The 14th Division were about to 
vrli. ve the Kr.iK-h at Anas and tlie Teiitii occupied 
support positions at Agny and Achicourt by the he{,'ui- 
lui,.' of March. Tlie weatlicr was wuitry aiui hindered 
^^nvk oil the trenches, which were m urgent need of 
npair. hut the deep dup-outs in this clialky sod were a 
■ M-cat comfort after the crazy shelters in the salient, 
roloiiel H. H. S. Morant rejoined the l)attalion on 

March Itth. , , . , ,, ,, 

The eneniv was verv timet at lirst, hut his shell tire 
iiureased later, without, however, doing much danuige. 
Out of the hue the Tenth worked hard improving the 
tniiches, and supplied |)arlies to bury caUc. l-me 
u, alher came with April. On the ;ird the mistake of a 
Miitrv, who mistook a wiring party for (k-rnums, cost 
■■.,,1 Lieut. II. (;. II. Dorell his life. Trench mortars 
u,,T now active on both sides and the Tenth soon 
,p„reciated the value of the .Stokes gun. Towards the 
,nd of the month another case of mistaken identity 
I. suited in 'Jnd Lieut. Dawes being wounded. 

The soil was verv favourable for miiiingj'pcrations 
,inl the Tenth supplied many parties to assist the New 
Z, aland tunnellers. At the en.l of May the award of 
ill, Distinguished Conduct Medal to C'.-S.-M. J- Mater 
was announced. As signal sergeant he had done con- 
sist. iit good work under heavy tire in the salient. _ 

In .June the grass was so tall m •• No Man s Lain! 
that sentries eould .lispense with periscopes ami observe 
i,M„, the tlr.' st.p .luring daylight. Artillery tire- - 
iH,th Hritish an.l Cerman was heavur now. and nm- 
tunied t.. be so until the 1 ith Division were rcluved by 
ih,. on .lune -'Uth. The T.nth withdrew to Arras 
;n.l continued to help ttie tunnellers. 

On October 1st Lieut.-Coi. (.. M. Davidson relin- 
,|u.slu-,l comman.l of tli.^ Kleventh an.l was succee.ied 




The Durham l-\)rces in the l-icld 

|,y Mniur A. K. ( uliu.s. i».>.i). Tli' La' ' .i':i"ii I'>"1< I'l'"' 
tur.i 111 111'' tniiclu's near La\(iili<\ aii.l cuntiiiiiid v.ork when <>:;! ■•[ liir Ini.' until \\a' (.uards 
rclu'vcd the -JOth Division al.oii! iniil-NovtinlRT.^ Casii- 
allii's wrrc liulit (luring' tins j.; riod, l>ut tlic wvatiur was 
\vv\ and tlio tivncliis, mio whidi all tlir ditclics s.tnicd 
to drain, wcrr in an awtul staic. 

Thf -'Otli Oivisiim did no! ^'o out of llu- line, hut 
relieved the stii furtli.r north. l)raina{,'e and road- 
inakinLr wciv now the i)ni;cii)al occii{)ations of the 
PioneiTs, though there were otnL-raliy some men work- 
imr with the Itinnellers. In the early part of UeeenilH-r 
the river l.a\es was eleaiirH, widem d and deepened as 
far forward'as tlie front line; the duekhoards m tlie 
treiiehes were raised al.o e the mud Mud the col laps in-,' 
du"-onis wd-e restore.!. In the /.ew \ ear piimpiiiti 
onemtions heeaiiie of -reat importauee, for the weather 
d'id not inii)rove. .Soon Ihe ,stli Division relieved the 
L'Oth.. and the Durhanis iiKjved haek on January I'ith. 
Several w.eks <if training,' and reereation follow- d, lirst 
m tl„. arr, we-.i ul ^iorl.e.•qiU• M.d (!': ^ at 7^ rPieZeeK 
north of C'assel. The division suhse.pu ntly relieved the 
nth in the Vpres salient, and the Eleveiitli arrived ai 
KUfiihni'! e ; ii,-:. -r.i on l-el.ruary U'ih. 

The altern.ite frost and rain provide.' plenty of work 
on trendies and eonimuniealions dnrin-,' the ensuin,^: 
weeks. The eiieniv mortars eaiised nuuh damage and 
destniction. ai;d h";s .;ni:s !ij'v:e--ed the woi|i>;- i):irtHs 
hv .hiy and ni-'ht. About April 10th the ml. Division 
look ov<-r this'seetor, and a week later the Eleventh 
were eoneenlrate.l at On-ie/eele, m tlie area north of 
I'assel, for Irainin-:. 

Oth when the division came m on tiie 
(Uh Division the El<'ve!ith arrived at 
iVrandhoek. aluuit midway hetw.-.n Poi-erin-he and 
V!ainertin"he. Erom lure :i()() men sent up every 
ni'-ht to work in tlie forward area reclainiintr and re- 

On May 
riirht of the 

pa'irin.' tr. nclies, hei-hteniinj parapets and i.uttiii!,' out 
v.ire "C conipan- were soon moved up to cellars at 
Vpres in order to' he nearer their work. N-.t!nim eou d 
I,,- done on .June -'(Uh owin^' to the heavy (;erman shell- 
in.' of AVult.i. . P.ilij'/.e aii.l SI. .hi.n in reply \u a sue- 

Trench Wiirfarc. Oct., 1915-Junc, 1^16 

.issrul laul of tlu- .v.ttli IJn^radf. N.xt day --'i'.! Lnut. 
i:. 1{. H. C'.Diigli was kiili'ii I'V shrapuc! nii thr Si. Jtaii 


'V\-r 'I'willili !'Ti Ksiaiu's (ir. 



U\(\ illl; 

r tr'iwlu's htyond Hois (Jrcnicr iii tin' i viniii;:. Tliis 

,is a i|ui(t part of tin- line and uicidrnts wore ' ., 

.;1 lalir in the month I.icut. M. A. H. Nidifran did .A 

>;i;n Irom jjatrol. At this pcr.od \ih- m support anil 

, rw was, perhaps, more unconifortahle owin<r to tlic 

;ur v.ori^ini: parties which were recjuired. Tlu' weather 

..C very we;. ■.■'y\ tii"' treiieiies Mill' ved ji'-e(>r(hii.'!y. 

On Doceinher Uh C company were slielled m their 

• \iii- 

11 ar Ariiieu' !■ 

s KiilNvay staiioi: 
■id lost six killed and seven wounded. Lieut. F. C. A. 
;,Ml(hri was kill' 1 on Deceiiiher •.' while handm? over 
, iuaehine-f,'un post on relief hy tiie Thirteenth, and a 

;m;,!!i later haU dMiH liead.j.iai iers v.rvr shelled ai;d 

, ,,,,.,) -.vrre !.l''-'d .'t tlie siu^l'd dli.-oMt. DllVilllJ 

r, Ir.iiarv some of the Tvnesiders of the JUth Division 
MUie in' with tlu- Twellth foi tlieir Tirst experience of 
iic trenches. There was one day of severe homhard- 

•■•: \'.]v.rh <•:•!; ..I -I'y) easivdi'ts and C'.u'. •? ■ i'- I'-y 
■,vas wounded, on February imh. Snow fell before th<- 
;'v,(irth departed from this front on the '2:>th. Three 
!a\s were sj)ent at Morbeeque before movinfi to the 
ilii'nin;,' town of A':-' .a i^nd on Marcli •iid the l.altahc.n 
ivaehtal billets at Estrec Cauchie, on the old Roman 
road to Anas. The "Wrd Division eventually took over 
'!-,. line in the coll-vry inwns nearer Leps and t!a- 
1 welfth moved to support positions in the Cite Calonne 
oti March 17th. Lieut. N. U. Smith was wounded on 
tliis day. Four davs later the l)attalion relieved the 
Thirteeiith in the f-^ont line, which, on the rij,'ht, ran 
throu-'h the houses. The reserve billets were back over 
:!.e nil! in l^u'lv ti;. nay. Th- Tv.-e!ith oecujiied the 
front line on April lOth, when a hoax attack was carried 

!t. The divisional artillery had cut the enemy wire 
ind now. reinforced by the Corps" lieavies, they ()pened 

1 ihf {;eitiiaiis in Citi' des Ch.amps (inin lies, Cilc de 
Hullencourt and Lievin. Smoke was liberated from the 
front trench and indications ;n\iu of an im])ending 



Tlic Durluim I'orccs in the I'icld 

mfanlrv attack. Tlir liarraK'' tlirii lift.-.l lioin thr 
cniiny "front luif aiui returmd uiicii it was calciilattd 
tliat ill- had fnllv uiaiiiud his freiichrs. Casiialtus m 
tlic Twtlfth were" \<iy -mall, aiui the losses iiitlicttd on 
the (..iMiaiis wcic nol known; l>nt the nifaiitry of the 
(),sth l}ri<,'a(lc wt-rc nsed to sittin<,' in triTichcs in front 
of scvrnTy rationrd ynns, so tlit-y were much heartened 
the vohune of the British l)oml)ardrncnt. 
The last tour of the Twelfth in the trenches of this 
<-iided on Ai>ril islh and \Mirkmu' parties were 
then sniiplieii while in n serve. On one of these Lieut. 
.Summerha\-es was wounded. The niaiHtuvre area was 
reached on' Ma\- :)th and the hattalioii occui.ied liillcts 
at Matrm^hem. on the river Lys. duriiif,' the jxTiod of 
Irainin",' which followed. The next move forward was 
on .May ITth. and at dusk of the followini; day the bat- 
talion occupied sup|)ort positions on the slopes of Notre 
Dame de Lorette. t )n May 'irAh the Tw»lfth took()VtT 
trinehes in the Souehez sector, on the left of the liri<,'ade 
line. Next dav Colonel KIwes was invalided home and 
(apt. Arnott, -Mid Kast Lancashire IJeyt.. soon assumed 
temporarv command. There was much rille-<,'renade 
and trench-mortar activity until May ;i(»th. when the 
hattalion withdrew to reserv,- in Hois de Noulette. 
Major W. W. M icizrcror, (iordon lliuhlamlers. the new 
commanding' otiieer. joined them here. On .June ."^rd the 
Twelfth turned out in response to the .S.O.S. si<.Mial sent 
up by the Thirteenth, who were heavily shelled in their 
trciK'hcs, and next evenii." the Thirteenth were relieved 
in the l.adiv damaired line The trench communicatiuf,' 
with the •• island ■■ posts on the left was completely 
obliterated, but the enemy's wrath he had been raided 
by the Thirteenth on .lun'c '.'nd was lutt yet appeased. 
riitil the relief (.f the Twelfth, by Hi. lotli Duke of Wel- 
lini.don"s. on .June '.itli the steady destruction of their 
trenches coiitituM'd and the expiricnce was shared by 
a company of the Hoval Naval Division sent in for their 
first experience of trench warfare in France. 

The Twelfth moved to huts at Hoiiviiniy Wood and 
then to Rechnuhcm. in the traininj,' area. Tlie whoh- 
briuade now practised t reiieh-to-treneh attacks, and 
there was one bi<.' divisional day. On .Tune "ilst the 

Truich Warfare, Oct., 1915 June, 1916 

ril)t)()ii <) 

J. H. JiKjiits, an 

f the Militarv Cross was prtst 

iitrd to Lieut. 

M. (ial to Ptiv 

K. J 



V ( 

lavs latrr the Twelfth 

(1 ; -t of the Distinmiisheii Con 


(1 to Aire and entrained for the Soiume, 

'I'lie Tliirteentli were detained at ICstaires until 
(t.t..lier Itli, and then returned to tluir old bivouacs 
mar Kr(iuiiij,diem 

On Oetolier 7th the Twelfth w<r.' 
,,;if\ed ui the trenches and a t|i::et lour followed, 
llmu.'h there were some casualties from siiipiiij,' lire. 
l,ancc-Cori)l. W. Claire and Pte. H. Hiekson won the 
Military Medal during,' the next tour of the Thirt( cuth 
;i ihe fine. !n a sueeessful snipiiiu expedition they shot 
, . (.1 rniar.s and l.rMm'ht m \ aluahle Mdorniation. On 
Octoher mill -Jiid Li<ut. (.. II. I'ailey was mortally 
unimded. and at ni^'ht -.'nd Lieut. C. T. W. Sauerbeck 
I. i| a homliinj: attack upon an enemy working; party. 
hut was .teeidentally wounded on the return .ioiiriiey. 
Towards the end oftlie month thi' weather was so wet 
lliat some working; parties had to he eaneelled ami the 
treiuhes were in a dejiloralile condition when tln' Thir- 
teeiith went into the line airain earlv in Xovi inher. 

About It I'.M. on November Hh Lieut. P. \. Hrown 

left the trench to \isit a i)arty working,' on the wire in 

front. He was accompanied by his observer. Pie. 

Keiin\ . The fo>,' was very thick, and they o\cr-ran Ihe 

wire .ind were lost. After f,'oin<,' a considcral)le (list .nice 

they sat down to lis;-!: for some s:iuial to -.'uide them 

aiui as they rose aLtain a rifle shot ran? out close by. 

Lieut. Hrov.n fell, shot through bolii MuL'hs. and Kenny 

took his ollicer upon his back to carry him away. Heavy 

i: I.- lire was now opened by the (ierinans and K.-nnv 

■ id to crawl throuifli the mud with his burden. Some- 

'ii!,.s he had to li,- still until t!ie tire slaek.i;. d. Lieut. 

Mrowii ordered him to po on alone, but he refused to do 

. and for upwards of an hour he stru<:Ld<'d alon? until 

>! last he found a dileh he reeoirnised. Here he mad( 

l.i.iit. Brown as comfortable as possible :uid .larted for 

i! r Hritisli line to pet help. It was after 11 I'.M. when 

!. rame upon Capt. (;. White and two men in a listen- 

;!!' l)ost. Stretcher-bearers were summoned ami, 

iithoUf»h Kenny was very exhauste-l. he endured until 


The Durham l-'orccs in the 


!,:• had '.;ui(!t(l the \y,\v[y to tlic \,->nn(i(;l man. Tin- 
n-luni .iifunicy was inudv iiiultr niic ..ii- at close ranj/c, 
and s(jnic lu>iiil)s wire thrown, !)Ut C'apt. Whitf got 
everyone hack without further casualty. Lieut, lirown 
a V. ry j,'oo(l and popuhir ollicer died in fore he could 
he carried to the dressiuff-station, but the self-saerii'ice 
and endurance of 'I'liotnas Kenny won him the Victoria 

■\Viien tile t'-;l!a:in;i V's lioldnu' the 1' ft of tlie 
line, near the Mile mail, on Deceniher ."th. Lanee-C'orpl. 
\V. llornhv and I'fe. J. C. Worton carried out a dariuf,' 
aiid vnhiahlr n ennnaissanee it the enemy saliciit known 
as (ierinan House, and each was awarded the Distin- 
{rinshed Conduct Medal. .\t Christmas tinn the trenches 
v,<re al)'>ut :.t their worsl and iiic in a' d i-ut of the 
line was verv iniconifortahle. On flu- 'JTlh and 'Jsth, 
when some of the i:)th Koyal Scots (:Uth Division) were 
in the trenches with tlie Thirteeiitli for instruition, a 
(icrnian hondiardrm nt difl niueli damage. tho\i;:h few- 
casualties were caused. ,\t It.!.". r.M. on .Jainniry '.".tth 
Capt. J. .\. L. Downey and ins company attempted a 
raid, hut the ciu my was on the ahut, and alt'T waitinj; 
very patiently and making many efforts to j,'et forward 
unseen the party lind \r witlidraw when tlie moon rose. 
Hcfore leaviufi this s(>ctor the Tliirt'cjilh had to eri- 
duif one 'had hoinhardment. This was on February 
latli, when .") men were kii'id ae.d It womded. The 
battalion moved to Sailly in wintry w.'ather <ir. Febru- 
ary 'J.")th, reachinf: Morbeccpie next day and Auche] just 
before miihiit^dit on the '-".Hli. Ham. liad and snow were 
f^perieneed here, but th.c weather\ed when the 
Thirteenth moved to Ilermin, where nine days were 
spent. On Marcli ITth the battalion moved to trenches 
III Cal"nne. The enemy m-mu |.ee:Mne a'^';ressive arid 
some men were wounded on llie littli. brin^'in/ llic 
casualties sinee arrival in France up to ]'A2. l'r()t)ably 
few battalions had sjxnt oxer seven montlis on tlie 
Western Front witliout suirrimu ui. '■• hr.'Mlv. On tli< 
atleriioon of Mar<'li L'titli rifle ;_'renadiers and mortars 
joined with the arlilh r\' in a l"iiidiardnnnt of the enemy 
line. As time w. nt on th<' (ii rnuui yunners !>ecame 
more actisf, and much damage was eaust d to the 


Il<l\ \ I I (itrfuv.uvl- Cin-SiTkl I I Kl \\\ , \ .C 

I ^lli Diirii im I litlil lilt inirv 






Trench Warfare, Oct., 1915 -June, 1916 


triiiclio. A cDiiipaiiy. whosf ri;.'lil adjoiin-d I'll I'lnp 
I'diinr wlicrt' a sia^i iitaj) was always siiiouliliriii^, 
received most attention, but on April (itli all the oeeu- 
paiils of a C eoinpany duju'-out were killed, the body of 
one man heinj,' Mown over into the wire. When the 
imax attaek was delivered on the 10th tlu' Thirteentli 
w, re oeeu|»yin},' the eellars of Calonne, in supi)on. Tiiere 
were two more days of heavy shellinj,', and little retalia- 
lion from tlu- Hntish {.nins. In^fore tlie Thirteenth moved 
Lack. The liri<;ade had worked hard m the Calomie 
seetor on the support hue of trenches and on fortified 
houses. C'onununicat ion trenches forward over the lull 
Ik. Ill HuUy (.reiiay iiad been deepened and much mi- 

Tile Thirteenth arri\((l al I'eims mx April •J<itli 
and on May .")th they moved to Keelin<;hem '•> continue 
tramiiif:, Capt. (i. \Vlute now bein<,' m eomui ind of the 
battalion. A forlni^dit later came a return to the line. 
I he Thi'-teenth takiiif: over |iart of the Soiiehez sector 
on May •JOtii. Ceaseless war was wa;.'ed in these 
trenches with ritle f,'renades and trench mortars, the 
.irtillerv of botli sides loiniii},' in as occasion seemed to 
demand, liietit. K. \. V. \Voo<l was wounded (lU June 

1st. The ni<.'ht of the '.'nd was boht but ii uless when 

l.ieiifs. 1). H. Clarke and N. .\. Tart'el. with -.'.'t men. 
laided the (.ermaii Irenehes. .\t 1 A.M. llie artillery 
opened ail intense bonil)ardineul of the i lit my front 
hut', and a minute later lifted to barrage his support 
|i(isitiniis. The raiders were across '• No Man's Land 
jiid III the trenches before the alarm was iiivcn. and tUe 
,illie( IS luadcd a partv which worked b» \ ards alolit; to 
the left, killinj^ S (.ermaiis aiul boinbui;,' two dee|i du<;- 
ils. Others worked to the iiL'lit for l!ie same disiance. 
. lectcd a barricade and bombed the trench beyond d. 
ifter kllllll},' several of the etieuix and bomblll",' four 
iiiir-oiits. .Ml withdrew without dillieulty after ten 
1. mutes had been spent m the (■( rmaii Ireni'Iies .ind 
lie oiil\ easi;altiis were three nil u sli^rhlly wounded by 
Kntish shrapnel. 'I'he tin iii\ m \t da\ retaliated b\' 
'i ilf an hour's bombaiilmenl of liatlalioii lieadtpiarters, 
iinl ui the e\fnui>.' ' aiiie a ti rnlie shelliii',' nf the whole 
Mile. All i'ommiiMe;it lolls wi 1" eut and an attaik w;is 

The l)urh;nn 1- Dices in the [■ield 

.,„,,,„, .(,,1, M, I'll. S.(KS. M-iiitl was niii.l. : iml it was 
, wiKii no li.rniaii a(lv;'ucc was .i!.stTVf(l. June 
ill, was aUu a May ui hat,' ai.-i tlic Twditli look over 
v.rv (laina;i<;i tii I'lch's in tlu- cvciiiun. 

Alioiii iliis iiitir thr awanU wcv.' aimoiuicrd of tlu' 
Militarv truss t.. Cai.t. (;. White and ..i ll.r Military 
Mc.lal "to Laiic.-t'orpl. Ixol'inson. 

Thr Thirt. tilth i!<nv >\u\ a tdir in sui)i)ort on the 
Notre Dam- .h l...n Mr spur and iii'.ii niovcti Inick lo 
Dclettc. wliicii was n afli<(i <in the latli. Hcforr Mns 
(iat.' Major H. \. Turn, r, oi llic '-'nd Durham Li}:!ii 
liifantrv. had joined and assnme<i command. 

Oh June -ilst Ih" diMsional eomniander [>restnled 
Uie nlil.oii of Ihe Mihlarv Cross to Lu uts. 1). 11. Clarke 
Mild \. A. Tai-et and that of the Military Medal to 
'Ser;.'ls. n. )V.a;-.y and iJ. H. White; I.aiK'i'-Corpis. 
W "\ liowran and i"-. 11- tliei iiu'lon : Pi'^. f. Harker. 
.1 Dodds. W. hart. U. He.llev. .1. Krelian, T. Mld.ile- 
|,,n. J. Movie. W. Orr. A. ^1. pli. n-oii and S. Williams. 
These d,i/.ratioi.'. hid 1m( n woii in the Smu. v raid. 
(Hi .Iiiiie ■:\'\\ the Thirltii.lh marelu.i to Aire and 
, 111 .;iiii,d lor thr Soinnii' an a. 

The Konrte( !,ih e.o.- io Flai'd. rs iiy train at the 
,,„! of SioteiidKr and !. aeiied .\rinenlier.s ,,ii Oetoher 
Ktth. Th'ev .nt< rrd the Ireiiehes for instruct loll with 
t,,„,[,., ,,| ih.' .atth (\^i!tliiiniiirian) l)i\ isinn and took 
,,v. r a portion of the IMMe<:sleert line on October lUtll. 

'I'he -^Ist Division '.ooii relieved the ."iOtli '11 the sector 
cast of Armiail'. rev. helwe. n ihe l/ille roa.l and the river 
!\s and the iMinrteeid !i went into tla' front line lien- 
,„, Novcnih.r 1-Jlh. Hnt !.• !or.- Ihe eml of the month 
ihe l.altahon left tlie lip.isioii aral were replaced by tlie 
1st Kast \'( rkslme Ke-d. Th- Fonrlceiitii an ived at 
Mer/.-le on XovenilM'r -JMh. lakm-: over the l.iUets 
X , rilled l.\ the Yoik'hircmen whom tliev snee.'edcd in 
!h" iNth ItriL'ade of Ih-' <'.th Dixlsioil. 'ri'.e other units 
in ihis lirn^aiie were the Id West VorksluKs. the Mill 
Ks^ N. an.rthe -Jiid Dnrliain la-iht Infantry. Tlie l;dter 
e'v.l.nded a warm weleoim to their Nonni,' l.rotliers of 
the >ervR'f Haltalieii an. I a t.iip;:,r\ esehai!;;e of 
\ ollircr-. s ser-ean's .md -.'.-I men was Mfleiwards 

Trciicii Warfare, Oct., 1915 June, 1^16 


IK M'' 

ifHl was () 

i'his \v;is the Ix'^'iiuiui^' nl a clusf Irifiulsliiji 

lint:! li'.c I'nuitfciilli wrrc <li^li:ui(l<-(i. 
hi of the (ith i)i\isi()u sector in the Vfircs 
II ll:r ZoniK-lii'kc road, iunl pari of tli 

l-'ourti ciitli inovfii up to occiipy tin Potijzc (li'ffiicts 
(.11 l)t(rnil>cr lltli. Fivf days later tlie battalion NVtiil 
i!ito tile front line on the left and on, Deceiidu r 
l'i|!i. tlie\- iiore ll'e iirniit of nii enemy yas atta<'k. At 
.tlioiit .').;!() A.M. a ^neenish-yeliow cloud swept forward. 
,(,iilli of Ihc vill;i<,'c of over the trenches of the 
i'niiifei'nlh. No nifantry attack developed, hut a hcav\ 
iMitiil.ardnient of ;i:as and hiyh cx|)losive shell eontuuicd 

their 'MS helmets for 

i!l iia\. .\ company had to wear 

line iiours and 1) conipany, 1. in{.r on lower ;u'roinid. 

for one hour loi .er. Tlic (ierman tire was almost as 

11 !(•!■ diirin,!,' 

tlu- ni-'ht and next dav, hut in the e\(iiin>,' 

iiiiletntli v.iTi' rei,(\-eii an( 


to !' 

in the ranks amounted to H'.t, hut 
id have lit en jiuhtcr if there had not been so many 
lulmcls. '.'nil l.icut. L. M. Ilickson and 


i( 1 ii\c <;;'s 

i.i.iit. K. iirilt\ were 


I and I. a III 

(). W. ( 

Mann and 15. L. K\re were woiuk 

led. (apt. (. 



who rt fused to lca\e his company after 

iiii,' woinnHd 

was awa; ■led 

Ihc Miiitarv Cross. 

'Ihc Koinicentli had another anrl (imetcr tour ni the 
hefore the end of the year, hv which time losses to 

Hi' MS were ineniised hv "Jik 

d !,i> lit. V. A. Cormaek 

iL'a'-scd). and Cieiits. .1. H. Iveson and A. I). Hawliiis 
<wouiidcd). When in support the hattalion lived m or 

ir \ pre s and worl;''<! oii 

the triMiehes in the eoimnon 

\oMr to nnnumse t'le ravages o 

I'lainin'' aii' 

f the rain and frost . 

1 n 

■reatii'U w( re jiossiole wiieii ui reserve 


On .January "JTth two (ieiiMaiis sinrendercd to tlw 
i'ourtc'cnt h. who were thin ui the hue. and a wounded 
Cernian was lno ii.'lit in \>} a party under I, 'cut. Harris 

( orp 



'I'he liattalion liad )(» ca nidies 

hirini; tliis month, mciudinL' -ui 

I I, [rut. (;. Aut 


(wounded). The Hth Division, further ifrlh. were 
•'■avily shelled on I'". hritai\- 1'_Mh and th," working,' 
ivtitics of t'lf Fftmt"ctdh were wiselv caneelled. hut on 

re killed and \'.\ wuuruitd hy 


ic morrow (i iiic:' wi 

The Durham I'otcls in the I'icUi 

,, .,n,olr slirli. -JimI I-H'iI. K- \\ ■ '^''Vv^hI v.,,s|..1 
,,ii I', liru^ii V I'-'lli. . 

In llw iin.l.ilr ul M;inii 11h (.u.nds ,vlh^Ml tiir t.ll, 
DuiMun nii.l llir F.Mirt.cnlh v,.nl l.irk In I nucn. 
Mt.T tell (l^i\- ni tiMiiiinj: an.i iiisiHctiniis 111. lulli.lK.n 
i,ft for ( ilai- .iimI v.cnt iiitn I. ills al H< iuitiiaris. I raiii- 
uv and tli.' Fmh.-Ii rill. -ranj:r n,, llir m;.- 
slimv was nsr.l. Lut tins uitrrlu.l.' u..ul.l havr l-rn 
n,(„v appr.riatr,! il' tli.' Nvrallirv ha.l l-ccn kuul. i. On 
April :.tii tlir lHj,-,ni a tliivr .lays ir.irli 

hack ti' 111.' saliiiil. 

N.aiiv a w..k was sp.nt al Ki.k.nput, ii. ar Wi.rm- 
,„„„|,, ,„„1 lii,. l,;itlaii..n I.M.k ..v.r tli.- inu 1 .twf.n t ir 
Pil.-k.M.i n-a.i aiMl t!,.' V-r faiial .>n April IMli. I li-' 
In-nch.-. w.iv ha.l aiul II;.' (..■niiaii snip.'rs a.tiv. . 
Dnriii" th. iHxt t..ur llu- .luniy -uiis aii.l im.rtars 
,ansr,l a l..t ■.! ,iania^'. , an.i -.'.Ki la.ut. >«• •'•^♦^ • I^^''*''' 
was kill.'.!, -'n.! I-i-uts. .1. W. (.anil.l.- and W • Hoiu'rl- 
snn w.n-'.l .-n May -Isl an,! tli- l'-n„.'r .lu-l 

'' "(Vn .Inni ■2u<\ llu- .iispnsitinns ,,| ti,,^ F,,ni I. .iitli u.r.' 
.•iu.n.'c.l. K..r w.ks past llu' ir.Mi1 Im.' i.a.l .■.msislr.l 
ni sh.u't i.n^^il.s uf l,,,rk, a.i.l ii.-w Capt. .1. IS. 
i{„si„r was pla<..i in .'.annian.l ,.f tlw wh..!.- inuit an. 
snppurl pnsitiniish.i.l t.v til.' LaMaliMii. 1 lir a .;! 
III,. I),slin-nish..i S.'rvi.'f Onl.r 1.- l.i. ut .-( .,1. (.. 1'. 
M..n-/i.'s an.l <.f Hi. Military I,, l.i.nt. C. A. \. 

\\.ws,,.n„' v.Mv ;.,,t. ■ -..1 alM.iit tl.^s,-. N'r-t. 

( l.-S.-M.) I'.aisnn. w.M kii..wn at ^«;-;i'^'"| was ^nvn t!i.- Dist C-ha't M.m al 
f,„. Ins OO...J u.,rk Willi.- :.. .iiar-.- ..i \W snip, rs an.l f..r 
Ins oallanlry ni .li-,,ii.. mit ni. ii uh.. lia.i lu.n l.uri.'.l 

• TI,,. (.uai.K .aiu. ui a-aiii .ai Jm..' H,tli an.l tii.' 
,,,1, Divismn r.nir .lays lat.r tti.' F..urt. rntli 
.,n,v,l ;,t i5..11-'.'. !.■ an.! i. Mani-.i tli.a.- I. uiun-j for 
ll„, ;,ita.k nnlil Hi.- -'n.l "f .'"•'!.■. Tli.- last ,ix nu-ntlis 
,„ ll„. .ali.nt lia.l .'.-1 ti,..n -'lid raaialti-s n, tlu ranks. 

•|'!„- Fift.'.iilli t. rli.'l Vrni.nli.'r.'s .:irly in (>.'l..i'.'r. 
,,,, i|,. ml, llirv -.v.r.' ,!,slril.nt,,l ;-n.,n" tlw nnils ni 
III,. .-.Mil, (N, I)i\.s„,n for ins| rncl I'-n m 


ricnch Warfare, Oct., 1915- June, 1916 

t iTiH'li waiiai 

1;. c 

1» (•(iiii|_)aiius woikiiii; witli tin 

th. r.tli and stii Diirhaiii Li<,'lit Iiiiantry. A ijortun 

1 (II 

tin- line rnrltK 

r iioitli svas lakiii over mi Ocloiicr I'.ttli. 

lllil I Wtl li 

a\s later -Jiid Litiit. A. A. (li'av caiTit 

(1 (ait 

ilai iiii' rccoiiiiaissaiK (• am 

1 icliirii 

(I wit 

I a \aluaii|f ic 

lit. -Jiid l.iciii. I.. J. liia\- \va-~ i;i!K(l ddiiiu', tins loin, 

Oil N 

II .Ni)\ iliiht 

(i '.Mil Diirj 


r lOtii the 
ijlit 1 


talidii rclKvcd the Ml 

iiiaiiti ' 

d tl 


re ill and oiil d til'' liiic li(l\\((n tin- Lille road and 
e liver Lys. ('a[)t. A. 1). I., ('amidxll was killed 


II N()\fiiiliei- istli. I)i:t easualliis were luit lieav\- : tli 

>a\()ns opposite were as husy as the Diifliains in lla 
■ ndea\()ur to make the wet treiieli( s haliitalile, and lia(i 
no tmu- or inclination to lie aj.'(,'i(ssive. 'I'lie left of tlu 

li river, was in the worst shite 

line, near tile sW(il|( 


i Lieut. K. M. N'lel 

ni(,'lit of L)( ceiiiliei- III 

lolson was woiiiK 

led on pat Id! ( 


111. and S( I'd. .L Hroderick and 


I'te. .Middleton (lispla\((i (^ncat (^allaiitr\ in l>rinj,'in(; 

hack. T 

le sera( an 

t was awarded the Disl inirnislied 

( oii(hl( t Medal. 

.VrtnentH-res was siulled fre(ii!( nt Iv. Init there was a 
i;eiieral lioiniiaidiiieiit liy the imk ni\ on Deeeinlier lititli 
lich killed I'apt. (.. F. Kitzj^erald and •Jnd Licnts. 


.L W. Arkl 

d f. K. A. I'ullen 

■laiiiiary passed without ineiden! until the Kttli 
i\.().^'.L.L raided the (.erniMi line on the iii(dit of the 


i. .\ 

e\l nio 

tierce lioiiihardnicnt which f( 11 t 

rnin^' the (tertnaiis retaliated with 

o a jiicat extent upon 

the trenches of the Fifteenth. Luiit. N. F. Smith and 

tn men w. re 


(■(1. and 

(apt. {,. 'l'a\lor-L(ii 

lan and 

Ki others Wounded. This shell lire continued till th 
alteiiiooii of the "jrith. causiiijr still more casualtKs. 

liere were 


ce aw- 

ards of the Dist iii('uislied Conduct 

NL-dal for gallantry dnriiii: this ordeal. I'te. \V. Stout 
repaired a ttdcphoiic wire, rcmainiiij,' out oxer two hours 


ler I 

iea\\- tire t 

IP I ;o so. 


.1. \V. Coat( 


L. Ilopt the laHer a P( Itoii Fell hoy only 17 years of 
.■i<_'c kept their telephone w iics repaired under violent 
he II tire, and wh. n their siuiud (hijj-out was lil<...n up 
tliey took tiiiii-- in delr. eriiiy messages over the open. 

Ill Fehruarx . wlw u the hattalion were holding that 
I'lil of tilt line which contained tin eiaii r known us 

Hic Durham I'oiccs in the l"icl(i 

llw Miisliniuiii, siinw i\ll (.11 tlnic siirc(ssi\.' (I;i>s and 
patrols went out (irtssed i'l \vli:lc. ^ _ 

The 'Jlst l)i\i ~iuii Iclt this |i;irt oT llic i'l.iil ir. Mirci;, 
and t!if DnrhaiHs rcaclnl Out tcrs'cin.-, in liu- •' n si "" 
area, on tlic I'.Hli. On Maicli :iiU!i tlit-y Kit liv traiM 
lor the soiitli. From I.outiucau station, onl.>idi' Aniit-ns, 
tluv niarclicd to !a Xruvillc, a llttlr villa<;e on tlic Ancrc 
nvtT opjiositc Coriii'/. 'rrainin<,' occupifd tlic days 
spent hrrc :-'d wlwii the CUli !?ri'_:a<:c t(ok^..\.T the 
li'nc tlu' Fiflcrnth were ui rcsi-rvr at ?>I('au!tc. The ri;,'lil 
of til.- new divisional Irotit was in tli.' valley ol a stnani 
rninuntr from Kricourl to the riv<r Alien-; the centre 
and lefT traversi d .1 spi^i iiorth-west of Frieourt. "• No 
Man's I>and "" was lor the most part 'JCO or •_'.">() yards 
wide, hut on tlu ri^lit. at the Tamlu.iir salient, the 
(iernians were less than HIO \ards away. 

AluMit the middle of April tlie tUtli Hri.L'ade reluriKil 
to la Xeuville, wliere the Fiiteentli were employed on 
.run jiositioiis and tracks for the Corps" h-avies in pre- 
paration for the offer.sive. On the -J-Jn.! they moved to 
Meaulte t ) work on the trendies and v.<'ni into tli.- 
front line opposite Frieourt on Mny "Jiid. Cor|)l. T. 
l,avery. of Stanley, found his wiring: part\ was re- 
peatedU annoyed l>y (Jerman snipers and alter three 
ni^ihts of this lie went forward alone and silenced the 
cnT'inv wdli iiondts. Half an hour later hv re])eaied this 
performaiae. with the assistance of another corporal, 
and then the work on the win- was completid witlioul 
further trouMe. Corpl. Fa\erv was awarded the Dis- 
tin},'uished Conduct Medal. 

After ten days in the trenches the battalion v.ithdrew 
to la Nciuillc "and then to i>oi-. lie Tailles. In tlies.- 
woods near Hra\- a pleasant tune was spent, and tl en 
(.n .June i-^t the Dnrhams mo\(<l up to support jiosi- 
lions. with two comi)ani>s in slroiij; points and two in 


Five da\s later lame anolhrr lour in the hnc and 
.Inn.' i:itli f.aind the Fiflceiilh al linirc. ,.n Ih-- riv< r 
■ Vliere. 

'I'll.- I'lejliteeiith u. le I h' oiiU Sir\ ic. Ilallahou ol 
III.- Diiihaiii Li>.''' Iidaiitrv to s..' vtivi.'i- Ui III.' Fast. 

Trench Warlarc, Oct., 1915--Junc. 



>n I) 
r cmlKirkrd next day u\nm llir S.> 

l( V 

fl Kov.iut (.'amii fur l.ivnixM.i ( 

( (■( inlur ■> 

)Ci .s.s 





ic wfis a (low 

<,»;{r(i Hri;,'adf \snr (Hi hoar 

divisional pioiRirs 


led sliij), as tllr wiidU' of the 
1 lusidrs [he l-Jlh K.O. V.L.I. 
Imm'hu on DocenibtT 


til with an tscort of two dcstrovrrs. Attack liy sub 

niarnu's liad 
t-rratic coii 




the vrssi-1 stciTt-d an 

rsf, and luavv wcaMitr was fxptTK-ncec 

1 in 

the Hav of Hiscay.; 

ar was passi 

i attiT the si.xth 

dav out 


U' men wore 

__ in crowded (inartors and were 

...... ti)V) weir fed. hul tlu' i)assa<:e was uneventful until 

•lie ni<'ht of Decenili; r l.'Uh. v Inn a shock was felt 


tlirouj,'hout the \ es 


1 th 

eiu'incs s 


1. Th 

troops, thinkinj,' of tor[ 
to ■■ in their (piarters wiMi 

f torpedoes and suhniarines, '* stood 

The ship h.nd colli 
from .Salonica, cuttin;,' 

perfect ealm and discipline 
le.i with the French S.S. Djurdjina 



t m lialves an( 

1 kill 


two o 

f her tirenien. Throwing' o\it Hares and usin;,' !ier 

archli'dits tiie Eivjni tis o 

i lirildin stood by till all had 

hecii rescuet 

1 froii 

n the sm 


<t vesse 

I was rt'ac 

hed on De<'cmber 1 Hh and the trans- 

Malt . , r ,, 

p„rt lierthed in Valetta harbour ni<,'htfall. 
Damaged bow jdates caused a stay of two days for 
repairs, but no shore leave was allowed. The voya{.'e 
• ■ • f the ITth and abovit noon 

IS resumed in the evenini,' o 

xt dav an enemy submarine was si 

"un mounted aft fired three rounds as soon as it eou 
be broujiht to bear, but the transport escaped by ha 
steaming' and skilful seamanship. Two torpedoes we 

<'lited. The <)-inch 

lischar>r«(l at her ami she passed between llieiii 

In the eveniiif,' 
(1 tl 

the mountains of t'rete were sij,'h1cd 

nd tlu' impression <,'rt 

vv that the division were bound 

for Salome 

Earlv next morning' another sul)ma' m 

tiled a torpedo at (he transport, but sh 
\i, V In. .it ni"iil. No one was ; 

reai ,ie( 



( \antl 

[■la sa 

at ni"lil 


1 tl 

le \css( 

arrivmt» a 

v 1 1 i I 

I I, .ft on the aflernoon of the 'Jdth 

..t Port Said next niormiii,'. The S.S. Slnop 
which had inuiiuht the transpnri from Devon- 

»rt, w 

as alreadv lu n an 

1 (nsembarkatioii l>ej,'an on 

December 'i'-Mid. 1 1 was ;i slow pn 

but the Ei'dl- 

•nth eventuailv fnund ihems.ivcs ui Idds :,o( 

ith of 



few (lavs were 

1< Voted to dril 

Tlic Durliam I-'orccs in the iMeld 

Halhiiin. Ill ,1 \(ry waitii sra, litcaiiu |((>|)iilai', l)Ut the 
C'linstiiia'- <lminr was li:iicil> a micci'ss, for • M' of the 
srasdiialilc sii|(|ilits arnifd ami ilii- ti(H)|. iia<l to ni' 
coiitiiit with liaid ratidiis. 

On Dcci-inlu r "JStli the hattalion iiitraiiud in o|H'n 
trucks for Kl Kanlara. This viUa<,'<' lies clucily on the 
(■::stcii hank of tlic Sue/, t'anai and was dcfondcd t)y 
tifld works. 'riHif was much work to lie done at El 
Kantara in reconstruct in<.' and iinprovinj.' tiic defenc's 
and unloaiiui;,' material from l)arj,'es. L\<:\\\ railways 
were to he pushed out to tlic forward posts in tlie desert 
cast of the canal, and on January ;lrd t'apt. Hutchence 
took 1) company to Ai>u liaidliar and eslahlislied a 
post there ui ord<r to cover the construction of a line 
ironi Hallah. 

The canal defi nces ucrc divided into sections and 
in January the HI Kantara section from tliat village 
to the Mcdileiranean was held hy the ;{lst l)i- ision 
on the !i<ilit and the l.'Jtli Division on the left. The 
policy of pushmj,' the lines defendin<,' tlie canal further 
eastwards into the desert was now heiii},' carried out. 
The front line was sited ahout ]l.(t(K» yards from the 
canal, with the intermediate line (i, .")(»() yards in rear of 
the former, while the old canal di'fences formed a third 
line. It was estimated that so lon-i as the intermediate 
line \\as iicid there could Ik' no serious slu'llinj,' of ships 
passing throujih tin canal. No eontimious trenches 
were duj4, tint h>rtitied localif'cs were in course of eon- 
strnetioii. The protection oi water supplies was. of 
course, very im{)ortant. 

Hefore the I'ud of Jamiar\- the Eijihteenth com- 
menced on this work in earnest, two compames heinj; 
at Hill ins, m llic forward line on the ri<,'ht of this 
section of the front, whih the other two remained at 
El Kantara. l)i<j:jrm;.r trenches in the loose driftnifj sand 
proved hard and tirinj,' work, and sandstorms occasion- 
ally tilled up excavations in a most annoyinj,' marnier. 
The arm\' sho\ el was not a very suitahle tool, and 
hurdles ami ijrass matting had to Ik securely wired to 
pecfs hy way (<\ revetment. Wat'T and material were 
carried forward li\ camels and the escorts had trying 
times when, as often hai>pcned. the loads hroke away. 


Trench Warfare, Oct., 1915— June, 1916 

Still, much was accoinplislu'd Itcfori' Fthniary IfSlli 

wlun two coinpamt's 


to Spi 

t Post, fill 

1(1 Imttalion hcadtiuartt-rs inovt-d 
itli of El Kaiitara. The 

■ft- Illllfs no 

Spit was a 

larrowiiK' tract of land which ran north 


twanl into the inundated country near the sea 

ad and railwav were sla 

ted from the canal to the out- 

post positions 

live miles forward, and a pipe line foi 

ter was also commenced. Hathing |)arades were al- 
featurt; of the routine and when tlie Eighteenth 

wavs a 


rs were f<\v m the battalion. A 


left Efrypt non-sw 

warninj; order for a move to Mesopotamia was eaneellec 
about this time and towards the end of Fel)ruary the 
Eif,'hteenth withdrew to El Kantara now a much larger 
and busier iiase. Tlie old camp at Port Said was 
reached on March 2nd, with tlie Imttalion under orders 
for France. 

The Ei{,'liteenth had spent just over two months in 

Ejjvpt durinj,' the best season o 

f the vear. Sea-bathing,', 

lieavv ma 

rciiini;, heavy liigfjmjr and rather Spartan far 

had made otticors and men very fit and the time 
been interest infj and enjoyable 


The Eif^hteenth embarked ui)on 

the S.S. / 

VtDIKI on 

March .)th, and left next day for Varseiiles. The 
weather was bad for most of the way, but there was no 
( rowding on board and the food was better than on the 
previous voyage. Marseilles was reached safely on 
March lltii, iwid no time was lost at the French port. 
1) company started at once and the rest ^of the bat- 
talion we 
through France was s 

re in the train the same night. The journey 
low, but the French authorities 
thoughtfully supplied rum and coffee to the troops at 
regular intervals. .\t Pont Heiny the battalion de- 
trained, on March lith, and marched to Citerne, a small 
village about twcKe miles from Abbeville. Snow fell 
and the bitter weather was very trying after tlie 
Egyptian sun. Most of the training done here was 
he desert sand had left the feet of 

route marc 

as I 





1 no condition for the pave roads of France. 

■2.")th the Eighteenth began to move towards 

the line. 

The stages were long and heavy rain was only 
varied by showers of sleet, but the sf)irit of othcers 



' 'i 

TIr- Durham lorccs in the Meld 

.,,.,i n I, v,!s spicMlnl. rA.iiti.:.lly Hrau salt was 
iraclrW. l>v \v;!V of Kl. ssill-s aii-l llraiHiu. -lu'. In tlic 
,.v,i PI- .'l \i"a!r!. ".iil'n lii' I'attahoii \n>>\rd (Ui 
li,n,u..r. Ma:llv-.Maillrt ai.H Auchunvilirrs in a snou- 
stoinr an.l l.n'.k ..v. r tiv, .;!:.■. u,.rt t)-^>.v'-t -f !5raninont 
Il'illirl (apt. \V. li. Ilulcluiicr was woiliidt <! mh)!! 
Mf't.r the nil. i N,r.. -nnii-Utf. Thr trcnrius v.nv uat.r- 
1, ,-.,.■,.(! aiiil li. v.'.iuaii tiviidi wen- acli\c, 
tli7.u(>st satisiactciv Iraluiv ..I tl,., lirst l-.ur lu in^' llu' 
sucr. ss .,r iiic l.attalu.n sniiuTs un<i« r Lutit. Havvd.ui. 
()„ \|.iii ;5nl tlir l--i!> York and LaiicasU rs n-li.v.d 
'\r Ij.'lil.M-illi. v.i...i v.uh.livvv to 15. ; ussart and tlirii 
u\ a hut .■am:, l!us-hs-Aiiu'.s i..r a fortmjiht s 
tran.iii"- u. th.' rnid :nui nun. Tl>c Ei-htcrnth went 
int(. thr tr. ndits a-am ..n April :;uth v.!,rn llu- ^vratluT 
,„. proved. Til. le was : ii rxplosion m one of llir Hntis i 
n.inr .'all.riis .lnrin<,' tlii, ionr and I't. . \\ . J. W arwick 
,lid <Mllant r.s.Mi,- v.^rk m spit.' of ihe smoke dami). 
\li. r a lev, >iavs in tiie supiH,rl line the Ki-,'hteenth 
resu.iie.l iraini-'i at i'-Ttranenurt an.l Hus-les-Arto.s. 
Durin- Mav lh;v onlv did one lour in the Irenehes, 
•uid this was in a new seeior just north of the Serre- 
('olipeaini)s w!.e:r th.' Uritish line was eoininan. led 
|,v the en.inv <.;■, tlu- hi-lv'r Miound at Serre and his 
snipii"" and treiuh mortar iiiv was somewhat trymj:. 

On\]r,n.' 1th the Ki.i;hleei'.l!i arrived at f..lmeam|.s. 
\\hie!i was t„comin',r a fav..n!it.- tarirei of the (.erinaii 
„„nn. IS. a. 1 theneelorwar.l tlu' hallaii..!. were en^'af,'e( 
in di.-H'im-- ass.ioMv ti.'neh.s, makm.;- diij,r-outs and 
aid posts, hmyin- eaM.- and m ..tlier preparations for 
the ?,'reat (lifelisive. 

Oil il;, ,i..!il of .laimary :ilsl, I'.nc. th.' Nin.te<iitii 
1, II PniiMi.' l)..un lor S.Mil haini)t'in and crossed to h' 
j|.,^,.,.. 'ri,, s rr leli.d SI. Omer on K.l.rnary 1th and 
'.,,'eh.d I.. 1.111. -Is at lampaune a.nd tiv.' days later. 
„ ,1 ,„, 11,,' march for 'i'lrK'niHs. w.r.' mspc'ted i.y 
11,,. C.nnnaM.l.r-m-Chi.r aial I'lin.'.' Arthur of Con- 
,,.,,. .|,t S,.m.' olli.'ers ami N.l'.n.'s had alivady left 
l„ ,",av an mstruetional mm! t.. th.- tr.-neh.'s ol the 
{;n-ir,i". Kileh.n.r msp.-.'t.'.i th.' uhol.- of >li.- 
I„,;il, I5ii..:i.l.' at H...'s.':.h.'m ..n K.l.iiiai v llth m c.d.l 

\\ 11. n 

Trc-iich Warfare, Oct., 1915 jiuic, 19U. 

11(1 ut 

t ur;illlii ,Mii 

till- Ii'.'IU'Ihs fur 

',1. rvi!!. 
li.' ni!>!i;:i 


a \. ( 
i'li (!av 


k 1 


Hii- Niiit til iiiii 

■ Haulaii.s 

\V; lit into 

iiistnicli(r,i V, nil 

Ihi- ">7tl' Hnj:a(!f 

liif I'.lh !)i\!-.iiiii. nor 

ih of .N.ii\i' (.'liai)i'llf 

Mil tiPA 

WlllulicW lo I. lilt 

!s ;i; I'oii! 'ii' 

the mil, ihou;'h sli 

Uh\ ut 

lit 111!' 

I !ll 

ciuiuv f)li\v up a inn: 


1 shfllid tl 

Oil Maicli 

llcni and on 

li to tin' I'.ttli DiviM..;., 

a hatlalioii. On the Htli the 

iiL,lii of liu' NiiU'tf'-ni li, 

Uili liiull r.\|iio^i\ 

(_■ Inir as 

(ill liir 

rmcht's \v:' ll ^as a 

Casualties onl>- ainouii 
found lliat rtjiairs lo t 
tiir all-inij)orliii* drains 


ted to IT. liul tlu' liiilc n':Mi 

|;av;>i t and the fleai 

Hi'' Oi 

taxed tl:eir stre 

ni>tli to the 

t. Next day tin y were r< lie 

ved and tiu-v oeeii- 

|)ied support positions o 

11 the -jTtli. wlien tlie ."J.ltli 

Division reiilacei 

1 the Mil ill 

lllll' SOIltll < 

f H< 


Karlv ill April lii<- Australians 
1 the' Nint teent'i held the liiu 

i\ t r in. . se 



il.rr to liie soutii. 

It was a (piK 

t month. l>nt tlu- Ireiieaes v.( re s 


■ erv 

uet and pro\ ided ceaseless (.cciipiaain 

for the ■• Han- 


The liattalidu spe! 

-St. Vaast and m 

tlie line I 

t most of May at Kieiie 
n front of that village 

l,our<'-.^T. > aasi auo m ii;v ...i^ •" ■•■•■; . 

l„,t iiad a \v.'ek-s rest t-efore tiie end of the 

On .lune 1st iluy 
JKil, where the fjrass 

>k over Irenelies n ar re: 



was t wo It et hi' 
1 there was miit h deatl oronm 

ei)inpany o 

f the •_' till Oloueeslers e;;me m 

h ill •• \o Man's 

I ill front. Here 

for in- 


rile tii\ision iiHAtf! away 

111 ailerv.\;r(i 


1 the Xiiieteinth r< aeht d (.onneliein, hy easy sta-ts 

.June Kith. .\ journey .< 


iithwards fommeneed on 

.liilv -.'nd, fiy tram frtnii I lioeMUe-.. am 

d the Dnriianis 



i from I'll veil 

I, i.\ it 


Hois de Wariii- 

( and l'.res|e. lo liois 
Somme. On .inl> l.*)th t 
huid Montaiihaii. 

ai!ii .. u- 

reach'. 1 


rav-siii • 

1 the Ircmlii 

In hii'li spirit:, 
d t, 


lielli I'. M 

ll ll and ci'o'- 

in V 


ivif a 

t 111: 

!e, atioiit four miles 

111 111 111 aiK 

I hi. 

reachfti Stra/.ct 
irouck, where tlu y | 
Ahich mclutlc.l sisils to tlic trciic 

.lilcrshol oil May 
'I lilt t i!a\s later 
.! of lla/.c- 
'. r.iiiiiiif.', 


1 . ■ I a 



'Vhc Durham Torccs in the licltl 

the hati . I. lived llir Soulli Afnraiis luitr !.■ IJi/tt, 

(III the Ht Ifjian honUr just north of Anin iitirr.s. 'I'Ik y 
wen- the first uiul of tlir Ust Dnision t.. ajiprar iti the 
line and <'arnfd tlic ((.niitliincnt^ ol lli<- divisoiial 
ffcMfral duriiiu' this tour. Casualties wire few. l.ul on 
tlu ni{;l)f of Ma\ :50th one man was killtd and one 
wounded while workiu},' on tlie wire. I-ieiit. .1. Tiioni|i- 
son-Ho|)|)fr made two jonrnexs and liroiiiihl tiuni hoth 
in under lieaxy tire, tin reliy wiiinin<,' tlie Militar\ Cross. 
Lieut. J. II. liarker was wounded on .June -'ml. 

The following' wK-ks contained little of incident, tie 
\Vearsid<rs providing; lart,'e working parties wh<ii out ol 
the line. C'apt. M. Wayman was wounded on June 
'.".Mil and on the followiii;r nit;lit -Jiid Lnul. K. ^^ 
liritlo'i and l'-' men attempted a small raid, with tin 
assistance of f,'as and smoke. Mut the (.erinans had 
manned their trenches and put down a liarr.i<.'e uliilc 
the partv was in •"No .Man's Land," so tin re was no 
prospect of success. Lieut. .1. 'r!ioiupsoii-IIopper. M.C. 
anil '2 men were killed, and (• others w<re 
W()inide<l. while (apt. A. I'umpiire\ was .iKo hi! l>ul 
remained at dut\-. 

The Twcnty-.^-iecoiid left Catterick l?rid<,'c on June 
IC.tli for Southampton, and arrived at ie Ilavr.- m the 
early hours of next morning,'. The tram took the liat- 
talioii straight to the Soinme area, Fncheiieourt . aiioul 
two miles north of the .Mlierl-Amiens road, lieintj the 
site of their first camp. On .luiic -JOth th<y moved 
Mortliwfirds to Haveliiicoiirt . Th" Pioneers wire Imsy 
iinloadiiiji ammunition ai.d ri-pairing roads until they 
inarched forward to Millencourl, on tlii' lal d:i\ <if the 





Willi tlir liattir (tf till' SnllllllC, wlsicll dpclH' 



t!ic infaiit-\- wvu- coiictTiu'd, on July 1st, IHIC, cainc 
I he Mii)rtim' test of tlir StTvicr Battalions of Dtirhaiii. 
I he Truth had ciniun d tlu- horrors of Ilooj,'*', hut had 
1 iipMii to attack ; to tin- Fourtt-fiitli and 

in\(r hci'ii (•alli'( 


iia\ ; thf otlicr hattalioiis iiitfnd the {.Teat offensive 

I'lltfcntli 1,00s was the traffic ineiiiorv of a s 


ith cxpcrieiK 



hut tnnch warfare heliiiid 



the Hntisli line turned northward, at Fri- 

ut. the '.Mst Division 

held the front. The Fifteenth 

were ill 


reserve at Hnire. upon the river Anere. in the 
Idle of .June, and worked fo'- a whole week earryint; 
attle stores into the trenches. When the British hoin- 
liardinent o|)ened, on June -'Mh the hattalum Imd 
htf to do luit uj'it for the day. News from the front 
liiu was ;roo<l. I'risoiurs deserihed the horrors i^f the 
Uritish t,'uiilire. which kci)t ratuiiis from the (iernians 
whc) held the line and made the relief of troops all Init 
impossil)|c. Thi' Durham men held concerts while our 
Id isnw^ and trench-mortars systematically cut the 
and smoke clouds threati lu-d him with 
ttack \shuli did not come. 

On the mornint,' of .lune '.'sth packs were stor»-d in 
lir cm. Ilia hall at Hiiirc m preparation for the n.ove. 
li ti"htiii<r order, to the assemMy trenches. The at- 


rlielii\- Wire 

1,1. k \\as fo l)c on the morro 

w, hut the fair weather,'ei 

I t 

I) r;i 

III which caused Iwo days' dela> . .^o 

the Fifteenth (diitinucd to wai«, while the homhard- 

Mieiil uiiit oil. varied liy 
i| the (lischartre of clou- 

r\als of intense ;,'unfire 

,f ii: 

IS ami smoKc 


;)s! !)!\!!..n were to a<lv.u.. e from the front they held. 

j-hc Durlirun I'orcos in the \'\M 

u iM.l.t. TlH UVM K.O.V.l.l. h^MUhous U.uUu^i\^l^ 

,„ s„,.n,,rl. Wl-ii the- ir.-ut l.iu' sysUn. n| (.umai. 

"alMunnrl :„.! iontalma.son n.arl,..i. thr supporl 

, , s u. pav-^h and take Cruc.hx nxwu 

sil'lu'r W.K.I a:.l 11.- .v.l.-uhl rall.-i tlu' guadran^lr. 

l.oco ', 1m yeiiil. ., ..^ 

()„ the . vuun- .'I .Jnnr .-.U.h Lnut.-eul A. 1.. H. 
.„,,i,l!.,l ins l.:dtai...n ,„. t„ th. a.M.,nl,lyj.nMt,n 

V,lv 1.1 ll.- r.ll-.nll. vw.v ..ady to a-hanr. l..lun.l 
•; ■\uhK.().VM,.I.. who Ir.l upon Day hrok-- 

.,„<.'..• as Ihr ■hrapiui l.ana;;.' ran..- .i.>wu. I In 1 il- 
,li( p (inu-'.uls winch w< i-' h 

til. (laiiiai:<(l liy "iir hum- 

• : 1 i .M.i'-- ..,.— 1 u.Mlu- l)u| n.ns, ^vlu. 
;:''W..:ilu.::o.,y:nisnt--No>lansI.:.,,. -.iho » 

1,1,1 ,n-,v .■.•.! ...I -I 'h.- rarlh an,! but 

,,.,,,,,, ,,.hHrna!.,san.MMis.,>;^.' 

,,„. ,;,f,,.,.„l!, w..nth.irNvay nnl.l ihry .juna .1 thr^..rU- 
!.i;„^;, n.. -la ^..nk.nrna.lan.iwhatha.llKvnlvon.Hl 

Wno.l Ppnn Hi.- I'it. , , „ ,i„.,...„,s nml.T 

Mdi ■ prisoiurs \s.;c -.'atiitnu in uu uu, 

,. ,„„ „„. „„,„ „| ,1... r,ft...ntl. went yn ow r 

, • „„, ,..,r.,n. halfnas, ,a,-h. ha, lak.n rnnt.x 

T,. ', viM,h >an,..l !'.>....'l. Th. sl.rapn.l I.UTM- 

H n.,1 al, Mi, I.Ml th,' ■.r,.nn,i w f.-nf Nvas svvrpt •> 


: lMu.,.n,i, an.i In.n, tlu- I- ft. wh-r,. th.y ay in 
\, vl. Tr.v Woo.l. toh.n.l r.t/,,.,al.l assnn,--. .•on.- 
Ia'n!; • 1 Ma- uh..h- p.^.i,-.; l^.-U.^s h:s ,.un ^m^d.^^^ 

1„. |,;i,i ^■..|]. l.urnnn an-i I nu-lns an,l s„n„' ..f Uu 


The Bailie oi' ihe Soiniiie, 1916 



\ ismii, who \V( :h 

li^litiii},' oil tin- 

it of 111 


f siniK' 11 loai 


I ami C'nicilix Titncli wire 
1 111 a slati' (il ikli iicr, ami in tlu- roaci at tlic tntraiuc 
one (^f liif iiiii;-()iits now all lilKd with Hntisli .'mkI 

t.vrMian v.oiinded !i-a<l'|iiarttTs were cstahlislu 


iri>,'a.'lf liad <.'oiu' far aiiiad of tlir troojis on tlic llaii'.-, 
i.iit with Lewis {,M!iis in Jioiind Wood and L(>/,('ii«,'f ^Vood 
.ill was iM n-adiius^ for the (itinKin coiinlrr-altacks 
wliii'li wiic honnd lo follow. 

caMf oi'd<i's to try for 
Isancc were canifd no 

At twenty minutes to two 




e\en 1 

f th 

_'3'jO . * _^ 



?ii*, . 

i.\ tt 


initlier: hut tlu- |(roteeliv<' l.arra;;e liad come down ten 
iinnutes hefori'. so ihat IIk' M'liture had to lie made 

without artilleiv suppoi 

t. Fid 

{jiiiini,' patid's went for- 

ward to jjain wliat <,frouml tiiev eouid. and in this 
advance I'apt. I). H. J. Ely, already wounded in the 
foot, was Ivilleii liy a (Jernian sniper. IMe. .1. .lolley 
spied the slayer as he prepared for a si eomi siiot, and 
liritisli and (iernian tired t()}.:etlier. .\ Imllet f,'ra/.iil 

ollev s nose 


lie t'ot Ills man 


the I 


•-'mi Lit Ills. F. .!. ( artinan and A. S. .Morley, \siio had 
eaeli rei)laeed a fallen eoiiipan\ eommander, thrust 

forward with tin :i- men until 


loles omv ID \aids 

ftotn the Wood wen reached. In lliese positions the 
I)iiihains sniped a! sm h of the rmtny as eoiild I"- seen 
and. despile repeat'd at!eni|its to dis|od<;e tli'in. held 

The Durham Forces in the Field 

„„ ,„t,l rchrvod cif-l.t hours later. Both otlu.Ts cvcu- 
lu.llv rccfivfd the Military Cross. 

""^^ 7he afternoo,. wore ..n the eaptured an. vva. 

|„ shelled, while maehine-fjUM tmllets whipped 

•Mu the Ik .1 road. At live ..Vlock Ciernians wore 

's 'a -rni.lin« lu-ar B.reh Tree NVood ami a part^- of 

;^mMdvaneed hut were dispersed with lu^vy \o^^ 

lewis LMin tire. WhiU' watehiiifr this affaii LoIoiri 

Ft^^^.T,' ir eeived a „.ael„ne-,n,n Imllet in the h.jrh 

;■'■;. earned to his headquarters t'-'"*-''; '-" ^^ 

, sse<i befor.- he .'ould lu' conveyed to the rear an.l, 

Iho:;;;. he reaehed a L<.nd<M, hospital 

•^"'lu' Tile evenin.' two eoM„.a.ues the, Vork- 

shir a r ved m Cnw.tix Tren.-h to ..tahlish toueh with 

"i^ml Hn,ade upon the It -as unich late 
1 heu the Liuoolns and Middlesex appeared t.. takt m r 
^r;osU.I:,^;hehn.ytheFifteen.h a .,i.a^^^ 
■ult uneration whi.'h was not completed till dawn. At 

X o-e oek on the niorninj. of the -Jnd partus were st 

rriv. i^ m tl^- >'r'«inal British line, where the 
i-'nU as en.hled under Major H B. Joh:. on- 

'^ Une vous losses had heen suffered. Amoi^: oth , 

Sanf,er-l)avu. =' ;" ^^^^ ' "i^. Hu,hilest..n. (apt. 
^^*^''s;i;,.e\vr:nno;.. the wounded and eaMi^dt^ 

,; the rankJ nu.nhere.l U... For t^-'^^^''' "f >;f p-'\ " 

!. W.ll.son an.l T. .lones ; C up s !• . <■ '''' '" •^' "j'^;, ;,, " 
L.u.ler; an.l I'tes. .1. (.ray, J. Bol.ins..n. . ■ H l-^^^^ 

• Tail an.l S. S. Dennis wer.' awar.le.l the MUit. r> 
Me.l T 1. captures of the l.r.,.a.le it is nnposs.hle 

?!:';;• what fell t.. .a.!, hattal..;.. were 'iOO prisoners, 
one field-L'un an.l numerous maeliiiie-K'uns. 

( uK <i.l tlH' K.ft..nth .•arried u,. water, am nu- 

,,,,!::':;hH:;;i.stothet;.mlBri,a.le. wh..hadtak..n 

Shelter Wood. 

N,..u- the left of th.' British hue. and opposite th.^ 
,.™;;;.n..h..s. whu.hwerehaek...M.v^ 

sern- UMou hmh.r ground, lay ih.' .Hst Dimsl n. u 
Xam of ' l^ K-^iiteenth f..rnu.d part ..f the a-ult- 


The Battle of the Sonimc, 1916 

II1J4 tn)()|is mill liaii luul a ucck of special trainiiiff before 
t lie optnin^' nf tile hat f li. t lie |)(isl])()iifmri,t of wliicii was 
iiiifortimatr for the division. It was afterwards loariit 

Front Line, w Ueco& Tw.i.hcm - 15 VJYo^ks 
South tVl ON K _ T> C«»j . 13'DU.l. 

^^AJT^^N3> _ f\, e> fc- c (Bovjs , is pu.i 

from captured (.(riii.m iIocuiik nK Itiat many hafl.rics 
"I licMvy trims were lut>iij.'lit up to tins part of the 
' IK my Imc diiniij,' Hir last two days of .Iiiiir. 



The Durham Forces in ihc Tield 

At s r, r.M. ..n Jun.- :mU 1) n.n.imi.N n.ovcl up to 
,1„. r as-m .Iv pos.lic.n. Thr rvnuund.^- ot tin- L.fZ - 

to shdl-stn..krn, arrived hvUm- Um o (I.kR 
lU'xt moniint,' iii Mait land Trench. 

..tlHT .•-.inl.anus .-f tl.r Ki^'hterntl. in reserve 

•mee was t.> "o of Serr- and tin n swin- to tlw 
i;;;;;;";.;^; Nvdirtl.e r.,ht tlank fa..>n, s,.nth-eastwar.l 

lioni r.ndant t'opse. 

Dunn}; tlu' ni,-;lil easualti.s liad l^-n 

f.w. and when 

d.iv broke the main 
;,,('i!l<rv liearl.n'd cveryon-v. 

f,st sui)enonty of our aireraft and 

At I went V nniuites past 


s.ven was h.anl I lie explosion of tlie uK'^d niiii. 
,nuonl41an..l, and the lUu.slMate of tire increase . 

, now the (iennan art.ll. ry opened n. -'""- ' P ' 
renehes. deahn^deatli and ehaos anion-' the m- 
f.utrvalreadvehinhni^'out t.. form for the assault 


,,„,,,,, -n,,,,,,,!, every . ffort was ,na.h' to a.han.r 
^:;' nun lived to pass ,,ey..ndtl,e host,, eurain^ 

li,,- hariT.l Ih.' wav across -No ^'''" "^ '" "7j 
4 n„- the... were who stni-led on an<l n aeh.d the 
^""" ' . . i;.., ,.,ti. M.Mr niie-<'niiners and 

„t. now alive with machiue-<.'nnners 

,. , we'kuow. loo, that a .allant liandfu of 
;.;l„,„; naehcl Pendant (ops.-, a mile uishIc th. 

t;ennan front . 

111.- three eonii>ani 

rs of tlw I'Vi-'htecnth ord.Tcd h.rward to Monk Tr.n.'h Into th, Ur- 
'"' ^vhieh sr.nn-d ^r.ater than our own, A 

'I lie other 

mail shell lire 

,„„| li ..ompani.s up in suec.-ssion. 
'. ;„1,„„. I ,.1 ,a..h lost eolon.^1 ui.l n„.>t of tlu. 
i ,. Miid th.- r.n.naiits ..f the V Mkshin.n. n wen- 

;!:;;;•.. ti..- .h-a.i and wound.-d. 11. -1;-^ --- ;^ 

r ,1 r,-,,,,! 1-, im1. V Ir.iK-h.-s. As a eo.mter-.ittat K 
;;^ now :'ol,aiac,,ule.!np..ntheKi,hte.ntl. 

n'.pt In'e ha.l r.orL-anis.d U .•on>p..nv, who lay west 

The Battle of the Sommc, 1916 

lit Monk TrmuIi, A coiiipuiiy wtro distrihutcd 1)\" 
I)l;it()uns in Fla^', .Mnitlaiid and Monk Trrnclus, with 
C coiniJaiiy also in Maitlaiid. Such was tiie situation 
at noon. B ('()ni[)any were al'tt rwards ordered to hold 
Sackvillc Trt-ncli ui coiiiunction with tlic l-th Division, 
wlio had also suffered heavily a.nd made little progress. 
Colonel IJowes rei)orfed that Monk, lianguard and 
Duninow Trenches could still he held and undertook 
III do so. 

All the afternoon and eveiiinir the work of reorgani- 
s.ition went on under the Cierman lire. Wound- d and were reino\(il, and siune attempt was m.ide to 
improve tlie shattered trenches. The front line no 
ii'Uirer existed as a iij,'hting trench anu all the forward 
rnnuiiunication trenches were lu-arly ohliterated. It 
was known, loo. that although a few men had iteen 
SI en to enter Serre. the '.Hth Brigade were in no better 
rise than the •t:{rd, and all thoughts of a fresh attempl 
I'l adsauce were ahandoucd. 

The Eightcenlli, with the prospnl of m count( r- 
ilt.ii'k e\(T present, look o\rr the front line liefore 
nivhifall. (' company holding with a scries of posts what prohalily the remains of Leeds Trench. Hombing 
parties were cstalilished in the saps; in Languard 
TiiMich were a compan\ of the 11th P'.ast Vorkshin- 
i>'<!.;l-. and West Vorkslurcs held Duniuow. A and li 
I'Mupanics of llir Eighteenth were in Mailland Trench 
With the few survivors of I) company. 

I he Ining di"d down lo\>ards e\emng /ind lh<' ni^^lit 
\. IS (|uii't. .\l 1 A.M. |{ comyiany relic\ed I' eompanw 
ulio went h.iek to Old Monk Trench. 

In the .iflernoon of .luly 'iiid the Kighfecnlh were 
"idertd to hold the front with one company and four 
I.I wis guns l)y day and to douhle this strength at Tiight. 
I'lie remainder of llie hattalion were to occu|)y South 
^lonk Trench and these dispositions were soon com- 
I'lifcd. Fn the e\cning the Mritish gumters maintained 
intense fire for half in hour to mask an advance further 
"Uth. and this drew retaliation on C company, who 
I'lst '_' otlicers and 10 tueii. At eight o'clock the 
I iKiuy dnnched North Monk with tear shells. Iiut the 
l.ight(cnth went nn witli their task of wiring the frf)nt 



The Durham Forces in the Field 

,,.,,ts an.l <,r th., of who.n W ^v.•^• 

■■'•^7;;^l;^.d u;;;;Sa't;r.K. allowed t<. in. n, ..^^^^ 

I H. ■arlv hours of th. :»r.l a v.s.tat.on of h.,h 
1 .,1 V.-ir shells had to Ik- endiiri-d m rctalia- 

r lK.t1h iK^'nl; now .unMh..n.l, wdh re.nforenne.ts. 

I V M red r ekets wenl up and ,na.hnu-«nn hre opened 
nin 11 e k tish line to the r.^ht of the »-';-l--';''<;- 

ow f o, t was inune<l.ately .lelu.u-d shell ad 

lu e-«un lire. The ene,ny barrage l'fte<l <- M d^ 

nul Ma.tlaiirl Tr.uehes and then return.<l to Monk, 

^:;' .'Ir 'lltdlery retaUate.l and tl. ^^^^l^!^^,::^, 

,.n..(l Diirnx' the niornnij,' Luiit. H. U. la T, \mio 

; ".n-h'nl^l^- No Man-s Land ;• Mnee . Inly 1st. was 

-^t:^: ii^di^; of n>e^p!;;h^;;;:Th was <iraw.n. »,. 

,n e, News of the eonnn,- nl.ef was rec-e.ved before 

;"*,„„. ,,t „i.,ht a battalion of Worcesters (li4 h 

, 1 rr «• IK -. N.M. on Jnlv .Mh the Eij-lUeenth 

:r- e n U at Ko;.ven.onrt, baek beyond Hus-en- 

Trtois T Ivr olVuers were kilh'd or wounded, a,,.) 

:^";;:;:eent. of the rank an.l tile, but tins s^^^^^ 

,„!■ ,lced to have served .ts purpose. 1'';->7P^ V""' 
nXl. r, L.e..t.-C;en. S,r Ayhuer Hu,Uer-U esf.n, n, a 
.•haraeteristie message to the troops saul : 

• wr In.l the .liirH-..U i.;,.l -f Iho line to altark^ 
n.. (■:;n;:;;^.a. ...title., it ^^ 

•"' 'IiuVlion ef artillery :.n,l .uaeluae jiuns. lU ^ "a, 


> on am I'll! vsiii iii"'> i~ ... 1,1,- 

omUmI ,.^ iuro.s Ihe Crent U^^^■ ..obh 

(Idiu- your 


The Battle of the Somme, 1916 

duty. . . . i ^alal^■ I'aili ollieer. N.C.O., and man "1 the Uli, 
•iytii, 31st, and IStli Divibions as a coniradi'-in-arins, miU 
I rejoice to have tlie i)rivilege of coniniandin^; sueli .1 band 
ol heroes as the \ 111 Corps have i)rove(l tlieniselves to be. ' 

Uurhaiirs youngest hatialion, tlie Twenty-Second 
(Pioneers), were coneluding their lirst fortnight of 
service overseas when the battle of tlie Soinnie began. 
On June 'iard all available otlicers had been sent up for 
their first experience of the trepches, visiting the line 
east of Albert. A week later the battalion arrived at 
Millencourt after a long march. A company remained 
here in reserve, but li, C and D companies moved for- 
ward through Albert : they were to consolidate the 
ground won, but the attack of the 8th Division round 
Ovillers and la Boisstlic met witli indifferent success. 
There was work to do on the following day, bringing 
up R.E. stores and carrying l)ack wounded, and at night 
a party of 100 men established a dump in the captured 
(ierman trenches near la Boisselle. Early next morning 
the Twenty-Second were relieved by the 5th Soutli 
Wales Borderers and in the evening of July JJrd the 
battalion left Millencourt, the Sth Division being with- 
drawn frrtm the battle. Five men had been wounded 
and the Twenty-Second, under tire for the first time, 
had worked steadily and well. 


The 'iard Division came south to the Somme late in 
.hme and the (iSth Firii^adc spent several comfortable 
days at Piccpiigny. The move forward commenced at 
the end of the montli, but when the division relieved the 
M.rely tried 34th Division the (iHth Brigade were kept 
111 reserve, and on July 8rd occupied trenches along the 
I ail way embankment south of Albert. On the after- 
noon of the following day all four battalions moved 
up in pouring rain to Becourt Wtiod, wliich was crowded 
with guns and the cookers an<l reserves of the •HHh 
Ihigade, fhtn lighting for Hors.shoc Trench soutli-east 
..f la Boisselle. The Twelfth were the ..iily battalion to 
hivouac in the wood, tlie otin ts returmng wh«-n<c th.v 
( anie by order of the division. All next day and night 
( ..Ir.nel Macgregor's men worked hard for the (i'.Mh 


The Durham Forces in the Field 

and hearinti tlu- wc.uu.lcd auay. On Ju y ..I. t .■ ... iL 
Hrigacir wtro rrpla.rd Wy Hk- OHtl., \\n- Ixvrltth u- 
iRVUiL' the fstl. West Voik.shuc Ue-t. m t la- line. A 
.•onipanv ocnipitd Bird. Tnc Avnuir, -n tlu- r.t,dU ; 
H and C <-..M.panu-s had llorvsho.- Inn ., : 1 
held a portion of the Triangle beyond. All treiiehes 
were deepened and nnproved, and further -round was 
then L'ained without active opposition, giviuf,' a front 
running, nnighly, east and west on the line o the 
Triantile Losses from the German sfirapnel weie -liglit. 
;i men being killed, and Lieut. M. Campl)el!-J(.nes, 
Lieut (.' Powell-Smith uid 10 others wounded. 

Before dawn on July 7th the Uth N.F took ovt-r 
tne position, an.l the Twelfth were withdrawn to u 
portion of the area won by the Fifteenth on the tirst 
dav of the battle. The Fusiliers had orders to attaek 
ll,:- (krman line, whieh ran eastward from the cross- west of liailiff Wood to t'u- outskirts of Coi.tal- 
maison. This advance was made at U.l.) a.m. Un I.- 
right and in the centre the low groun. was e(.mnianded 
hi the Contalmaison defences, which had so far re- 
sisted all efforts of the 24th Brigade. At some sacrilue 
; for the (;ermans had put a barraj/e upon the whole 
vallev the obieclive was almost reached, but it was 
i.npossible to dig on ground dominated '>' < "^ ';'.^''';";- 
mi.'. in Quadrangle Trench, and by about U).M a.m. 
fhe Fus''i;-rs were brought back, though two a.lvauce.l 

ijosls re retained. 

Meanwhile the Twelfth had pushed loiward m sup- 
port. H and U companies came ui, by way of the 
Triangle at ' a.m., an.l were directed by Colo 1 
Macgieg..r at the high grouu.l which was nallv tu 
i, ective of the I'.Mh Division, on the left of the brigade. 
Th,. .' iw. companies a.lvanced over the open m the 
face of he y die and machine-gun i'"^-;, '^"•U''^"^^' 

h . tren.-h running ba.-k to the la Boisselle-Con alma.son 
road, where a few wounded C.ermans ;--' on. M- t 
.•ompanv. who had experience.! more ditlicult m get 

tnlgSorwanl, strengthen^ the hue here m the after- 

"""The Tw.lfth ha.l iH.w iillcl u gap, an.l the right 


The Battle of the Soniiiie, 1^16 

ilaiik < ' llif I'.ttli Division was scctui". Shortly afttr 
iiiiii-<la\ a platoon \v(-rc nciunTtl to join uj) the ri{,'lil 
of til FusiluTs to liif loft of the '-'ith IJrij^adi-, who were 
still strugglin;,' for Contalniaison. No. .'J platoon, niulfr 
Lieut. Francis, ivadad Pcako Wood, but could },'ct no 
further owin^' to \\vA\y slicll lire: hut Capt. H. St. .J. 

Carr-Wisl liroiitiht up llic remainder <jf A eonipany 
and during the al'ternoon reachetl several deep dug- 
outs situated a!>()ut '200 yards north of the wood. Here 
10 (Jerinans were captured. 

All tliese operations were carried out under very 
trying conditions. The nun had had no sleej) for 4S 
iuiurs antl the trenelns were n w knee-deep in niud 
mil water, for rain had I illcn heavily all day. More- 




1 -'I 



'llu- Durham l-orces in the Field 

uvir, .t uas vMll. H.-- -.vat. si .iilluulU thai r.lUs 
and U'Nvis yims" ccml-l \h- kept In ,■ ..f uumI and tit for 
artion. B, C and 1) .( s sprnt thr inorning o 
Julv Sth n. •■..nsolidatm- d.fnuLs. aftt-r 1) Imd 
occupitd tlu- stronj; point ..n tluir n<,'l.l sont h-west ul 
tlu- cross-roads. Tins had la-m tlu- si-tiie of a iKTct- 
|„„„1, ii„lii initil ih.- (irnnans ivtnvH. UnwuiS ■> dead 
hchind Xhviu. Thr thnc c.nipanKs hand.d ovtr thi-ir 
Inn- to the r.ilh Divish-ii dnrni^' thr altirnoon and n- 
tnrnt-d to M.'conrt Wood, wiicrt- A company rcjom.-d 
next inornni),r, hrni^Mii^' ni ".» niiwoundcd |)ns(,ncrs. 

The Twflftli were sMi.n called on a^-ani. At I p.m. 
1} C and I) conipamcs started thron-h heavy shell tire 
fo'r the line, I) company, nn.l.r Cai.t. 11. E. Pease, Ijein^' 
or-'cred to lead a fresh attack on IJailiff \\«H.d and the 
road and trench hevoii<l. This uas timed for six m the 
evenin.'. hnt the marcli u]) had been delayed owinj,' to 
nnnonrs of a t.reak in the line of th.' l'.»tl. Division: 
consecpicntly the artillery preparation was over before 
the infaiitrv were r« ady. 

Hv dark ('apt. l'iase"s men were in position near 
the cross-ruads on the left of the Thirteenth, whose 
line ran s..uthward. The lirst attempt to fjam ground 
failed, Iml the next attack deluered with ritle and 
bomb niM.n a wi.l.r front nut with b.tter fortune 
Tiie trench aloii;.' the C'ontalmaison road was occupiet 
as far as the remains of the (iermaii rif.d!t railway and 
a block was made beyond: a |)latoon of C comiiaiiv 
readied the eastern e(lf:<' "I I^aililf Wood; and on the 
left Hank to the north of the road laeiil. A, T. Price 
diij; in with liis platoon ui front ol three damaKeci 
(Jerman tield-<rniis. During the mormiiu of the lOtli two 
platoons of H company, in supi-ort near the cross-roads, 
found much employment h.r their snipers. i)articularly 
when (icrman infant rv seen advancing on 
the left. Later in the day Lieut. Pruc rei)ulsed 
two count. r-allaeks l,y ni.-aiis of rifle and Lewis 

j,Min lire. 

The task of tlx' Twilfth wtll accomplish, d. f.-r 
the (..round won was of 'rival value when the (i'.Mii 
Mri.'a.le atla.ked roiitalmaison on th< morrow. ('a|.t. 

I'ease won t hi 

l)istiii<.'Uished S( r\iee Oithi for his liand- 

The Battle of the Somme, 1916 

liiij; of ttu' optTiitioiis, and F.itiit. Price rtcfiVKi tlir 
Military Cmss. 

In the aftcriKJuu of July lOtli tlu- new positions wen- 
taken over by tlie (ilHh Hri^ade, hut the platoon from 
C eoinpany remained in Bailiff \Vood and supported the 
altaik on (untalniaison. The remainder of C con'.pany, 
who had been assisting the Thirteenth to consolidate 
I heir trenches, had already withdrawn to AUurt. 

Besides the losses already recorded, Capt. 11. St. J. 
Carr-West and 'Jnd Lieiits. K. A. Nicholson, T. U. lJiiff\ , 
J. H. Lowes and C. C. l,oii}.'slaff were wounded, and 
there were 'JJi.'i men killed, wounded and missing;. 

The Thirteenth moved up to Beeourt \Voo<l aj^ain on 
.Inly (ith and waited in reserve till 4 p.m. next day, when 
the battalion were sent for to take o\er the brigade 
line. It was dark when tiie leading eomj)any, nearly 
waist-ileep in mud, arrived upon the scene. The 
guides were at a loss and the trenches were crowded 
with carrying parties and wounded. >tt Ity the dawi 
of July Sth the Thirteenth occupied a line from Birch 
Tree Avenut , near Peake W<n)d, to the capuired strong 
point before nientioneti, though the p(jsition in the 
centre was by no means clearly detined. Attempts 
were made to improve upon this, liut tiie mud was a 
terrible liaiidicap and every sigw of luovement was 
visited by (u-rman slirapuel. In the afternoon came a 
report that Bailiff Wood, Quadrangle Trench ami C'on- 
lalmaison had been evacuat< d by the enemy, \)v' 
patrols which were pushed forward foimd that such was 
not the case. During the day the Tliirieenth lost '.?nd 
I-ieut. H. H. Wheatley and "21 men wt)imded and 7 
i.thers killed or missing. 

By the morning of the i»th (tie battalion had dug in 
well from the eross-roaiis on th left to a point .")()!) 
vaids S(,utli. .\ litJiubing paity riaclied Bailiff Wood, 
but came under our own sliell lire ai 1 that of an enemy 
macliine-gim ; later on another patrcjl, under the com- 
mand of Lieut. \. A. Target, M.C"., entered the wood, 
1ml tile lire of our own guns made tlu; position nnten- 
altle. Losses on tliis day amounted to SO. l-sides •2u<\ 
!<ieUi. (). .\. KiTiidge, mortally wounded. 


Tin- Durham l-Orcrs i \ 


III- iiiuiriiw 

,t I'.M. 


the I irid 

t.'.itl' !'i: liiidf ad- 
vaiicf 1 tlir(.U},'li tlic l.atl;ili(.r lioir i<> tlu- i ipturc of 
•.■)iitaliiiais()ii. 'I'lu- !.ll ll.i^,^ ..T ili.' <i'.(tli tiiii,4u-(l on 
tlu' liiu- of tlif road IrvoikI HadiH Wood. ar. ' Uvo 
platoons of A corupaiiy of the- Tlurtct-iitl- v.. >• a*, for- 
ward to till a -ai). AiiothiT part, hrlpi'd llic \ •<ii.rv- 
inoii to coiisolidatf tiuMi < aptu-'-d n oun'j- 

Earlv on tlu- lltli tlu 1st .' uncn.n II --rs ..! 
!!„• 1st' Division arnvr.i t . take ■wr fr-.i.. -hr 
Thirtccntli, who niaifhcd to I ikts al Albon. 
Hrfort- r.lut lapt. I.. M. Lop;; a.d 2nd Li uts. C 
Wliartou and A. t.rr. i. all u>..i.diHi ;Mid t i-n 
wtn- :>H casualtits m lli<- ranks. Li. nt. (.. S. J^:''"- 
liutttTWorth had ixpla.rd Capl. 1-ou^ in romniand -t 
A cunipany, aii<l f(.r his ^'ood u^rk was awarded tlie 
Militar\ Cruss. 

Th.- Kift.-tnlli. after a few days* rest, (hiring whieh 
• liufts hrou-dit the l.attalion up to something' like h<^lit- 
iiitr streii.'th. a^am moved forward on July t»th 'Mo 
c.mnl.t.'^' Ill the wi.rds of the divisiuiial eomniandf r, 
"tlu- work s.. hnlhaiitly he^'un.-' The .;;{rd Ijriijade 
hail left th. 2l^t Division and were replaeed hy the 
noth nn<'a<le of Leicester liattalions. 

\t dus'k ..11 .Jiilv nth the division took over the line 
,,,, the ro'hl'lhe ."..Mil Divisi..n. who had <aptnr. d 
iwo-thinls of Woo.l ; on the left the 1st Divi- 
,,„„ l,„d reli. ve.l the -;iid alter the eaplui.' of Loiita- 
,,..usui.. The Fifl.eiilh arriv..l at Lonely Copse, nortli 

.,f Kneoort, oil the aft.n n of the i:tth. It was he 

noth Mn-ad.- wh.. represent:.! l!ie division m the l.if,' 
;,ttaek .lavh-ht on .Inly Uth. uh.ii nood pro- 
..res, was made alo,,),' th. whole lin- an.l the Lneester 
,;„.., took the \illa-e and of ;h. wood of Ha/entin- 
l,.-l»,.id On this (lav the Liiteeiith lost -Jnd L";"'"-- 
II .1. I'.ek and H. IV Toon, killed hv the -ame shell. 

On.Iiilv i:.lh th. hallahon moved up hehind Mainet/. 
W. od III sni.porl of a fr-"'!' ''«'•"><• '"'^ r. turned m the 
..v.ii.n^'^' .nua^ed. On the aft.rno.-n o 
,1,.. nest -lav came or.hrs I., tak-- over part .d the fron 
,„ lla/.e„.,n 1. IMil Wo.,.l. Tlie Fifl.cnth ass.^nd.l.|d 

,„ ,\u- mm an.l i.a. h- d th.' north-east .o.n. r -.f .d. 1/ 


The Battle of the Sommc, UM6 


(I at (, hill it was imu 

li lat 

rr will 

11 M, 

ij(ir Jolui- 


sou aiiivit) ai'ttr a partial ncounaishaiu c of tin- line. 
The position foriiud a pronounct'd salient, and jias 
shells, tear shells, lii<;h explosive and shrapnel tore into 
the wood all nifjht lon<,'. It was a dillieiilt relief in the 
darkness, hut hy six o'clock next niorniu',' the luittalioii 
iuld tlie west and north-west portions of the wooil 
uiih the lOtli K.O. V.L.I, on the ri{,'ht. Touch was 
!.,|)t on the left with the 1st Division who were 
still gaining <,'round up the hare slopes to the west of 
Ihe wood. .Vt ten m the morning a party was sciil 
lorward to occupy a (Jernian strong point .lO yards 
away near tlie tramway running iMith 'o Martin- 
[)uich. Various trench mortars had tired upon this 
work during the night after attenii>ts to lusli it had 
tailed, and the Durham men found no garrison hut 
•Jd (Jernian dead. Patrols worked m conjunction 
uith the 1st Division during the <la\ .uid at dus'.v 
it was found possihle to hold an oiit|)ost line from liie 
junction of tlie tramway and the ozieres mad on t!ie 
left to the village of Hazelit in-ie-I'it it on the riglil. 
This line was taken up Ity one company with fotn- 
I.( wis guns. 

TIk- heav\ hostile li(.mhardiiicnt was unceasing, and 
loiitained enough gas-shell to make respirators iiecis- 
sarv until relief came during the next night in the 
-llap<" of the 1st Middlesex . At 7 A.M. oil 
ilic isth the hattalioii lii\ duacked on familiar jMi.und 
Irtweeii Meaulte and Hecordel. Los'cs in the rank', 
during these d.ays ainoimlid to .s nun k:ll<d. •',') 
unuiidcd and I'.i missing. 


I'lir. ."t.'lh Divisimi r«ached the Somme < arly in .Inly 
and tile Nineteenth. mo\ing forward liy easv 
'tiigcs, wiTi' disposed in trenches at .Moiilauhaii "li 
.luly l.'ilh. Here they came uiidrr eousKlerahle shell 
lire, and I.ieiit. .1. IMiillips and '.'nd Mnil. ■\. I'.. 


The Durham Forces in the Field 

Cain.U ^^vn■ ^vunmU^d. Tlie hattal.ou nv.iv tlu- 
„rd.Ts uf the mh Division, thn> tngat;i(l ui tlif struggle 

.■ailed upon u.itil tin- .■vcning of July IHth. A iarg. 
portion of the wood ha.i hen re-tak.n hy tl... (..rmans 
and tlu- -Bantams- now receivc.l ..nlrrs to asMst tti- 
•Mlth 111 a fresh attack 

Tht) Ninctffiith .• hy Major K. !• . Osl.i 
siiu-e Colonel Stoney had he.-on.e tj'*' vx't:"' "f ''" 
unfortunate aee.dent moved forward ahout half-pas 
seven in tlu- evening. Heavy sh.ll-tire was .-neounter.-.l 
.,„ the way and it wa'^ lat.- when Longueval was 

"%)rders for the projected attack ha.i Ikcu can. ell.<i 
-a wise,n, for the Nineteenth did not know the 
.-r..u.ul and cul.l ..nly move sh.wly m the darkness 
un.h-r the heavv hostile homhar.lm.nt . Mor...v.r, u- 
.-allant '-'(Uh Brigade were already spent wi I. tlu; 
CtruL'gle and vcrv weak >n nund.<rs. The - Bantams 
ren.aine.l in L..ngueval all next .lay assisting to .•.>..- 
soli.lttte what the gallant Scots ha.i won an.i pr..M.ling 
.seorts for prisoners. The (ierman sh.. 1 tin- .•ontinu.d 
and relief hv a battalion of the Hoya >eots 
Fusiliers ..n Julv 'Jttth the Ninet.-.nth suf .■.•ed m.'nv 
..asualtics. 'Jn.i Lieut. W. Miliar was kill, d ami 
Cants. J. W. Waller ai'.l U. C. Taylor and -'xm Lieuts 
11. Il.aton, W. F. Heevc. J. an.l P. \ Fren.h 
were all w.mnded. The last-name.l otiicer .h. d later 

The Nineteenth hivoua.ked at Caft.t Woo.l near 
(ariu.v and here Mal<.r S. Huffam. fr..m tl,- 17th W e<t 
Vorkshir.' arriveil aiul asMimed command. 
.\ partv of :<0(» men was provid.d to i;g a euiumuniea- 
i.un treii.h forwar.l from Tron. s \Vo.,.l t.. \\at.rl..t 
Farm, hut m the earlv morning --f .Inly "Jltli th.- whole 
of the Niiiet.entli m..v. .1 up to spcu.l two .lay. .liggH'K 
reset e f.n.hes on the slopes south-west of Loiigmval. 
A lu-avv honihar.inunt .)f high . xplosiv.- aiui 
shells liiterrupte.l tlu- work, kille.l -.Mul Lieut 
Bvaidfonl, w. un.le.i -Mid Li< uts. S. M. 
C. W. Pollo.'k and .'aiise.l many easua 
ranks. Aft, r nlurning again I,, (nftr! 
•• Balituius ■■ mo\eil to Sil.sia Tiiinh 


ties 111 


ill till' 



The Rattle of the Somme, 1916 

(....MKUi front lino south of Montauhan whero a .irafl 

of i(tO men was received. , , » .1 i,«.»h 

On the evening of July i'Jth the whole of the 1(K. h 
Hn.m(ie assembled in the vieiuily as reserve to the Mriyade, who were to attaek on the morrow from 
,h,. l,:;e Malzhorn Farm to Guillemont. and tear 
.lulls eaused mueh diseomfort during the night __ 

As the H.tth Brigade advanced, the - Uantam 
l.,,1talions had u. follow m succession, occupying the 
pi.s.Uons in front as the;, were vacated. Hut this p an 
of .novniL' to the assault up communication trenches 
..aused gnat .-ongestion an.i delay. Progress vva< 
ahvavs regulate.! hv the battalion m front and ih- 
Nipetcentli, who onlv got as far as a sunken road soutl, 
;,f Bernafav \Voo<l, dnl well to secure good cover and 
avoid casualties. At night the battalion marched hack 
I,, Caftet Wood aiHl moved to Sand Pit \ alley, near 
M.aulte, on the last day of the month. For u full 
f,„i,„ght the -Bantams- had worked under heavy 
sl„ II tire thru powers of endurance being taxed to the 
,,,„,<,st. Losses amounted to ]> othcers and -jr.O men. 

The atth had been thrusting forward from 
li„' south towards the high ground on which stoe<i t he 
,,M,aius of Pozi.-res. On July the <iHth Brigade 
|,avmg spent a few days in billets at Albert and suffered 
s.„ne .asualties from shell hre there, were pla.-ed at 
,|„ disp..sal of this .livision. The day was one of 
inaeta.n f..r the Tw.lfth and Thirteenth but an attack 
,,u Pozines bv tlu' U'-Mh Brigade failed before a h.avv 
liostil.' artill.rv and inachinc-gun barrage and the fatal 
,,bsta.-le of uncut wire. On the evening of the IHth 
tlu' Twelfth moved up and relieved the lOth Lova! 
N l.aiieaslur.s m the line before the village. Near 
tlM HaiMume on 'he left two companies found 
,,,„tmuous tnnches. but the position on Hm right 
,.o„s,ste<l of a chain of f.osts in shell holes. One e-.m 
nanv pn.ceeded to connect these, while the rest of the 
battalioP .hig assemblv tnnches for the attack. 1 he 
work went on ;hn.ugh..ut the next day. At 10.:»0 a.m. 
a smoke barrage was put out, but tl.e (.ermans ,iid 
not <!.)s,' their machine-gun^ or indulge in ritle tin . 



The Durham Forces in the Field 

lli(.u:.'li llirir shelling' iiiiTcasrd in volume. At S r.M. 
llif 'i'wilftii were to advaiu'o upon tlif cnftiiy treiicliL's 
which crossod the n^ad to Coiitaimaisoii south of 
I'o/ifns and r\ti ndcd to tin- Hajjauinc road. The 
Thirtt'cnth wtrt- to occupy tlio hnc vacatcci t)y the 
Twelftli, and llie reinauider of ttie CSth liriyade were 
to take the viila<,'c when tiie tirst ohjective was {,'ained. 
The Stokes niorlars. winch were to (hid witli the 
(.erinan niaehiMe-;,'nns. droppeil tlieir shells .'iit yards 
short, hid at tin- appointed hour the Twelftli left their 
trenches and went forward under the l)arra},'c. C com- 
pany on the r!;,-ht covered KK) \ards Ixfore the enemy 
nia( hinc-;!uns op. ncd. Then further prof/rcss could 
r.nlv lie made h\ erawlui'; forward and another HKl 
yards was <;ained in this fashion. ('a|tt. 1{. ('. \\ ood- 
iiead was killeil s,,on after. \\\ the act of risiii},' to 
lead his men on. No. '.» platoon niana^'cd to ^d near 
enou^'li lo enjra;,'!' tlic (iM my wdh homhs and. thou<;h 
*.'nd T.icul. .1. Harrison fcH, .serj^t. .1. Iluyhcs and : le 
de\oted few who survived (i.idinucd the nne<inal h^hl 
lur Ihn ' (inaiicrs of an hour. The wire at this point 
w IS found to he •_'(• \arii. wnle and uncut by our 
aitilli r\. i< oimi'iii' m the c( ntre ha<l aflvanc-'d only 
,"(» yards win n a hail of maehine-<jim hulh'ts swept 
through th-u'. (.ipt. ('. S. Wdlstinholmc fell dead 
M adinjt ■* I'isli forward, which on tiie icft of the com- 
pany reaclMd the (.erman trench; hut uiient uire and 
Ihcdcaiilv ncH hine-.:uic. laid up e\(rv other effort. 
A .on'panv on i he left a shorlei' distance to eo\ir 
,,nd some of litem climhe.l (h( iicrman parapet. 
I. lent. T. S. Warren was killed here .iiid few survivid 
I,, return lo the Urilish trenches. T vo jilaNions of 
j) comnaMW fnilowniL' ui .niip"rt, also snffer<Mi ver\' 
h.avih. Iheir 1. ader. laeiil. I". W. ll.thcrint;lon, and 
■.•nd l.Hiit. IJ. I'earic-Krown lieiny amonj: the fallen. 

I'',\cntual!\ the attackers witlwlrcw. hriacinj,' most of 
Iheir \v aindid -Mth tlain. I ,ossi s in the ranks 
.imounti d to PtO and iinoii;,' the wcamded w«>re 
('apt. .S, lloliiK s. 1,1. lit. v.. \V. and •in.l la.uts. 
A, (i. FrancK ami I'". H. Casson. 

Til.' 'I'hiil. . iilh a.i.i ih.' inih \.l-". reh.ved three 
,,,in|.am.s ..f the Tw.lffh with..iit didav and twndy- 

l^hc Battle of the Sominc, 1916 

f,mr lioiirs afUr tlit- attack llu- battalion wire liack in 
All)crt. The brigadier said: •' I am satisfied that not 
,,iily did thcv do their best, init that tlieir best was fjallant,'" and the eoinniander of the Mlth 
Mvision sent tlie foHowin;,' niessa{,'e : "I consider th<- 
l-.'th D.L.I. atlack<(l most {gallantly and (b(i all that 
soldiers eould have done undi r the eirenmstanees." 
Ser),'t. Ilntjhes was awarded the Military Medal. 

Tlie Thirteenth had tak« ii over trenches from the 
ctli l}<(ifoi(l H:(,'t. on July ICih near C'ontalmaison 
V,,od A dif:;:'"^' part v. seiil ii|> at niuht to help th'- 
iwelfth, made a painful proL'ress to the line under 
h.'avv shell tire. When the attack of She Tv^'clftli failed 
on tile iollowiny eveiiinj,' 111-' battalion took over tlic 
trenches astride t!ie ('(*nlalniaison-Po7,i( res road. The 
(.crmaiis shelled this [oMli.m steadily ai;<l the bat- 
talion lo:t :.<» men ill two <lays. inclii<im;r I.ieiil. E, 
riiompson, wounded. Karl\ on July I'.Hli lln- line had 
Id f>e readjiisterl in order to join with the l-l Dixi'^ioii 
• ■n the ri^rht. In tlu ( veniiiK the Aiist r.ili;ins arrived 
!. take over and the b,itl;!lion willidri u to AUtcrl 
tlnouj;h a barraj:e of <^is sh< 'I-.. 

The (ISth IJrijjade now spent nearly a w( ek in 
rranzvillers, where draft'> were received, inspections 
leld. and llic nblioii .^f the Militai;, Medal pres.iit>>.{ 
t., Scr^'t. T. ImI /pal rick ■.i\u\ Tie,. \V. Ilulehmson 
and T. Sncldis of the Thirlcenlli. 

On .Inly -'<>lh. wlien the ■J.'inl Divci'-n relieved the 
)..t nn llic !nuh J.'''""i'd bcyi-n-l ( "nl a!m-Ms..ii. the 
'rhirtetnlh occiipu d siipporl lrciicli(s in that villa^i . 
Australians were on tl.c lilt ami troops of the Tttth 
Hrifiade on the ri<,'lit. The battalion lock over the 
front line next .ncdimi: in the Cernian triiwh syst. m 
runninj,' s,,iith-ea^l finm behind Po/iMes now in the 
.'np o? the Aiislrahaps. These two trenches were 
known as ().(;.! and ().(;.•.!. l/mkiii'' !h. m uj. with 
t|n' (Jerinan Switch lane 1 voiid ran Minister .\lle> , 
where several uii'-ueecssfni attempts to advance hud 
alreadv been mad< . When the Thirteenth came m no 
Mritisli troops were further forward Ihan the p'-iiit 
e died H on th.c map. 






The Durham Forces in the Field 

f,„. tin- inoriMi.^' <>I .lulv -Jsth A .■<.inimny hikI.t 
(, S. Kav.-l^utt.rworUi. M.C.. assisted hy a 
Miv ..f the Twelfth, liad uaiiicd unaiiul <.n tlir 
l,v .li-'-'iiK' Hiittcrwortli Trciiclu -200 yards m 
, ;\uil almost parallel to tlie (;(Tinaii Switch Line, 
in.ii wrn- wounded in <loiiiK 'I'l'- '""' I-H'ut. 
-Mutt.iwMilh was al-o hit. reinamed m 

M,;,nwlnlr Laut. C. T. W. SaiH.l.eek with Ins 
l,.„ had pusli, .1 m|. Mni.strr Alley f..r 7n yanls and 
uas er.rtin.. a harn.ade. ]\,\<m' s o .'lock m the 
,„„,„„„r h."was heavily atlaek.-l and had t.» tjive 
„,,,„, ,d. Ihou-h. th.' liK'ld <'-iitnnied. la.nt. SaueH.eek 
;as unnnd.d and •Jnd I.unt. f. T. ( >Talia-han. who 
dterwards n.^eiv.-.i the Military Cross, eariud on the 
"strn'^Me till he I... Ml. I'^nlly hil n. hoth le^rs. 
(• s"-M Mnrlnn. ;•. -isted \'\ Ner-t. Canint; wiiose 

Lewis V-ni" "I"''"'-' "!""» "" <-""""^ '''^ ||"">' 
MTi. milled aen.s>- l-n ut. San. rh. ek"s harm th.-ii 

The Battle of the Somme, 1916 

o)ndiu-te<l tlu- lUfonce until the cnomy wit lulrow soon 
•ifttr half-past cifiht. 2m\ Licuts. Johnson and L. 11. 
Kol)ins with thf Itotnhers of C company hfid our vud 
of Munster Alhy until the cvcnuig. Then, as a resu t 
,,f two dariuf,' roeonnaissanees by Lieut. N. A. larget, 
\! C, tlic eiieniv forward hloek was hoinbed and our 
Irft barricade advanced to a better position. 

The 10th Duke of \Vellinf,'ton"s ((i'.tth Brif,'ade 
r, heved the battalion that same night. Heavy shell 
lin- wounde.l 2nd Luuls. C. H. Robins, A. (.. Dugdale 
uid n-. C;. Charlt..n luforc the Thirteenth were clear 
of tiie trenches, and losses in the ranks now amounted 

" The last davs of the month were spent in Albert. 

I.ieut.-Colonel U. W. Turner, owing to ill-health, was 

n.nv obligerl to leave the battalion a;id Major I.. 

White, M.C., assumed command. , . i, b 

On Au'Mist 1st the Thirteenth moved to Peake 

\V 1 aii.rwere back m the front line again on the 

. v.ning of the 2nd. During the night a sap was dug 
fr-.m l?utterworth Trench out towards the Switch Line, 
Mnd the lumibing post in Munster Alley was strength- 
, lu.i and wired. On the following day the British 
shells were falling short so that D company had to 
.vacuate this hardly-won position. When in the 
.veiling the battalion were relieved and withdrew to 
flug-(iuts near Contalmaison casualties amounted to '-U, 
mcluding 2nd Lieut. T. (;. Saint, wounded. 

On afternoon of the 4th the Thirteenth moved 

up again in readiness for the attack on Torr Trench 

and its junction with Munster Alley. Tnis was 

rutnisted to D companv, who occupied New IrencH. 

\ .ompanv held Hutlerworth Trench; B company were 

d point H an.l the barricade in Munster Alley ; C 

,ompanv wi'h C company of the 10th N.l" • were in 

(.losterAUev. The attack, which was to lie accorded 

lavish artiUerv support -a diflicult problem with the 

(..rmans so near ha.l been fixed for O.lfi P.M. 1 

Munster Allev and Torr Tren.-h luul received 1h- full 

.ff.cts of the'hre of the British 1 vrs all might have 

...,ne well. But these trenches were practieaUy un- 

h.u.hed by the artillery, and the advance of D com- 



The Durham borces in the Field 

panv across Munst.r Alley, ^-P-'':\ ^};; ^^^l^^ 

of a forlorn hop.. In two waves the men sve. t forvvar L 
CiDt \. H. !'• Austin Nvith a tli^Hant feu a tually 
reair.ea T<.rr Treneh a.M. .t .s to he presun.ed, .hed 

"""h'was not t.U the seeond ^vave had erossed XUmsler 
Allev that the ho.nhers e..u .1 ,.t to ^-^;^'^'J^^ 
^Uta'ek up the tren.'h ^vas then P'"'-'^^^';' ^ '*'',;, '«'; 
S.xtv vanls Nvere uon and :. l.c.uans t^'l^''"/'' ' ' 'I 
the Uurhan.s were faeed hy a strong barruade laM > 
wired and defended In" a maehuu-^'un About H 
;,;rds fron. the enemy a bloek -as made and held 
atramst repeated .•ountn-attaeks. ->nd Lieut K L. t 
H;.s won' his M.htary Cross "-. and Corpl. H. 
Cra.l.h.ek his Distinguished Conduet Medal. 

Thr ...11. d up..n the 'llurteenth for a 
further .ffoH. Slu.rtly aft.T nndn.f,'ht Lieut. Ka>e- 
Ihitterworth was .)rdered to r.>un. the L.)..}. 
A > npanv and forn, up for an atta..k. but our own 
sh.lls Iru- falln,., short Ih.v an. ""V"" ' V 1. 
,l.„u.. The bomb tijrht stUl rajzed m Monster \\Uy 
uher.. I.uut. Target. M.f., now e.nnnand..l a''' ''^ ^^ 
,iu-d n.o^' nallantlv with many of his men. All that 
;,,, .i.-;,,.. wa^ to .!ef.-n.l th.- bhu'k already made 
\lnU\ at mn.- m the mornu,^^, the t.t, d.e.l doNvn 
•md a narfv of iMisiliers eanu' up m relief. 

I ..•..vemn.' of Au,mst t li.' S'^'^ \T 

,{...; took ..vr th- p..s.1...n. an.l tin. 1 -r eenth 
MH-vr-l Inuk t,. Allu.rt. L<.sses m ol.eers had been 
v.v heavv. I., -Id.t.on to thos.- already recorded, 
•'n.i Li.uts. W. L. Oakes. F. L. 1'. Hees. M.t ., K. NV- 
:\tkm>on an.l J. C Hatty were wouncled. ami -'';;> ^^';"| 
N Tli..mpson .he.l ..f his w.Mimls. 1 h.' deatli ol 
Lh-u . (;. S. K,.n.-Hn»trrworth. M.C. was a .reat as w.ll as to the ' hirte.n h who 
kn..w hnn as a ,.dlant an.l -theient ot1..-er. He was 
k. led bv a (;erman sniper m the earlv .normnji of 

\„,M,st .^th. Casualties in tlw ranks amounte.l t.. !-(-. 
S.:'. W. Ciallev. forpl. T. Hellerby I anee-Corp^. 

W.^hure ami Pt, s. .1. An.lerson. M^ Urou^h. H. 

l),.k..ns.,„, H. ll.eks..n. T. O. Kerr. \N . Luke. W . 


The Battle of the Somnic, 1916 

MdU'.'liaii, W. Simnis and J. J. Wilkinsor. wtre all 
awaitk'cl the Military Medal for gallantry displayed 
duniig tlu'sc operatiuns. 

Till' Twt'lltli spent July •Jfitii in rcsiTvc and tlu'ii 
(iciiipifd tniH-lus at t'Diitalinaison. Ut'court Wood 
was ri'ai'lK'd again on the cm iiing of tlu- •_'Stli anil 
ntxf day -'00 men carried honihs to the front line under 
heavy lire. Un July -'lOlh the Twelfth were shelled in 
their hivouaes, and sustained 7 easiialties. includ- 
ing '-'nd Lieut. C. A. lleppell, who was wounded, 
lurrying parties were still in demand, the hattalion 
iiuw (■oiniiig under the orders of the TOth Brigade. 
On August -Jnd the Twellth took over the front line 
eastward frv.m the scene of the lighting at Minister 
Alley. There was much work to do, both digging and 
wiring, while patrols and snipers were busy. Two days 
Liter came a move to suppc.rt treiiclirs ;nui t!ie liat- 
lalioii withdrew altogether on August Ttl,, being 
K heved by troops of the l.")tli Division. The (Jerinan 
shell tire had never eea^ed ami the Twelftli lost »i« 
iueii during this last tour in the line. 

Lance-Sergt. II. K. Ilitchin, Lance-C'orpls. P. 
Mitchell and J. Moore, and Pfes. T. C. Bamborough, 
K. Jones, S. Shanks and W. E. Watson were all 
awarded the Military Medal for their gallantry during 
the operations of Jul\. 

Karlv in August caine flic 1 i\h Division to bear a 
part in the battle. The Tenth reached camp at Der- 
n mcourt ii|)iin the Sth and I'oionel Morant mdiI the 
iiiiiipany commaiiflers visited the line on the following 
clay. Ham fell, l)ut the weather had improved when 
the battalion moved up on August I'ith to Pommiers 
luiloubt, an old Ciernian work just south of the 
M Miietz-Montautian road. The front was taken over 
Miat night at a "ost of 24 casualties. Hostile shelling 
h:id obliterated most of the tracks leadmg to 
l.i'i:i,'Ueval, but before morning the Tenth were estab- 
lished in trenches to the north of the village with the 
iiLilit of the line in Delville Wood. It was a scene of 
: I'at horror and (h'solation. for the Hritisii and lierman 


The Durham Forces in the Field 

dead all lav as they had fallen during the fierce fighting 
the past four weeks. Even now the enemy held a 
;lrt of the wood desp.te the valour saer.hce of the 
-Jth, ISth, lird, 'ind and Divisions. .. ,0.1, 

The (ennans slvlled the line throughout the 13th 
,vhiL the Durhan.s iinprove.l their f^f-'-- -'[.^^^"^^ 
murh needed et.ininunieation trenehcs. 2nd Lieut. 
J "m. jiekson was wounded on this c>ay and on the 
.n.irrow Cant. C. E. Pumphrey was so badly hit in tne 

caused 1)V (ierinan snipers. WIku the Unth wtrt 
nlicv.,! on the night of August 1.1th losses in the ranks 

""Z'';ird lln^ade anaeked in eoniuiu.iu.n with th^ 
Ust on August l.sth. the Tenth being m support; but 
tl -v lu to\en<l up C eompany an.l some bombers at 
-lit to stren-rthen the line as the attempt upon the 
iaCuiennan positions 1,1 Delville Wood luul failed. The 
battalion lost 2 killed and '.M? wounded. 

F iv davs- rest at Fneourt followed and then c.i 
Augu •-'.->th the Tenth relieved a battalion .>f the 42ml 
iVritide now a little further forward ir the wood. The 
ur^lu-nis^took over Inner Treneh eastwa.o from Coeoa 
T nne with li eompanv under Capt. J. C. Parr anrl i. 
^ompan bomberL 'D an.l A oeeupied 
in I's Trench, and C company were in reserve Part 
Ed.n« Treneli was free of (;ernians, but they st. he d 
the eastern portion an<l it was the task of the Ttnth to 

'"^.riua^k' was nxed for 7.80 P.M. on August .nth 
an.l then postponed till 5 a.m. next morning, when a 
fu her de av ensued as the Stokes mortars were not 
r[\]y Colonel Morant determined to do without them. 
A p M on August -Tth a shrapnel barrage eame down, 
and •' Lieut. E. E. Canney led a strong party of 
bombers aeross the open from Edge Treneh and 
e cd New Trench. While some of his men erected 
' ba cade in the rear he direete.l a vigorous attaek 
V, h VK>n bs towards Edge Treneh from the north. 
Mc'i.^nle Sergt. E. Chicken, D.C.M - »-; - 
Corpl. Sherrif headed a similar assault '' ''"f ^^;^^^^^^^ 
Tmuh from the west. Lieut. J. R. Pans had led an 

The Battle of the Somme, 1916 

advance from Devil's Trench through the wood, and 
arrived at the junction nf Edf^e Trendi ami Ale Alley 
where the Cu'rnian wire was ten) thick to he neyotialed. 
Though manv casualties were suffered the Lewis {,nni 
and rifle grenade fire of this party was of great assisi- 
iince. Edge Trench was soon taken, together with 
CO prisoners, and the capture of Delville Wood was 
tlius completed. 'Jnd Lieut. Canney built a hlock 

nrarly :>() yards up Ale Alley, and work was begun 
upon a trench from this point to the barricade in New 
Trinch, and thence north-westward to link up with 
tlu- K.O.Y.L.L upon the left. 

Capt. Parr, who had ably directed the whole attack 
and subsequent consolidation, was awarded the Military 
Iross. Lieut. Paris and I'nd Lieut. Canney received 
the same decoration, which was also conferred upon 
biriit. A. Todd, the bombing officer > f the battalion, 
who Lad not spared himself. Scrgt. Chicken has 
ilnadv been mentioned. Despite a wound in the leg 












The Durham I'orccs in the Meld 

!,(' sIk.v.i.I ;.'|r,it (l;i ii .Hill ■.[(lilt t ll I ( .1 l-li' iUt lllC lll^'lll 

;iii<l is ,iil' ;h 'i I" li;i\' ■•(ii|<)>t<l every iiiipin<nt nf it."' 
l-aiict-( 111 pi. >li( rnf. v, ho so iiliiy supported limi, wits 
li;i(ll\ woiiii'ied. ami uiifortuiiulely fell into the hiiiids 
of the (.eiiiians Ml the farthest point reached in .\le 

Aiiolhir attaek was ordered for the (\(iiin>,' of 
;\ti<,Misl -JTlh with the ohjict of cleariiu; .M<' .Ml« v as (IS Hi tr 'rniieh. Lieut. Todd arraiiLred to co-operate 
with the 1st lloyal W'eli'li Kn-ilii rs ii|h,i, the lialit. I'ut 
the infantry were iiot read\ when the liarraj^'c eaine 
down at ti\c o'clock. The t,niiiin rs ceased tire, and the 
liriL'ade then named a lat r hour and i \ eiii nalU' can- 
celled the op.ration. Hut this last onhr was not 
received in tune, and the l-'iisiliers led off witiioiit 
artillery support. The Tintli joint d in. Imt only 1') 
yards of the Irei'cli vas taken, and that at ufcat cost. 

TikIc r heaw shell tir<' ilie 'I'eiith wre n lieved tin- 
same niKld :>ii(i returned to liicoiirt. casuallus aniount- 
wi;,' to tl otlicers and -jn.'t m. n. .\t tli.' end of the moiitli 
the l.attalion mo\. d hack to rest at [lorn<i\. 

The •• Itantams." who hail spent most of .\ii<,'iist 
trainmt.' at Morlancoiirt and I'oiidnnoy. moved up on 
the •-Mllh to Sand Pit N'alley. Two days lat<r they were 
ill trenches on the slope of Mal/liorii n<lp'. norfli of 
Hard.coiirt. wh. le the liritisli line joined tiie Frcncli. 
Tlie advance of the .Miles in this part of the liel.i was 
still stulil.orilK collltstdl and < eiseles. sh. 11 live 
caused the Nineteenth many casualties. The of 
the Division ran from Ilardecimrt to the Troiies 
\Vood-(.uill. mont road am! faced almost due east. An 
attack was pro|eci.d for Alienist -.'Itii. but this was 
caii.'.'lled and the action of the Nin-teeiilh was con- 
lined to patrol work under tir.' of the (.ermaii smpers. 
Tliat imdit the division commenced to hand over to 
th.' -.Ill hiMsion, and the •• Hantaiiis."" whose losses 
amounted to ;{ .,llicers and IIO men. .i!!idv,w from 

the line. 

At...ui AuL'Ust •_'-Jnd the ■.M'lh Division came in on 

l,r left ol th(' lakiii!.' o\er the sector 111 front of 


The Battle of the Somme, 1916 

TiMiiis Wdud. mrluiliri),' tin rtniHiiis of (lUilltnuiiU 
stntion t(i the north. i'hc KUntiith had arnvtcl at 
.MurhiiHT'iu't (III .\iii,'Ust 'Jiifh aii<l niarchtil lu'Ni day tn 
the Citadfl. whirc the tin ii niadr tliiir own l>ivotiacs 
from fiiipty slirll-lxixt s. Tlntf coinpaiiits rrachfd 
tlif front hnr on Au},'iisl ■J.'Jrd. and conunf-nci d work 
on assfnihly tri'n<'lus north of tlir railway and in front 
of th«' fxlrrtnc It'"' of tlic divi:ional hut. Thf i ininy 
shell fire was licav\-. .md at lO.KO i-.M. a (.trnian 
(uuntcr-attack \sas ddivtnd and n pulsed further 
south. liefore niidnii:ht the Pioneers resumed tiieir 
iiiterrupteci work, iiut half an hour later a heavy hon- 
liardment came down and di<,'f,'m{,' had to he ahandoneii. 
The Eleventh 'ontinued the task under heavy lire on 
the following' niyht after anothi r (.t rniaii eoiinti r- 
attack had failed. Thus the pre|)arat ions for tiie attack 
\s( re pushed forward, and the casualties of the Klt-vrnth 
Wire liirht considerinf,' the ('(nKlitioiss und( r whieii thty 
worked. By the end of tin- luoiilh the assemhly 
Iriiiehes north of th<' railwa\- W( re complete and i,'ood 
pro;,Mt ss had liein made uith those in front of .\rrow 
Head Copse for the lJri(,'ade on the riirht. There was 
a day of rain wlneli made the roads and tracks all hut 
iiupassalile and the journey to and from the front line 
liitiieiill and wearisome in the extreme. The Hritish 
lidiis luM-aii the pnliminary homhardment on 
,\ui,'Usl .•((Ith which pioNokcd ;i vij,'orous reply, and 
>\cr\ dav tin Klc\(iith suffered casualties, meluilin;: 
Luut. .J. II. Marplcs, ;,'assed on Scpt'inlier Isl. 

The weather was tine aj.'ain when on tiie murnint,' 
..f .septemher ."ird the I'lonet'rs marched up ti pla\ tin ir 
part in the {•aptuie of (iuillemont. Three tmn s already 
liritish troops had entered the ruins of the xdlau'e, Imt 
had never In in aMe to stav. .S'ow the •.'nth I)'\isi(.n 
u>int,' tile .">'.Mli Hrieade ami one Urii^Mde of Irish troops 
\'.( te to eapl.itc it m a adxaiiei of the Allies. 
A eompanv of the Kle\inth '.verc .ittached to the .")'.i;h 
li!i<:ade <iii ihe riLfht and assemhicd in I.iver|)ool 
TreiK h runniiii.' south frtun Frotii s Wood; on the left 
hihmd the Irishmen 1) (ompaiiy were in Dumnjy 
Trench. The n inamder of the h.Ttfaliou utre m r«sei\e 
1 ' hind HernafaN W'nod. 




'ihc liatrlc of the Somnic, 1916 

At ten iniiiu((s allfr iiii<i-(la\ thr assault iii-,' liat- 
talioiis anticipated tiif appi/uitt-d tinu- by a f< w 
nionu-iits and Ix'f/an to advance On lli<' riL'til a 
platoon of A ('(jinpaiiy followid the Ifadiiij; \vav.>, 
uluch rcaclird its first " (;!M(ctivc \,y lialf-l>ast tw.-lvc. 
Thr trill HM<;ade on tli. lift had nut wilh simihir 
siufi'ss, and ?wo platoons of I) comp my v re then 
(■ntirin<; tlic village. A iio^tilc liarra.uf canic iwn on 
rroncs'^Wood. liut in an liour the advance had passed 
tl.roiiLdi (iiiiileinon! and ihtl not stop till the line of 
the (iincliy-Wed^^e Wood road was r.-aelud. rndir 
heavy hostile shejliii},' the work o[ consolidation went 
on. Mount Street, whieli ran throuj,'h the centre of 
(■niileiiiont, was hlotted out and only a few pieces of 
raiimt: inavked the site of the cenictory. 1) coinpans 

liel[)ed the C lau^dit Ran<rcrs to put North Street in 

a stat<- of defence; most of A company were emi)!oyed 
at the ruins of the (iertnan stroii},' point m front of 
Arrow Head Copse. in the ev<nm^' H and C com- 
panies he^'an work with the sappers. They carried up 
wire, wliieh was put out ill front of the n<w line, ami 
they (dinmeiUM d to niake communication tr<iiches 
lliroUf,'li tile villatrc. 

.\s tli<- divisions to left and rii.'hf had made little 
proLircss, tlie flanks of the 'iotli Division W( re in dani,'er. 
Towards (;inchy. whence tlu-re was most fear of a 
rnimter-attack. "a def« nsive line was • stalilished and 
here I) company toiled duriii},' the ni','ht. .'V cotnpany 
were now enifiloyed in consolidating' the southern por- 
tion of (luillemont, wliieh they were detaileil to hold 
in conjunction with the Ttli D.C.L.T. At dawn on 
S jit. iiIImt Mh the Klev(nth were withdrawn to Carnoy. 
hut came up aijaii: in the afternoon t!iroii;,'h heavy 
shell fir<' to contniU'' their laliours. H and (' comj)anics 
were diveit-'d to la Hru iiieteri"'. sdiilh of Hrvafay 
Wood, and were hroULrht forw.ard later to .\rrow lieiul 
('. Thev Wire intend< d to relieve troops of th<' 
"lith Hriuade in the new front line, I'lit the iourney 
up tlirou^'h tlie vilhiK'e under the storm of hich e\- 
jilosive was dillicult and took hours. Ki w. if any. of 
the .')'tth came out In f. ire the relief of the whole 
liML'ade, uhieh uas aecoinplisln d hy dawn of Sep- 

; I 




'.i L 
t h 



Tlic Durham I-'orccs in the I'ield 

trniln r .")tli. Dminj: llir^c two (ia>s iuul niyhts tiie 
Elcvciitli lost Litiils. W . A. (■uiinmj.'liani and liobert- 
son anil ■-'nd Lirtiis. Stulilis and Wood, all wounded, 
(.'apts. I'ollock and I'tinlpcrton were t-vacuatid sick and 
losses m the ranks amounted to !S7. nearly all of whom 
wen- wounded. 


At () A..M. on .Septiinlit r l-'tli a t^eiierai liomhardnunt 
he<;an in preparation for a ln^' eoinhined attack of the 
Urifisli and I-'nii'li wliuli was to start three days later. 
The lintish liattle front, whicii fxteiided from the 
n j,Mon of l>euze Wood east of (luillemont to the 
vicinity of Martinpuieh, eventually absorbed no fewer 
tha'i sev<n of our Service JJattalioiis. The fortunes of 
each up io the end of the month will lie followed in 
turn, commrnein^' on the ri^'l't of the line where the 
Fourteinth were makinjr their first appearanct' m the 
.Somme battle. 

The (ith Division took over the front east of (iiiille- 
mont on the nij;ht of Septend)er 11th. On the foliow- 
in<; day the Fourteenth moved up from Sand Pit N'alley 
to the t'itadel. south of Kricourt. They were in reserve 
wdh the list of tlie Isth Hri;,'adr and did not come 
into action on Sei)temb»>r lath when the division made 
a hurried and unsuccessful attack on the (Quadrilateral, 
a (iirman work about l.(MK» yards east of (iinchy. 

I.att r on the same day the l.sth Hrijjade were put 
in to lusji till' (^tii iilnlali lal from the Hanks and the 
■_'nd Durham l.ii.'ht Infantry ( iifeied the trench called 
I,ow Hoad, bomlxd down d for 1<>() yards and held on. 
'I"he Fourtcentli had waited m (.uillemont durintr this 
li).'htin;r. but wm- s( ut f.iiv.ani at iiit'lit to eoiisohdate 
a position wheri' the railway <rossed the (iinchy-I.i'U/.e 
Wood road. The battalion arrived upon the scene in 
darkui ss and fouml the tisuelas full of dead and 
wounded N'orfolks and Suffolks. After workin},' hard 
until dawn, improving,' the position and ytttiny the 

r I 

The Battle of the Sommc. 1916 

wouiuled away, patrols wen' soiit out to cstiihlish toucli 
with tin- troops f)ii the flanks. Sherwood Foresters were 
located on ttie left just east of (Jiiiehy. and on the rit,'ht 
were the 1st Kin^j's Shropshire Lij,'iit Infantry of the 
K'.th Brigade. 

During the day there was fighting further to the 
north, where the Guards were attacking in the direc- 
tion .A Lesha-ufs; the Fuurteentii waited till dusk and 

>. ,/ •••ft-. ■ 

>-*^ ^"^ i. To Uwy Wo o' 

then began work on an usseinhly trench m front of 
their position, for another attempt was to Ix- made 
upon the Quadrilateral in the early morning of Sep- 
teinher ISth. Soon after nsidnight a heavy hostile 
tiarrage came down. The Durhams dropped pick and 
shovel and, rifle in hand, lined their trenches in readi- 
11. ss for the counter-attack : two liours passed and it 
did not come, so work was resumed until dawn. 
.Vnother dav of waiting followed. The 1st West 




< ■ 


The Durliani I'orccs in tiic lield 

^'i.rkslmr Htt,'t. uiTi- w<\\ iii posilimi <'ii tli'.' Ifft 
;niil at linsk the FourUciitli wiiit to work on a fresh 
a^^tiiilily trciicli T<l vanls furtlur forward. 

The liattalioti liad lost •_' I woiiii(l((i. iiKludint,' (apt. 
S. 1{. .Stnatliild and •-'ml Luuts. K. \V. Tuifs 
and ('. 1'. Hart, Ixforc llic attack start<-d. Kirst canir 
an intense hoinliardnieiit of the dennaii positions liy 
till- British li<a\y artillery. Hain lutfHii to fall hi fore 
r>.:,{) A.M. when the Kourteenth elindied out of tlicr wet 
lienches and ploddt d forward throii^'h the mud hi hind 
a er(c|)iii<,' harraj,'e. The rif,'lit of the hatlalioii was on 
tlie railway, and A and U eoin[)aiiies on this Hank and 
in the centre of the line made ^'ood progress. On the 
hit (ierriian iiiachine-^'unnc rs had survived hoth hi<:li- 
I- ,plo^i\r inifi shrapni I and maintainc i .' '.aili!'i,' liic. 
'I'he advaMeiii<,' line paused and eii}.'a<,'ed tl)e enemy with 
rdle jrrenades, hut the success on the lii^ht took the 
(ieiinans in Hank ard ila- ni:tehine-'.-un-> wre soon m 
our hands, tot'ether with tlie whole of the trench called 
till- Strae-ht and the hatiered (Quadrilateral. The 
advance prt ssed on. North of the railway the Four- 
teenth look prisoners and hondu-d duy-outs in the 
sunken roa<i. and niu lied the forward slope wdhin 
view of the ruins of Morval on the other side of the 
vallcN . Here tlie hattalioii duj,' in, the Yorkshirenu ii 
prolon},'inj:.' the line to the left. Patrols pushed on 
ilowii the hill and found tlie eneni>- slill m force in 
front of Morval. hut no infantry counter-attack 
developed. thoui,'h till' dirmaii j,'uiiners openid upon 
the new position. 

At ni'rht the wlioh' hri>,'ade were ri'Iii'Ved with some 
dillieully and the lind, wet and muddy Fourteenth 
reached hillets at Mt'aulte in tlie course of the follow- 
iiiy day. ('apt. ('. ^I. Hod;,'son, Lieut. \. Milne. '_'iul 
Fieuts. F. Culler. A. Wild and .'il men had Inen killed; 
i.ieiit. (i. F. .Strin-rfellow. I'lid Lieut'-. W. 1). Anderson. 
A. K'othheld and A. ^L Laseelhs a!i<l 1(11 were 
wounded. .\ few of the 'A'l men reporti d missin;i; after- 
wards rejoined. Hetwi en them the Fourteenth ami 
the West ^■orksllires liad eai>tur<d Kit, lUiw.iUnded 
(Germans and six maeliine-j,Mins. The iiiimlier (>f 
woundid, prisoi.i is was very lar^^'c. 

Tlic liattlc ol the Somtnc. 1^16 

A (liaft of SO nun rcccivod ht forf tlic Imf lalioii 
:ii<)\( (1 forwaril a^'aiii on Srptcinlxr "Jlst. 'I'lif ISfli 
l{riL,'a(lf \vcrr n lif\iiv,' tln^ 1st (.iia'-'ls lin^'adi- in front 
of Lfsluiufs. and the I'ourtctnth s|Kiit the iii; ht ui 
ri"-iT\f l)tt\v( en 'rroiics Wood and HiTiiafay Wood. 
'1 !if aN\fiJ s' lie of till' lii-oiUid dr!a\«d the renewal of 
I lie attack, hill on the *\enin>^ of St-pteinher "-'.'ird the 
l''(jnrteenth moved forward and reliexcd their hretliren 
of tlie 'Jnd Diuliani Ijt'hl Infantry and idso tlie lltli 
Ksse\. thus takini; (jV-t the wliole of 'he l)ri;,'ade front. 
1) aiul H i'oni[)arues hehl the line v irli (" and A eoni- 
l)anies in sn])])ort. The position wis jnst south of the 
(iinchy-I^eslio ufs road and tlie HUh ilritjade were on the 
rin:ht. I'ow 'I" Tench on the left heyond the '■oad was 
^tili ocenpied hy the (ierinans. 

Hovti!'- shell lire continued all ni^ht. and at dawn 
of .Sei)te!nii','r •-' Ith the derrnan infantry advanied under 
cover of a liercer bomttardinent. Tln^y did not reach 
ft)e trenches of the Fourtrentli and the H'.tli Kipcide 
line, thou^'h penetrated, was soon restored. 'i'hc 
Britisli ;.'unlire undoubtedly [irevented further eiieinx 
attacks, hut many shell"-: fell short into the trcnciies (,f 
the Fourteenth, and one killed ('apt. (). .\. Herd. 
Later in the day on the front of the left company "-'nd 
Lieut. Ilellii r effected the capture of I (iermans on 
patrol, and at nii,'ht tlie hattalioii were relieved hy th(^ 
•_'nd Li;,'ht Fnfantry and the 11th Essex. 
Losses in th.e ranks had only amounted to one man 
killed and 10 wounded. 

Next flay the two battalions in the line participated 
in tlie fjeneral attack alon<,' the wliole Allied front from 
the Somme ri\-er to >L'irtinpuich. The 1st West 
Yorkshire Pei^t. had to make yood the village of 
Leshorufs. and A and ^^ er. npanics of the Fourteenth 
were to assist ii^ this operation. The weather was tine 
and tlie attack was so successful that these companies 
'.vere not called upon. The Fourteenth sat in reserve 
jiositions all day under a fieavy (lernian homhardment, 
. liieh kill, d '.h'.'\ Lieut. T. X. I'.ohinsiiU and "J men 
and woun>!ed ('a|>t. P. A. Tn climan, '2nd Litu!. 
.L (;. U. I'acev and :r.' others. On the ev«'ninij of the 
•Ji'itli ![ie Durhanis relieved the Vorkshiremen on the 



;. i 


The Durham Forces in the Meld 

.rruu.i.l tluit lui.i lu-in vv..n. AH fuur cunipanics were 
put .1. the fn.nt line. wind, ran just east of th.' nuns 
;,f l.esl,„ufs, and here th. battalion renuune.i until he 
,.arlv n.ornmt: of S.ptein»-er -Hh when the • nd 
Sherwood Foresters of the Tlst Hr.fjade te.ok over he 
portion. Dunn- this period the (iennan shell I're 
luv.r eease.l an.! losses ainount.^.f to 1:5 killed and 
"nd Lieut. U. E. Hrvant aii.l •>>.) svounded. On the 
",stn an eneniv aeroplane lleNV over the trtnelies and 
was driven off 1)V Lewis ^un and rille tir. . 

In the evening: of September the l-ourtcen h 
arrivd at billets in MOaulte aj:ain. and moved on the 
following dav to VUIe-su>-Anere to por-anise Mud pre- 
pare atram for battle. Luut .-Colonel C. K Menz.ies 
1)S() had Kone back for a mueh-nee.l.d rest aii.l 
Major J. H. Kosher. M.l'.. now m command. 

The "Oth Division did not occupy a portion of the 
battle front on S.| l.-.tli. but were there ready 
fo'- action and on the f.aiowm- day lent the M^t 
Hri.'ade to the (;uanls. who were following' up their 
in.tml success. The Kleveuth left Meruourt on Sep- 
teml>er 12tii for Sand Pit Valley, and did some road- 
,„akin.' bef<.rc movin- to the Citadel for the ni-ht. 
On tlu'l.lth the l)attalion marched up m battle order to 
Talus Hois, in a ravine east of Carnoy. and waited tlure 
.lurinu the whole of the followm- day. Hun he 
(;uards pioneer liattalu.n were relieved at Herna ay 
Wood, the division taking' over from tin- (.uards tlie 
line on the left <.f the Oth Division. There was much 
work for the Eleventli to .lo m preparation for tlie 
next advance. After repairing' roads an.i tracks p)mfr 
forward throu<:h Trones Woo.i, iW men were employee 
for two niflhts on ttie assembly trendies needed wes of 
I esbaufs It was a lomj lournev to and from the hnc 
and the w.'ather was very bad. but neither otlicers nor 
men spared themselves, and the task was tuushed by 
Sentember -'Oth. The t.attalion moved Imck to Sand 
i>,t ViUev but l.-.o m.n had to spend the m^'ht in 
.ii.'L'iii.' a'lu .V tr.neh undc the nose, of tlie enemy m 
,,rd.r To straiL'hten the front line. When the (.uards 
• •ame m aj,'ain next <iay prejjarat ions lor tue a.iacK 



The Battle of tlic Sommc, 1<^>16 

were practR'ally c'i)ni|)lvtf. The Elf\tiitli had lost less 
than ;Jt> 1111.11. wliicli speaks voliiiins for tin- skill aiul 
Wisciplirif uitli wiiicli tlu'ir daiii^tTous tasks had Ik in 

AftiT a frw da\s' work on roads aiui \{.]\. dumps 
the l'ilr\tiitli caiuc forward to tin- Mal/liorn \all(y 
and licijaii the unpleasant task of cltanint; tn-nchrs. 
A track ironi (iimliv tnwai is Morval \\as rcpaind. hut 
till- division Were now liandin;.' over this sector to the 
l''reiich and tiie hattalion inarched hack m the rain 
oil the e\(nin<; of tiie 'JTth to rest in the open at Talus 
IJois. On the followiiii,' da\ a draft of i'> men arrived. 
A nio\e was made to > hell-holes and trenches in Troiies 
Wood on Scpti inl)er 'J'.Mh and ne\t day. whiii the 
•_'(ith Division relieved the ".'Ist heyo:i(l (lUeudeeoiirf . 
till' Pioneers marched up hy j)latoons and oc('ii])ied 
third-li:ie tretich(s \vith two companies. (' .-md 1) 
iiimpanies were located at Walerlot l-'arm. 

The Tenth liad a pleasant time at Hornoy durini; 
the early days of Septemlxr. and the kindly French 
villat'iTs were sorry to sec them i,'o. Hixouacs at I)er- 
naiii'ourt were reached in heavy rain on Septemher I'JtIi. 

The lull Division had a share in fie hit; attack of 
Se])temlier l.lth. licint,' on the left of the (iiiards and 
on the right of tlie Ust Division, who were op[)osife 
I'lcrs. 'I'hc t;<rd liriyade were m rc--(r\e and the 
reiitli moved to the vicinity of Frieourt on the niijlit 
of the lull. Here liattle stores were distrihiited. aiid 
next inorninn the battalion moved u[) to the familiar 
I'ommiers Hedouht and on to Hernafay Wood. In the 
afternoon the Tenth were ordered to ocein'y trenches 
east of the Loni/iieval-Flers road. The way led 
lhrou<,'h Dilville Wood, ami altlioni,di s men were 
killed by one shell there were no other casualties from 
the persistent fire of the enem\' until the position was 
reached. Hut j,'iiTi-pits fur British batteries wtTe beinj,' 
diii; between the trciichcs of the two front eonij)anies 
iiid the rest of the Tenth, and the enemy artillery <'on- 
lentrated aei'ordin^'ly. I.ieut. .1. C 1'. Hark is was 
killed here, together with a eomi)any-serj,'eant-niajor 
ind several others. 


r.- f! 

p I 





Durham I'orccs in tlu 


jinil it 

lloa.l >.Kl 11..- n.a.l ( <•'""''"'"■,,,,." ,„tt,.' 

1:™;:-..; '■;' ;;'■ \^:,;:- r;t'f:.;:^;;t';,.™:;' 

ririiiiiii shrannc on tlif N\a\ . till rin.i".<p>'> . 


(W,\,r^ u<rc r<criv.-< to attack at U.2.. a.m. wmi 
,,J..:Kn.akm, through tlu. (;.rddof,nccs.^ 

Hinv was v.rv -luut wlu-n 1h- Mriti-li h.aN> art.ller> 
"h. ^i ut tlu- lIo,nhar.l.u.nt .1,<1 no^ sn;,.. " /nm j^e 
,1 C.nnniis ( veil ( isdaiiifd t) takf 

nml of th. tr'nchrs of tb. T. nth and was ucak 
,. . nd; tlu' Dnrham nun went 

f van t th.. appointr.l lu.ur, tlu.uj,'!. as soon as tlu- 

■ .'mc u tlH- open there eame heavy ,naehn,e-Run 
1' fr n t e front 'md from the On they went 
nrt irom u ....prv vard. hut when nearly a 

'""■' t' f annle h..d h n ^a nml the survivors had to 
l^eek ;^^•; •'. tlthlles and stay there, I^fore m.d- 
1 VrlL „f (;..rmans were seen eomni<z forward to 

^'C^^d hn; rom rdireetion of.le Transloy, but no 
'u,U;^>t.a..k was a,te,.p...d. The after, Kum pass^ 
•md then eame orders for another «^, a^*^ /'^. ^,^ 
an 1 irun p, -- ,. ., Colonel Morant collected aV.out 
* oo";"' wl i I in iuded all employed at battalion 
a.l ar'ters In. onlv rema.ninf: officers were the 
^{yS! Lieut. F. A. Stewart and the bondMU^ 


l„.,xv enou.^h ennsiderinu' the ar.a to be covered am 
1, hVrl the Effect of shellmg out n.ost of the surv.vors 



&■ '-'£ i 

fe 1- j 





V i\ ; 







ft It 














: U 


■ ;S 


J Lt 



: i 

; ^1 


riic Durham I-orccs in the Field 

of tlu- first attack still liolilmt,' '.n iii fmnt. Hut 
f.-S.-M. C. Wak.liain and tlif niniiiiiit ^ of i (oiiii.aiiy 
^tayi.i till the .v.niii;: nttack ranir iij) to them. It 
a.,t' nn fiirtiicr. Tlir cnrpin-,' Larra-.' was aj:aui 
r^r.rii. •:;•,;,■ an. I the (..iinaii marl ini-v.niis v,.r.' as 
actiw as l)rf(>n-. With ni> troops in innncliatc siip- 
jMUt an<l l>oth tiaiiks uni)rot.ct(il a with.lrawal was 
ni.vit il.l. . an.! afl.r dark the survivors of th.- l.attalion 
f,li hack airl put Bull's Hoa<l in a state of defence. 
M-,n>- ot (! , woiiritiiil were :hen ledu-ht in. 

The position of the Somersets on the ri^'ht was n(.t 
known. Ser.rt. .1. Donnelly' was sent across with a 
message to tlieir coTninandin-: ol!ieer. and in the dark 
,.„,.onntered a (;.rnian outpost. •• Are von the .^omer- 
s.'ts-'" he asked, and rceeivd a ImMet m the arm. 
N.vertheh ss h,- e\(!itndlv d-livcnd his tnessar,<- and 
\o!iint<-cre(i to take a reply. 

The -Jis! Division V !.• foming i;m in I'lief and 
the T.iith hanihd ove- the p.o^ition l.efore dawn. A 
Nerv weak hatlalion reached I'oninners Hed.ouhl duriiif,' 
th,' niorniie^ of >m ptemher ITth. I.os,. s m killed. and missing ainountci lo list, hesides I.i'uts. 
\V. U. .Jam=s a!,d I'. A. St,^^,i•^ ?i d I,. :;'-.. A. D. 
WhiH'c anr! .1. (Jrahain killed; -.'nd I.a uL W . .1. 
Clappeii nio:;-ll'. woni.d.'d ; ;n)(l I,;, nl. Col. I!. M. 
S Morant. Major 1?. .1. Hrvant. (apt. J. (.. I'arr. 
I,,., its (. t; >. Kit/.'crahl and (.. <•• W ornum and 
•j'nd lae.its. A. K. Turner. .1. N. l'. ^\'''»> >*'- ",; 
Wats.n. H. Storev, I'. .1. ISiehards and Maithin-l all 
wounded. The c."imnian<iin^ oilicer was .il.Ic lo hrii't: 
the Tenth out of the iin.'. and after aln.iit ten days at 
Hoiien came hack and assumed .ommand ajiaiii. 

•»nd laeut. A. !■'-. Tuna r. who ii.HJ I. <1 his platoon 
with conspicuous skill and coiira;.'.'. was awarded tlu' 
Mihtarv Cro^s. C.-S.-M. Wakehani and Scr-t 

Donnelly rec.ived flic nistin;j;uishcd foiiducl M<<lal, 

. I ,., ,,„ ,1 iH.iiif crivilrMdit .in.l srrvliiK «illi tlio with Ih.- T<iilli. I.M<;uirUH w.Tf ni hI.- i.l.. ul Iw ly 
,„oilU un.rtt; rt.-niriling a ' .1. -.rt, r ■ callcl noiimllv. s.u.l to 
■ iricl ..( :, «r,:.l .l.:.l ..f kit. Uv this tl.lK- h." Wi.» :. romp.ny- 
vrSnnl-n'd.'r v.ith n CM. nn.l h.-r .,,.1 MM Morv the cml «( the 
w:ir 111- I'ivcn a o.inmisMon .iml vm'II tin-\ (.rnss. 




The Battle of the Somnie, 1^16 

a-, (lid I,.iii((-C Mr|i|. \V. IIoolc. wlio carrii-d iiRssa^'cs 
aiiii Iiriini:li1 in a woiiiulcd man iindiT luavy iirc. 
I'tf. Dixnn also displayed j,'rcat j,'allaiitry. He was 
udiindcd uliili' IcndiiiLr 1-ifiii. Stewart in the open, 
anil afterwards walked al)()ut nnde, ' avy niaelnne- 
L'liti tire fetcliiiii.' liandai.'es and watt r. I'.-S.-M. \V. 
( M()i)er was awarded tiie DisI iimuisjied C ntiduet Med,-'. 
Witli two otiiiis lie diijr fur twii hours under heavv 
-hell lire ill onler to I'eseiie a man reportt d Iniried. 

Th> ♦itth Iki^'ade of tin 'Jlsl l)i\ision concentrated 
111 ar Poniiniers Hedonht on tiie afternoon of Sep- 
tenilier l.')tli, and came under the orders of the list 
hixismn thai e\i nmir. '11,,- Lri'/ade were to he used 
f>r a fresli attack on tiie (iird system of trenches west 
■ if (lUeiidicourt. 

At two o'clock on tlie mornm<,' of tin K'.th the 
iiftec ntji started for the line. Pro<.'ress m tiie dark 
.lion;.' tracks and roads con<,'t sted with all th<' tratlic 
of hattic was \( i\' slow. Fn-ti ad of heiiii/ in position 
li\ dawn of Siplenilicr K'.tli. it was ").;$() \.m. hv the 
t-lne the place of dep!oyni( lit Was reached. The '.ttll 

i\.().\M,J. were then in the sunkiri roail east of Flers 
winch led hack to (iinehy; luit the 1st Kast Yorkslnre 
Ifi'L't-. I'ctirr servi <i h\ their irnides than were the 
Fifteenth, had arrived m front of the Durhams and 
occupied Kii rs Trench. Colonel IV-dJey's men were 
in sli. ll-hojcs just h<hind. hut as they had to form tlic 
riirlit of the attack it was coiisideralih later l)ef<irc the 
assaultint; troojis were in position ( ast of tlie southern 
side I. f Klers villatrc. \'ery little was known ..f thi- where- 
abouts of the t roops of the 1 1st ni\ision or of tin- eiiemv. 
At S.J.") A.M. (' and 1) compaTiies moved forward to 
jret into closer touch with A .uid W eoinpanies. who 
Were to lead the way. Half an hour lat< r the shrajinel 
harraj,'c eame down nearly tlirei-ijiiarters of a mile 
hryorid tlie hattalion, who then advanced to tlie attack. 
\ storm of (ierman hitrli c\plosi\e hurst hehiiid tlietn. 
tiiit shrapnel and machinc-<;un hullits Muwte them 
• ilniost from llif start. .\fler eovcrmi.' atiout lialf a 
Miile the I.esli(eufs road Was r. iclicd and the line re- 
organised. Troo|)s of the list Division were found to 

i t 


,. M 

'I'hc Du'-^iani l-orccs in the ImcIcI 

Ik- II! the vi.inity. The riftrciitli. witli the '.tth 
K.O. Y.L.I, on lliiir left, went tui a.uain into an tvir- 
iiuTcasin;,' liail of shell, niaclnnc-^'un and rifle fire. 
Whrn at'^last the survivors of llir two lialtalioiis eanie 
to a lialt in slirll-holes some of the Fifteenth wer(> 
v>'iiiin 7(1 yards of tiie (Jerman tren-'hes. The \ ork- 
shiremen were not tiuite so near. l>ut had overrun a 
few advanced jjosts of the enemy and (oIlectKl a f.w 
prisoners. The men lay m the mud at the limit of the 
:;ds,,;Me throii^'hout llie aft.rnoon, tvery liieautious 
nidv.-mint drawiiij: (.< rmaii fire. Tiiey could not in<ii- 
cate ttieir position, for th<' red flares tiny earned were 
to.) .lamp to ignite an<i the Mntish harra<:e fell alike on 
friend and for. Orders for another attack were issued, 
hut there was no chance of success and it was never 
made. At dusk came a withdrawal, the Fifteenth 
first (iceupvmi,' Fh'a Treiicli. and at dawn on the 17th 
the sunken' part of the (.ineliy road. Th<re was {,'reat 
(•.)nj,restinn 111 all the positions around Fhrs and when 
the^'rwentieth hej/an to arrive later m th«' niorniiif,' the 
Fiftc.'iith moved hack a^'ain to a position south of the 
villai:e, uh( re ihe H st of the day was s|ient under heavy 
shelftire. The hattahon were n<iw onl\ •-'<•<> stroiit;. 
•-'nd Lieuts. (.. II. Wesselhoefl. ('. K. (>• l.raham. K. W. 
(i.or^'c and (.. A. (.arlaiid ami Capt. F. K. W. Icli had 
fallen, --'nd l.ien . \. K. .ricoh diiil from his w(.iinds. 
.Vmon;: th( wounded were Capts. .1. K. I.. Cockhurn. 
(i. ('. Mell and F. .1. >Viddowsuii; I.icuts. C. F. lUeaden. 
M f. (adiutaiit). W . C. Warr<n and W. Fdmondson : 
•Jnd Fieuts. .]. Key. >F |{. .I..i''"i^'' ''• •"'■ '''V^ ""!* 

>F i{. I'easi-. 'hree clhel .ilhc-T^. 'Jlld Fleuts. A. S. 

Mnilev. MX .. M. II. (.rant and IF Hoylev. were miss- 
iiiL'. prcMimahly killed, and losses m the ranks 
amounted lo ll'.i. Tin •-e casualties, the hea\iest in the 
liriL'ade, liore tiaL'ie w:' !■) the del ( rmiiiat lou with 
winch til. FifL.nth had (ioii.' h>rw;inl. In Ih" wonls <.f 
tht liii>.';idier. ■■ Sn.'.'css was lieyiiinl I lie jDW.r of the 
\(,\ lust troops. All dill e\e. llentiv ."" 

•Jiiil Fi.ut. M. K. .loplin^' was tie- Military 
Cross his eniil •■..uraire an.l tuf lea.h-rship diiriiiL' 
tl„. attae . Th> r. w. re num.'r.nis r 'ecmimenda- 
tioTis f..r ;rallantr\-. melii<lm<r-'id Fieuts. F. .F CartTnan. 


The Battle of the Soinmc, 1916 

M.C, E. H. (,eor{,'e (killed), M. H. l\;>sv (wounded), 
and K. \\ . I'nt 'hard ; C.-S.-M. L'.C.roum ami t'.-C^.-M.-S. 

A. Small; Scr^-ts. J. T. Uoo[h, F. Hush. 11 (killed), J. 
I atiiaeh. .1. (•n-ag. (.. Mcrhcrsoii. K. Lloyd and J. (;. 
Walton (killed); Lanee-SerKt . T. lluiiton (wounded) 
and C'or|)l. (i. hixon; Lanct-l'orpls. M. Hrctwood and 
T. A. Ncedhani; J'l.s. J. II. C.ardner, T. Leonard. H. 
\attn\ss and W. Hieliardsnii. 

rh<- Fifteen! 1) uire withdrawn to I'omniitrs Uedouht 
upon tlie evenui'.' of September 17th and moved to 
tints at lii'eordel next (la\ to n si until the •.'I'lid. The 
•.'1st Division liad now takm ov.-r tin- Hth Division 
front, where the (.ird tKnchrs and (lUeiideeourt were 
stdl in (ierrnan hands. 

The (iMli Hri!,rade relieved the (Vind in the front luif 
1). fnrf dawn of St-pteinher •.'JJrd. Now alioiit ;}.")() strong.', 
till- Fifteenth oeeupird the lift of the hue. .Xeroplaucs 
lia<i n ported no siua of the enemy in dird 'I'reiieli 
uppi.sit.-. Iiiit [tatrols who tried to effect an <iiirv were 
tired nil and fell hack. On the myjit ,>f the I'lth the 
I'ifteciith ;,'ave way to troops of the lliilji lirii/ade, and 
uere 111 reserve duniie the attack on the fdjlouinj,' after- 
noon. The enemy wire was stdl stroni,' and his machine- 
«iins were iii.Mih.iucd. so that the assault made i«.o Ik ad- 
wa\ hut cost many !i\<s. W'h. n the Fifteenth, eomintr 
"I" I'V ^'■■■"y of (,ap Trench. r< placed the 1st Lineoln 
l{'i,'l. Ill the front line at iiit,'h» the other units of 
the (IHh HriL'ade were witlnlrawn. and th.' Leicester 
trnops on the hit wt re i(Iic\((l hy fresh hattalmiis. 
The attack was io he rt sumed next day. employing,' 
difh rt nt iiiethiids which nffcred (freater i)r(is|)ect of 
^ucee-.s and at a smaller f)nce. I'oint ['> on the map 
\^as III Hritish hands, and pmnt <,t| on the riLjIit was 
lield h\- liomhers (if the (.iiards. .\t a ijiiartcr past 
se\-. u on tht iiiorniiiL,' of Sipliinlier •_'(.!h a female tank 
• purtini,' macliine-yiin hullets came lurclnn^r down the 
' iiemy line from I'uint I,"), follow, d hy of the 
l-eieest. rs. Low overhead tl. w an a.r.ip.laiic with 
active L.'wis j:uii. an. I tli..s. of th,- affri-:hted enemy 
who were left alne so.m surrender* «i. Nearly (0(1 
(icrmans. iiK'hnlinL' s. N.ral otlieers. \\,r< thus taken. 

\d\ an.iiif,' o\cr the op. n aliout mn.' in th.- inormiif,'. 


t ■ 


Tlic Durham l-orccs in the I'icld 

tlir J-iltrcuth ..rcliplnl til. -'a l-l nvc, I tlVli.-h .'ilKi l-uslu'd 

f„iwanl patruls. I'.rfmv .ni.l-day (.ml Siip|u,rt Irtncli 
was rra.l...! au.l pa.s, ,i, ai,.i \Ur a-lvaur. stil con- 
tiuurd. Dunn- th.' aftcriuu.n Ihr Durham^ ^'nt well 
fnruanl on tl.r -n.iiiHl .ast ..f (iuru.l.cmirt, %vilh ti.f 
loth K () V.I..I. on thi ir lift aii-i tl.c Lnrrstrrs t!.r(.uf,'h 
an<l iuvuud thf Villa-.-, ^vh. rr thr tank i.a.l continutjl 
,„ p.n.l.r -.-..,1 S-IV..V till li.r pctn.l was .xluiustr.l. 
In the .vfninjr thi- C.ttli J{n<,'a(lc wrc ri-lu\.<l and Uic 
Fifti-.nth spent !!.<• ni-ht t.a •!: .,n llu- (.Uf u.Ur..urt- 
l.slu.ufs I I. The task of Ihr division was now 
fi.dfd and .»■ l.attalion foiiiul tlu'ii.stiv,s at Poinini.Ts 
:,.,a,„'|,v tlir .nd of thr inontii. Tlu' last .■ij,dit days 
l.;d iu.r.asr.i tlu- rasuaUy list hy r>l. iK'si.i.^s Lu-ut. 
E M. Cartd- and -'nd Luut. M. H. .loplint;. MA.. 
w„un<lrd. thr latt.r aci.i.ntally. and -.'nd Luut. 
J. II. C. Sclioluld wounded and mis>inu. 

On SepteiMiMT Kith the H st Division iuean to come 
hit<. 111.' I'attle line. The VJiJrd liri-,'ade took ..ver the 
front on that n,f.'ht, the Twentieth relievm;,' tlie .th 
Kin"'s l\e>d. in support lieiiehes west of l-oii^Mieval. 
Hevoiid IVlville Wnud were the -rMd Middlesex and 
\]i(' nth (^iie. n's, .-onlronled hy the Switeh Line wiiieh 
was the I'Uter drieliee iil Flels. 

\s snnii as daikn-ss f.ll u|)on lltli the 
Weaisiders were hu.v. C'apt. (.. M.'Nieholl took for- 
ward r conipnnv and' two i-latuniis ,,f A conipanx . wlio 
,,Mss,-d Ih: .M-h thr (,)u.<n's 111 the froiit hue and <iu^' 
a ,.haiii of posts in '• No Man's Land." W lien (layli^rht 
preveiittd furtlur movement C eoni|.any with their 
!,, WIS ,r,|P. , .-. in lu.ed 111 oeeupalion. On the lu-.t ni^'ht 
tlu- Tw, ,;!lrth leheN.d the (^1(111% ail. I the p.osts Were 
link, d up. eoiumum.Mlion ti.n.l;<'s .hi- t.. tlu- 
old fn.iit line. Th.' \Vesl K.ids ha.l p.rforme. a 
similar ta^k on the n-ht, so tii.' nl;ole fr.Mit was thus 
ad\aii(ed l.v KMi 1,1 uitlu.Mt o|>p.>sition a 
'.ran, .d .rn.un.l u'm. h pi.A-.-.l \.ry valuahl.' to the 
atlaekmj: tn.ops. lapt. MeNnholl was ^.,^ru th." 
l»istinL'Uis!i. ! Servi.v for his skilful hatulhi • ..f 
the .lOi rat ion. 

Th. Twenti.lh w.r.'\.-d m th. ir turn on the 


The Battle o\ the Somiiic, 1916 

f n 

I'.iglit iif till- i;uii a;i(l .iiint'I ;it puiniuit is Rr(ii'ul>t 
tnrlv mi tlif fulliAuii^ mnriiiiii,'. C'a^'iaitio caused li 

the cmiiu' s li 

firassinu \\\v iiiiliuiril i imn killed and 


A. F. (, 



SIruuHis and 'M) more 

uuiinded. Tiiat sann rveiiiiiLr the Wiarsiders moved 
U|) to til.' Cheek Line hehiu<l the eresl of the rid^'e 
lood liie ruined villaj,'ts of Hazentin-le-Cirand 
Hostile shell lire aeeouiited for '27> 

'.Mitre s 



i Loiij,'iit'val 

.lllll W.lllIK 



he \va\ 

At (;.2() A.M. 

>. ptcndier IJtli the other hri^'ades of the 41st Division 
Orward with the tanks, hroke the derman line 



t f 

1 II 

If Vlilai'e ol 



ceeoini' p 

I>">K' I 

ace with the 


r\v AealaniitTN on 

till- left, l-'oiiouin'' the advance tlie 

I'wcntieth eaiiie iij) throiii.h a hea\y i-nemy harrajre 
1 liy evening: oeeiij)!' d tiie old front trenches astride 




i-rs n 

ad. Losses in the ranks on this 

diiv amounted to H and 'Jmi Lieut. F. t. .\rkless was 


All was not wt 11 Ixyoiid Fhrs. More {,'round had 
yet to lie gained, ami the other liti;,'ades of the division 


spent and not e\tn ui touch with each otlnr. 


iias already hei ri related how the fltth I{rij,'Hde were 
l>rou;,'ht in, maile a fresli advance on tlio mormnj,' of 
>i[»t<inher KUh, and failed with liloody losses. The 
Wearsiders weri' 

to n 

-ide of Flers. 

sent for during; this action and .lad 
ei.'otiate a heavy (i( rnian harraj^e on the soutla rii 

to arrive a 

ronlusion, i(>r it wa 

he null o 

f t 



During' the morninjj the Tweiituth hci/an 

here tilt re was mm h 

and reorJ;ani*^e 

1. lU 

m the 

t t he forwaitl posilioiis. w 

s dillieult to eollec 

le manv o 

ittalions ntiw in\<il\i( 

Irelielli eallei 

i u 

ii\i]niu\ wt're eslalili^heil 

o\ am 

1 I 

o.\ on 

the north side of th 

\illa{,'e, tilliiii,' a uap lutwieii twn com|ianies of the 
(^uet iTs. I'olom 1 Ihds with the n st of t!ie 'rwcntieth 
the Minkeii road ieadiiij,' to (.iiiehy, ficni 
ant rt imiants of tlie I'ifteenlh 


dneh position tl 

le <Ml 

hail lieen withdrawn. During' the rest of the da\'. the 

consolidation uint 

iiii:lit and all next day the work of 

t>n until r hea\ \ ami increasini: shell lire. 


riie after- 

n of the 17th was particularly trying for the Tweii- 
ti'lit. who had to einiure ;in lutt nve lioinliardnient of 

.\t nii'lit a eoimter- 


1 exploMNf ami tear sin IN. 



i i 

The Durham Forces in tlie Field 

attack was cxprctfd hut did nut ((Hiic, and trodps of 
tlic "j.'jtli DivisioM iiiaiiai.'cd to tfftct a ditlicult nluf. 
TIk^ roiupamt's of the 'rwciiticth iiiarclit d liack thiou^di 
pitch ilarkiicss, pf)iiriiif,' rain and considcrahlc slicll lire. 
When in the eiiriy iiiomin^' tin- Montauhan hue was 
reached, tlu men were j,'!..<l to lie down and sleep in 
the nuKh The hist two (hiys had cost tlu liattahon 
lOM casualties, hesides Capts. 1*. Spi lie r (.idjutant), 
1). I'^. Jessop and H. Hisdon ; Lieut. C. K. Hopkinson 
and '-'nd Lients. T. M. Fh'tcher. \V. Mitchell and F. 
\\a\iiiaii, \^ ho Were all wounded. 

The Twentieth now reortranis( il and sp.ent eiyht days 
in attack training,' near Hicordej. Uii ^ipteinher 'JTtii 
the hattaiion moved up 1)\ Montauhan and relie\cd the 
stii Kii!;r"s m reserve trenches near l-'leis next da\'. 
The enemy siicii tire hud died down here, hut carryin<,' 
parties to the front, whiih was now Leyond (iutiHh- 
coiirt, cost M killed and 10 woun<led. In the afternoon 
of the ;5()th two com[)anies relieved two companies of 
th'' (Queen's in the line. Tills da\liL,'ht operation was 
oscr-hold, for the watchful enem>' shelled I) company 
to some purpose. In the e\enin',' the other two com- 
|)anies completed the rt licf h\' occupyiiifx support 
positif)ns and the niyhf was spent in imi>ro\ino the 
new line which ha<i heen dii^ heyond 'iinl Support 
trench. Losses amounted to ;i.s, includinj.' Luiit. (.'. K. 
Hopkinson, woimdid ajrain, and the commandin;,' 
oUicer, who sustained a iast\- wound in ttie wrisi. 
Lieut.-C'ol. J. \V. Hills, M.P., had led the Twcn- 
tietli with j^rcaf coiiraj^c and coolm ss diiriiii: their lirst 
lii}^ expcrieticc of acti\e warfare, and his departure 
was rcjrretti'd hy all r.mks. 

Tiie 'J.'ird Division returned to tlic hattle mid-way 
throutrh Siptemher, when the Thirteenth were at once 
lent to the tTth Division, tlun attaikiie,' the (Jerman 
positions cast of Hi;.'li Wood. Heacliin;,' Hecourt Wiiod 
from Milhncourt on .^eptemler l">th. the Thirteenth 
marclied up at m!_'ht to trenches l)iliind the Londoners 
near Hazi'iitm-le-lirand. Tlie task of the hattalioi! was 
t(» furnish carryin;.,' and workini: parties hy (hiy and 
nifrht f.'r the 1 lOtli and Ulsf Hnirailes, who wiTc 



The Battle of the Somme, 1916 

li<,'l!tin<; liard and lusmj: li<iivily. On tlic iiij,'ht of Stp- 
tnnlit-r ITtli *_'ri(l Lifiit. \. L. I). Heart was in cliar^'f of 
a party taking/ honilis to tin- (Itli Londons in tlic lun'. 
A hostile l)arraj,'e came down in the darkness, kilhii;,' 
and wonndnij,' many of the men. 'I'o e<.'lleet the snr- 
vivors was no li^dit task, imt "Jnd I-ient. Heart j,'ot 
to;,'eflier ahont lifty h( fore he fell tnortally wounded. 
.'^er^'ts. n. ('rad<ioek. D.L'.M., and Kittes di<l not know 
the way. and tli*' f,'ni(le roidd not Ijc found, hut tliey 
niana^'ed to Lfet the party to it> destmation. For this 
i.'((od work each received tlie Military Medal. 

Haiti fell steadily throu<,'hout the l'.»fh. In the 
iiiorninj,' tiic i+otii Hrijjade reported that aii olije'tives 
li;id heeii captured, hut that the (icrmans liad counter- 
littaeked and L'aiiieil the junction of the FKrs line and 
the communication trench called Drop .\!!ev. The 
riiirteeiith were called upon to assist in n'jU'aunnef this 
point, and t'olonel Lindsay lent B company under 
I'apt. 1). 11. Clarke. M.C. The scene of the tisrhf that 
followed was rather less than a mile n(»rfli-east of Hn/h 
\\ood. At (!.t.') r.M.. after ,i j reliminary honduirdment 
h\' .Stokes !,'uns, two lioinliinir attacks were made, oiie 
u\) Drop .\lley and the otiier up Klers front line. On 
the ri^dit the New Zealaiiders joined in up Flers sup- 
port trench, juil Lieut. .\. Hudspeth led the advance 
up Drop Alley, and went 7(» yards hefore reachinj,' 
a heavily wired liarrieade held in stn iii:th hv the 
enemy. Mills luimlis were hri d over the heads of the 
sloriniTs, hut a stroii;,' party of (Jermaiis counter- 
attacked over tlic open and tfic Durlianis had to fall 
hack to their starting point. .\fter a l( ti minutes' 
stnij,';,'le the other y)arfy, led liy I'nd Lieut. Mitchell, 
Won i;{() yards of Flers Trendi. .Shorta^'e of hom'os 
stoppe<i further |)r()j,'ress, Imt a liarricadi was erectid 
m the face of a hea\y cross tire of (icrinan lionihs. Hv 
some miseh.ince the Hritish t/uns were tirintr upon the 
cajitured portion id the trench and continued |o do so 
for four hours. Twice the hairicade was di inolished 
iy our own shells and another was e\ eiitii.illv Imilt 
H) yards furtlier t>:iek. This was lield till relief came 
si\ hours later. H rejoitied the h.aftalion, 
now hack in Hccoiirt Wood, on the morning' of Sep- 



The Durham Forces in tlie licid 

tniiliir •JUili. liaxiiiy sust.niKii .'id i.onalties, lirMflr:, 

■Jill! i^ltill. lIuiKiHtll wlio \\.1S Iill^SIII!,'. 

rilf "Jol'l Dkiskiii liild lrll(\((l till- i'liti I'llth aliir 
till capture (if Mart inpuicii. and uii SiptciiilHr •-"Jiui 
the Tliirn t iitli moved up to support positions. C'oloiul 
].lIld•^av was sli^ddly wouudeii on the followinj,' day. 
On till- "Jltli J) eoinpany n lu ved a coiiipany of the 
11th N.F. in the northern outsicirts of Martinpuieh. 
aniorij: the vsounded on this day luin<,' "Jiiil Ijeut. F. C. 
Allan and (apt. .1. A. I,. Oowiiey, wlio was aide to 
remain at duty. Hy tlu' murninf,' of .Septemhi r "JHtli 
the' whole hattalion were m tlie Ime, hut at iiif.'ht the 
Tdtli lirij,'ade came up and the Thirteenth witiidrew 
lo Mi'eourt Wood oiiee more. 

lOUttl \\ as (lOOOIUM \^ M I I tin .I^Mli ^ .-«t/l I lltljll IM ICIM f 

l)i\ision. 'i'o the nortJ! of the villa-je a sunk'-n road, 
the rums of a windmill and other trendies were in our 
iiands. forming,' a salient whu h reached out to "JtUh 
.\\eiiue. Tills was a fortified line which crossed 
tlie Hapaume road south of I'oiireelelte and ran north- 
eastward down the slope till it linked up with the 
(ierman defences just soi:thi of le .^ars. Tl-.e enemy 
was known to lie in I'tlth .\venue, (hou<:h reports \aried 
reixanlin;.' his stren;.'th. 

The Ts\elfth lost several killed and wounded l>y 
sh. 11 til-.- on S( jitemlier 'j;trd. At niidit an oliicer and 
two nun made a loiifj and careful reconnaissance of 
■Jfilh .\\enue, which was found \o lie lit Id in force. 




The Battle of the Sommc, 1916 

Orders were rcceivrd to <'apturo tins trtucli, and at 
s A.M. on till' "Jl-tli two platoons and a stronj; i)ond)iuf; 
party advancrd undir comt of a thick mist. Hut as 
soon as tlie attackers topped a rise in the f,Mound and 
came within sight of their ol)jeetive, they were met 
with a deadly tire from ritles and maeliine-t^uns. Five 
men and "Jnd Lieut. J. IJolloni were killed and "JH 
wouiitled before a withdrawal was effected, and then 
tile line held by the Twelftli was I, icely bombarded. 

At .J A.M. next morninjj the battalion were relieved, 
liut had to return to the line in the course of the day 
on account of the heavy losses sustained liy the lOtli 
N.F. in another abortive attack. The enemy artillery 
was still active and when flie liritisli {,'uns concentrated 
upon '-'fith Avenue next morninf: the tiermans retaliated 
ii{)on the village, the Factory (support) line and the 
sunken road, ealletl (iun Pit Alley, whicli led from 
Martinj)uich to Coureelettc. In the evemng a patrol 
i)f tlie Twelfth, under -.'nd Lieut. A. T. Hunt, found 
much of •Jtith Avenue deserted, though (;<rnian Very 
lights were discharged from two points in the trench. 

liefore dawn of September '27th the Twelfth were 
n lieved, liaving sustained ;j.") more casualties. After a 
day of rest the battalion worked upon the repair of 
roads near Contalmaison, and ILE. stores were unloaded 
and grenades carried up to tiie <ium[) at Martinpuieli. 
Also assistance was given in digging assembly trenches 
east of that village. 


f ■ll 


• ts the right of the Ikitish line strenuous efforts were 
made at tlie beginmng of October to push the 
.idvance north-eastv ard towards Ic Transloy. Wet 
weather delayed ofjerations and th'^ enemy took 
advantage of the respite to strengthen his defences and 
move lip fresh troops; conseciuently further progress only achieved after hard fighting and heavy losses. 
The "JOth Division held the front between Lesba'ufs 
and Ciueudccourt and, on the night of October 1st, 

I I 

The Durhain l-orccs in the liclcl 

j,';iiiif(l a little ;,'i<>uiiil. (iri)Uiis ul uu ii Iniiii tin- (ilst 
J5rij,'aii<' aiUaii'iii iinii<i' an iiitiii'-f lianas:*- inr almiit 
KtO \ariK, ami <liii; a line of posts vshicii it was tht- 
(inly III till' I'lonii Is til ;.'ii Inrxsaiil ami cunNtrt into a 
(Mill imioiis ticiicli. 'I'iii- iiiaiiiirr nf tlitir m>\\\i: ina\ 

hcsl lie lit s.'lltn il III till- Wnfiis i it all nliirrr (if tllf 

KI.Aciilh : 

"At (liisk pailiis wen tnld nff fi'Diii t acli cninpaiiy 
to fsi\ ihiImIs aini wiir ami tools, ami an otiiccr was 
(Ictailiil to ;u'" i!i advamc to iln' front linr and lay o"t 
the task aliout •_'(l(i yards from ll'i lioclir. 'I'lun. wlun 
the liattalioii were well on the \va\\ llic lioclic S.O.S. 
wi-nt ii|i. and the stiiti, coiisis! iii^ of a will-si Iccttd 
assortimnt of shtils of r\riy kind and lalilirr with a 
triinniiiit,' of niacliiiif-L'nn lire, lir^'an to ani\c. How- 
<\tr, cNiryoiif slid into the maitst, newest sjielj-liole 
and waited. It passi d. and we had few casualties. 
We pushed on, ehiiilied o\er tile front line, and were 
led on to the jol>. Wliilst i>laeini,' imu on tin task a 
Koelie \(r\ li;:ht lell tielnnd ll'.e party, tmt the niaehiiie- 
j,Min lire which followed was lotleii, and we carried on 
with tile work. Altlioii^'i the soil was chalky in jiarts 
the trench was tinished in live hours, and each coin- 
paiiv procei (led home carrying,' its own wounded and 
tliosc of the units in tiie line. 'I'h re wire a }.'o(id 
niimln r of casualties that niyht. A naiiioralilc sunken 
road whicii receiM d a very rejiular sujiply of shells took 
some neL;oliatin<,'. \ company lost 1.') nun just 
crossing,' that road." 

In such fashion tlie front line of the I'lith l)i\ision 
was advanced iiiid assemhiy trenches diij.' in prepara- 
tion for the attack on Octolier Ttli. \W that date t!ie 
losses of the Klexcnth amounted to t;i. Iiesid.s Lieut. 
A. Hidwii and •-Mid Lieut. K. I'iekt riiiLT sent li;ick 


The division did well on the day of the attack, 
carrviiit; portions of Haiiihow. >risty and (.'loiidy 
trenches on the spur west of le Transloy. L cotni)any, 
waiting' in the \alley south of the (iiieudecoiirt-le 
Trar.sloy road, c.amc forward at "> r.M. and hcj^ran to 
consolidate Hainliow trench. H and 1) companies w( re 
eniploved m the construid ion of du<j;-outs. There was 


TIk- Battle of the Soinmc, 1916 

miK li to (1(1, f(ir llic divisions (.ti cither side had failed, 
and defeiisi\.' tlanks had to he cstaWlisJied. On the 
left Hainiiiuv trenih was still held hy the (ierinaiis. f 
eciniianv withdrew to Waterlot Farm in the early liours 
'>t Sth and the other 




diiriiiLr tlic afteinoon. Next (la>- the Klr\rnth nioV( d 
iiaik to hillets at M.'aiilte. 

The I'ourteeiitii eanie forward ai,'ain on Oetolier Tt 

the da>- iiefore the hattle front of the -.'(Mil I) 


i\ isiiin 


s taken o\tr liv the !Mh Hri<,'ade. On the e\(iiii 
the Kith the Dnrhain i 


iicn came under heaw sju 


It their T 

nio\e(i n 


rones Wood l)i\-oliaes, just liefore they 
[> to a sn[)|)ort position, and 17 were killed 
1 wouikIkI. Tw(nty-foiir hours later tlie Fourteenth 
MioM-d into \]\r\r a-semlily jiositioiis for the next attack. 
Ilie hattal.on had to complete the capture of Haintiow 
I r. iich and Shine Trench. This done they would he 
111 line wi!h the West Vorksliirenien. and holji l.attalioris 
e.Milil advance upon that |)art of Cloudy 'I'rench still 
hell! hy the ( iietny. Ta[)cs were laid to assist rlic men 
(i ke( p diieilinn, as the Fourteenth had (o att.iek 

roni iiie imniedi 

;ilc n ar of the \Vest Vorksl 

iin s a 


-o hall left. 

At li\c minut(s past two on the afternoon of 
()rto!iei- i-_)th the advanct.' heyan, I) coni|)aiiy leadiii'^ 
on the ri;;ht, C company oi; the left. Mmn>'t at once 
the eiK my liana:;e came down, tint the Fourteenth 

forward without a 

and enterei 

1 H; 

niK h. I'ifteen (icrmans were taken Ikk . mai 


W were 

^l^c<l and iew ( 

f th 

lose who tied escaped fh 



nades of Lieut. W. A. Hatty's f>a.'!\-. At llu sunk 
d on the left the Fourteenth ioiticd hands with th 

e run 


»fis of the TJth J)i\ision, who had come forward o[\ 
'liat Hank. H company had lost hoth onie( rs C'apl. 
''. Il'llicr killed, and -Jnd Lieut. (Jilloti wouiuhd 

' il liefore three o'clock the adva 

nee w 

as resumed. 

■' 'iiihcrs cleariui,' the dim-outs in tlic sunken road, 
(erman vhell and maciiine-j,'un lire was still heavy, hut 
jrrcnadicrs and Lewis <,'uiuiers, iioldK handled. 

ped to overcome the enemy resistanc 

Movitifr up ill artillery formation .V and (' compa 



The Durham I'orccs in the Field 

Luu . J. Swindrll was kill..! aiul -n.l Lu'it. \\. t 


Shiiu' Troiu'h was soon won, and lure Lieut. Batty was 
woumU'd. BuinliiiiK n]) a cuiniminioatiun trench he 
had capturetl a l.tTinaii otiieer. and for his prowess on 
this dav was awank'd the Military Cross. 

1) oiiupanv on tlie ri^'ht were in touch with the 

'I1ic Battle of the Soninic. \^)\6 

VorksliiiiTiifii, Silt ftirtluT proj»rfss was iiiijxissilili", f(ir 
the (iciiiiiins wiTf in yrcat sf niiutli %•. itli inaii\- 
niacliiiic-i:iiiis and the tr()<>i)s on the 1. ft hail i:iit cmmk 
fnruard. A (Itfnisivf Hank \va> formed iiridrr t!ic 
diiictioii di Litiit. NrwsKinr, wild was afltp'.sards 
awarded a har ti) liis Military (piss. He was woiiinled 
Mil the fdllowiiij,' day when the (.en ans shelled their 
JMst trenches persistently, lull liy the dawn nf 
(tetolier lull the Itattalion had handed ov. r to the 
lull Kss<\ and retired lo a |)os;tioii south of (.neude- 
e.Hirt. At nij,'ht SO men earned rations to the -.'nd 
Durham Li.ulit Infantry, who had relie\cd the West 
^"<lrkshires in the line. 

.\t .").;!,■) A.M. on Octolier l.'ith. when the hritjade 
at lacked a!,'ain. l)nl without success, Lieut. .\. Owles, 
-Md Lieiit. .S. (;. Hi<.diinoor and »'i(» men were in support 
to the lull Essex, III the cv<'nin^' the Kointi filth, now 
'iiily --MM) stronj:. relieved the Kssex men in Hainhow 
and .Shine trenches. -.'iid Lieut. Mellor was wounded 
oil this day. Just after midmirlit Ilaiidiow 'i'reiieh was 
lieavily honiharded, and duri-itr the Kith when the 
iSritish <,ninners were hiisy, many of our own shells 
f' II short ainoiur the men in Sliiiie Trench. The I'our- 
tcenth were relieved that nit'lit and moved hack to 
Montaulian. where a draft of Is.") n ii of the •_' 1st 
herliyshire '\'e<)manrv was ahsorheu. Durini,' the 
Octoher fit^'htiii!,' tlic hattalion had lo'-t 7 ollicers and 
ls-_» men. 


The (ith Division L'ave way to the ,sth. wito 
had to continue (he attempt to carry, in spite 
"f the rain and mud. the (ierman defenct s on the 
^pur runnins^' south-east in front of Reaulcncourt and 
]■• Transloy. The Twenty-Second arrivi-d at ('itad<l 
•.im]) on Octoher 1 Mh, hut I) conii)any were or(!ere<l 
to Montauf)aii to work on the roads. The he;id()uarters 
of the hattalioii and \i compan\' moved on Ocloher '_'()th 
to Waterlot Kami. One (lui,'-oul and a few cellars w( re 
the only hahitailc |)laces at t!iis ruin v.hieh h:!d r.nce 
Ifi n a suuar nlinery. N'ext day H and I) compiniec-, 
started work on a conHiiunicat ion treneli, hut tiiis 
to he suspended in view of the attack to he carried out 



'l"hc Durhiini I-'orccs in the l-icld 

oil ()(tul>.r S-Uil wlirii racli (diiipaiiy <if tlif Twfiity- 
SccoihI will ^M\(ii a (lilTiTciit task. 

(apt. W. II. rnkms with ( ((Unpaiiy riacht<l 
liri;.'a(l<- lirai l.iiiai tt is on llir n^ilit of tin- iiiu- at 
T.iiu i.M. on -J-Jnil. (.niilr> met tluin luTc 
liul w. !<■ iiiiicitaiii of ll.'' iout( anti it was not till 
alicr ini'ini;.'lit that tlir conii/a'iy icarlicd the place of 
assrinhlv in Siuclruni Ti< mli aslriilr tin (.ut mlfconrt- 
Ir Transloy road. W -'.;»."< I'.M. n«\t (ia> the attackmj: 
infant iv W( nt [oiwavd and t' company followed the 
sicopil \\:i\e. The I'loneers found /ellltll Trel.i ll 
oj)posite oi (.einians. except (hail, wounded and 
prisoners, and started to di-: two coinnuinicatioii 
treiielics hack to our old front hue. llea\y shell hre 
killi d .') nun. niortall>- wounded -n>l I, nut. (.. Fitz- 
hrown and wounded Ca|)t. !'< rknis and U others, 
(iooil pro;,'re^s was made hy :( a.m. next day when 
\\,,rk eea^' d and th'- e )inpan\ Iranipi d the weary nnles 
hack to Waii-rlot r.irm. .\ i niizht the ;_'ni<le who had 
to i)rin;.' the company up au'am went astray, alter the 
manner of ;,'Uide>. and it w .e- n< arl\ daun whi n uork resinmii. Tins meant an eaiiv withdrawal nntil 
dii-.k. hut on the nij^h; of Oetolu r -'.'dh two eoinmunica- 
tion trmches were linished. i>u< 'j:,!! and th.- other 
;i(Ml yards in h iiidh. The total loss,-, of I company 

were »! killed .and '_' 1 V oimded. 

1{ coinpaiiy. under (apt. .\. H. Ivd-on. r( ported 
to the ceiilrc hii'^adc. and sp, nt the iiirrhl pr< \ lous lo 
the attack dijiLiUi;,' asseniMy places l>i hmd the front 
line. Just ixfore tic- /> ro hour mi Oitohi r -'.'5rd 
No. ,"• |>!atoon. und- i -.'nd I-nut. Watson, were sent 
lip Willi instrucli >ns to l)c;im a communication trench 
forward In Zi-mtli Trench as soon as the latter was 
capturi'd I'V tlu- assaiiltiiifj inlndi. . Uii r -i 'lefon 
the 'J.'itli lirii^adc were timed to a.Uance an intense 
homWardmeiit swept llic assemlily and supjiorl trniches 
with fearfil ( ffect. Lar^'c numbers of men w«rc killed, 
woiimit d, or I. lined alive, ami the (iermaii (ire .Inj not 
ahalc till ."i I'.M. I apt. IJohsoii withdrew his men 
to the shelter of it sunken road and afterwards to a 
trench 111 the rear. Assistance was ^ivii: in di}r«iiit: ">il 
UK n who iiad liccn huried. lait all tlioujihts of altaik 

The liattlc of rill- Sommc, I'M 6 

li.i'l t) 111' aliaii(i(>nt(l till next iiuiriiui^'. Tiu-n at 
.■(..■<u \.M. the infantry \m iil furwani, "Jnil Liiiit. 
Haiti. y iiill.AMii^' till- Nccomi \va\c with Ills platoon to 
iMLT the trench already phmiiid. 'I'lic attack failed and 
ihs platoon rfjoincd the coiniiany on licaniii,' tiiat no 
futlhcr attc.npt was to he made. At 7 a.m. li eoiii- 
[);ii)>- w re urdered to svork as stretchcr-licarers. The 
li'iiit trenches were eo.tei sted uitli wounded and the 
I'liiiicis worked with j,'r at dexdiinn all day, carrx mj,' 
iImim hack Ihroueh the mud under heavy siiell lire. 
11 ( onip:iii\ e\<iiti;ally ritnriied to Waterlut Farm on 
the niormni,' of tin- -JMli. I'lid Luiit. J. Cook liad 
fallen and looses m the r.iiiks amounted to 10 killed. 
H wounded and oik inissmi:. "Jiid lieiit. Hartl(\- set 
,1 very line exar.iple to his men during' th> s,- two days 
and nights. The ^raliant conduct of Scripts. Clifford 
an<l Howe (inissinj.') is also mentioned by their com- 
pany conimandt r. 'IMiey assisted. ver\ coolly, to re- 
orjianise the men when the cdnipany had sustained 
niaiiy rasualtit-s from two direct hits by enemy shells, 
and iMok i,'reat pvisoiial risks in sufiervismjr the work 
iif 1,'ettmir the Wounded awa\ . Handsman Tarn 
.•issist<'d to <liL' out :{ men who were Imrieil hv a shell. 
Mild llii'ii iir(ss.(i tlicir Wounds under lieavv lire. 1? 
(•ompiiiy went foiwird a^'ain on Octolier '_».")th and 
assist, (j III I'onsolidalc Zenith Tn neli on the extrenH' 
r!i;lit id the line. Here •_'nd I.ieut. 1{. Watson and 
;> nil n \\i re uoiinded. 

(apt. {,. J)awson tuok I) company forward on th" 
iMninc "f "le -.".'nd to the left nf the line. On the 
way the f,'uide .lekimv Ied;,r,.,i that he was lost. l{y the 
aid of a verv indiffi ri nt map tlie eum|)aiiv evenfmiliv 
leiched IJiilford 'I'reiieh. hi hind Hamhow 'I'reneh. ahoiit 
■ ^M- 'It- the mornmi,' of the '.'.'ird. .\t /( ro hour 
N". II- pl.ilooii was siiit to .shine Trench .and remained 
liiere till the ( arl\ hours of the -.'Hh, '• standmi- to" 
file whole time. No. ic platoon went to the Mritish 
portion of .Mild Trcneli on the extreme lift of the line. 
i!id at ti.;{0 P.M. started to dii,' towards a slroiii.- point 
'instructed in rear of the eay)t!ired portinti i.f Mi!d 
I ti ncli south nf the (itietide<-ourt-I{eaiilencourt 
^leunvvhile the tuo rernmniiif: platoons deepened and 

M '.rr 


I ■■■ t 

i !■ i 

; U 




TIk' Durham lorccs in the l-icld 

HuUnnl -Irrnrl,. At .;.:!() r.M. ''"^V ;^-*''-'- 
I .1 tul<l (■(iiiipaiiN ol l\.r>. lo 


(.r.ini .1 t" inovr ti|. ui ■ . • 

\l,i,| \Mni;. kinu tlu- xsa>. mihI iu Uk; .ia.k- 
,„.s tl„- ,Mi^n,lM,v. ,,1 tiu... ..,,,..,■> an.l p.nn.Trs 
l„...,,n,- nhMMMv: ,t > alh-,.-.i that thrv rnlr.v.l tlu 
(..nnan Uv... Iu Ioh avriMii- at tiu-.r .Irst >nat luu. 
M,l,l Tnn.h uas nn,.n.v..,l .lunn,- th- n.^'ht ^'"'.l ;'^';ly 
,„ ,l„. ;„„,„„- 1) •■-mipany .■ai,u- Lark to Wat, riot 
Fann. a M,nn. v uln.h o.vupu .1 m- hours 
N.M ,iav th. A hrliM .1 I? .nini.aiiy to cousolKlat.' /..■uitli 
•I'nil.h UlH,!l'lhf ni.'ht o! thr hiir. 

Cnuurnrum on Ortol.r •.'.•inl. A . o.npany had 
u,„k.,l u. n-luis ,,1-lit a.ul -lay as st ntc u-r- uarrrs, 
,l„,v'v r:num^ thr urat.tu,!.- of thr u!i<.lr 
,,„ ,),.!,, I,,,- thrv took |...k au.l shovrl a-a.n. an.. 
.„,t I,. uo,k on a n.u .oniinuiuration truuli. In thr 
;:,, ., ;,|!T a hu" nst. C (•on.i)iiny .loiii.a 
,1,,;;, ""iipl \. 'I'ait Km-ht was niortallv wound.. 1 
.,n 'tills .lav and I/.ut. H. Thwa.t.s was -.voun.l.'d oi. 
,|„. -'Tth ■ N-M dav H an.l D .■oinpani.s. wli.. ha.l 
,,,,„,,„„..l at vsork in Hi.' Um-. .hanni: and,lidat- 
,„„ ,,,n.'h.s. ,ani.- lK,.k .xhaust.-d an<i w.t t<. tho 
skm. and A an.l t v.mipani- s up to ivpla.v thrin. 
H .onipanv Ixcaiu.' st r. trli, r-l..anrs on ()<■!. >l..r -.1th 
..„d 1) .oinpanv wo,k..i .mi th.' n.w .•..rninuinralion 
tivn.'h Now .am.- Ilu' w.l.'onu' that was 
.,t Inn.l H ...nipanv tinis|...l w..rk in th.- .ynnnt.'. 
C ....n.panv n. th.- hn.- l.-st (apt. S. W. N.uthwoo.i 
w,.und..l. lait A an.! C .•.-n.pani.s .am.- back n<\t 
.p.v an.l th.' 'I'w. ntv-S(T..n<l t:ra.hiall\ ^vltll.i^■w to 
Alonlauhan. Th.'V r.str.i at th.' Cda.h'l on N..v.'.n- 
l,.r Isl. thoutih A ...miMny ha.l to I,,- l.'ft h.'lund t.. 
,.1,.,,' up tlu''l.l. Th.' t.,ial,'s .d th.- .'i!'.i..unt..l t.> n-ailv pjd ..tli.'.rs an.l ni.n. 

Th.' liawn ..f Octoh. r 1st foun.i thf I'w nti.tli m tli<> 
1„„ ,|., .d (iu.ii.l..'..urt. an.l ui tli.' af1.rn..on 
th, on th.' rurhl .in.l h ft ma.i. a sn.all a.lvanco. 
Th,' Ita.l t.. push out t,, .l.scovrr 
,i th. (.rnnan tr- n.h, > oppos,!,. w.r,' h.'ld ui str.n^th. 
If tins proved lo 1., l!i.' < as, . posts w. n I.- '"• «''>>: 
not n.arcr than -Jon vai.l. th-' .n. luv . I hrro 

'I'hc I)irtlc of tlic S()innu\ I'M 6 

jiaitus \\i ht lurvwird lirlnini a t)arr:ij,'f. ami <iii}: iii as 
nidtifil (I' spite li(a\>' sIk I! and iiiacliiiii-f,Miii lire. 
'riuN ui If rclii \ 1(1 soiiH' liuiiis later, and 'Jiid l.ieut, 
1{. Si. Fiilljames. M.C.. wliu had direct((l tin- operation 
\Mtli irrtnt judt,'iiuiit . reeei\<( 

1 a iiar t 

o Ills deeoratioii. 

Tlie tiattalior witlidnu to I'nininiers l{edoiilit at iiii,'ht, 
lia\iiij,f lost .'»<• killed and woumled. Heri' Lunt .-(.dl. 
1'. \V. North, h'oyal Berkshire Ke^'t.. assiinud eoni- 
iiiand. and tramiii;.' was tarried out until Oetoher 
Tth. On tlial da\ of liatlle, wiieu, after the Usual 
po•^l poneiiieiit due to liad wiatiier. tln' Hritisli attack* d 
aloni,' till' whole luie from I,esl>(iiifs in |e Sars, the 

I'uelltletil \Mre ill re>e!\>'. Hilt the ass.iult illt.' troops 

(,f till- list Division made little pro^'ress. and the 

'I'wentletll l'io\ed ioiwald 111 tile iVeimi^ to take o\cr 

I noriioii o 

f the front. 'I'lie niajis shounm the positii 

the hll'- Were 



t: th 



liloeked with returning: wounded; the 
s \ir\- hea\\ ; the ^' all los 

lie wa^ 

tleliejps were 

dermaii sIkII 

liieir wa\. 'I'hus it eaiix' alioiit that liattalion head- 
iiuarters, lia\ini: taki ii ',o the open, arii\t'd before the 
loiiipanies. I'he hatlalioii to l.e r<lie\cd liad nearly ail 
di part'd. and a lar<,'e j:ap was |. ft iii liie iiiie. (dioni! 
Ndrth L"'t UI toiii'li \silh tlie lioops on the Hanks and 
soiii" liours later 15 eompaiiy and thin .\ company 

IJipeartd upon (In seel 

le and tilh'd til 

whieli tin- 

(■erinaiis had not discovt-nd. .Inst lufoii' dawn the 
rest of the liattalioii arrived and occupied a siipjiort 


IvIiL'Ilt sho\Md the pos 


lo lie a "ooil one ol 

itioii of the Wearsiders 

n llle rcMrse slojie ol ,i 

ndt'e. witii 

tlie (lerman shells falling' in rear of the I'attalion. A 
eoinjiaiiN' on the ri<.'lit had diii: a continuous trench 
and were in touch with tiie froojis on tiiat tlank ; the 
|i ft of W company was only proti i ted liy the lie of the 
;,'roiiiid ••iinl two N'lckcrs <:uns. 'I'lu re was no wire in 
froiil, and li\' tin- cveiiiiiu' "f Oetolx r stli the cni'iny 
Were swiipui;..' the top of the ridee witii mae!iiiie-j,'iin 


K ni'dit was ( 

liar, but an effort was niMiie to 

the front wind and .\ conipaiiy aetuidly 


III eoiiiplefin^ tilt II pi-rtioii Ik fore dawn tliroii^li the 
!;aliant e\ertioiis of a |>arty whuli eon ssted of -.Jnd 
Lieut. HrewtT and lit utlu-rs, of whom all luit oni wen 



The Durham lovccs in the I'icld 

kiU. .1 or w.,ua.U(l. Oil the [ulluuin- ni^'ht li rcii.pany 
,!,„r tlu(.u-h (iii'i l-inr.l up xvill. t l.r l.attah.m on tluir 
;,.!? •••ii.i Ki.ut. .1. \V. r».l rworth wa-^ Nvom.dr.l 
iK'forr the Tw.ntuth %v,rr nli.vr.i en OctoluT IHli. 
Tl.r Wrarsi-irrs n a.i.r.l Main, t/ \V...,.l ,.n tlu' inor. mj,' 

(il that (lav. 1 ,1 

1„ addition to til,- otli.r lioiiours won «lMnn<,' lla 
S.mnii. \,u\\\r. l.anr.-S.-.-t>. Da/.Uy and K W mtj-r ; 
(■,„,, i F 1{. Aluni.lhv: and I't.s. I. Mr( luin|d.a. 
.]. T. il:n<iy (kill.-.l) ;ind K Andnson (kilird) u- rr 
a-.vanitd thr' Military Mf-iai. 

On Orlo'.MT :fd in r-nii ami mud tlir Tw.ifHi n- 
h, ^,.d ti.c .-.ill N.l'.. and tlir Tl.irt.vnth tlic Ml. Duiliani 
1 i-dit Infaiilrv in vr>.r\. and support pnsition>. I Ik- 
-ird DiMsu.n: s!,,^^iv app;oar!u.m Ir S -. to.^k ov.r on 
th,s (lav portion of Hi.' Imr h-ld l.y tl.r ll.'tli 
liri'.'ad.- of tile .-.(Mil ( Nurtliiinilinan) Division. 

Ham st.adilv clMnn-: Uh' nvW two days, ululr 
tlurr was li-lituij; on l.oti. Hanks and niurl. (.mnan 
irtillfrv tir«-. (h' tith \sas fortunattly tnir and 
;„ tli.'.v.num tl..- two Durham haltalions Lrj^an •■ . 
takr ov.r thr front iKfor.' Ic Sars. 'l hr 1 -^y f"' ';- th.' UHh N-l"'- "i' »>'*• ''i-'''' '""'• ''^^''\ ""' ^ ' "' 
N V on thr Irft ha.i lia.l a try at thr Tanjih' a 
of . lun.y m,H hiiu--umi. rs and fa. !.■<!. tli- y ^.'av w.'y 
lo ih. Thirti'tnth. 

If "^.rs to \h- tak... in thf Im^ attack o) 
Oclo'l.rr Tth. The task ..f thr Tw.lfth was to s.i/r lln- 
Tan.-l.' a..<l thr sunkm road .ast of I.- Sars 
,,f thr (•.'Mh Hro-adr carri.Ml thr soiilh-w. sl<rn ..f 
,i,r viila-r. -j-hrn t h. Thirl..nth win- '■ rU .n thr ,vst 
of Ihr rums and a Imr hryonl. haltal.ons 
wrrr vr,v wrak m nnmhr.s th.- Thirtrrnlh l.a<l two 
small platoons prr rompa..\ hut .A.r\ man 
\shat hr had t<. do. and fril moir Itian r.pial to tl:r task. 
\t I l.-> V.M. thr TwrlHh adsaiirrd and A a. id ( 
,..,n', %vho Ird thr way. .srort.d a hn.air tank. 
Thr r..n( of 'hr Tai.L'l.- provrd . asy. hut thr s.ii.krn 
,,, ,d was ohslmalrlv (h frndrd. Thr tank t..r,>rd alon- 
tl.r soulhrn. sidr of thr road towards thr .dla.,'r. l.ut 
.„ff.r. d a dirrrt lut from a .-..<i shrll. A rompaiiv 



■ ' . >% 


1 j 

'I"lu- I )iniiain lotccs in \\\c licUl 

,!i,ck<(l hv iii;i(liii).-umi tin- iniiii tiir ric-ht. I.iit nciin-r 
\r S:irs cCtHiipaiiv aiiti twi. platoons of 1) coiiipaiiy. 
im.l.r I'lid Linit. A. T. Iluiil. mt-ivd tli. roa.l. -'iKt 

Lirlit. W. L. llU'ilirs follov.rd With tllf IVst u( I) ColU- 

pan\ ami the (.iriiiaiis ulio survivt'd surrciKltrcd. 
Tllc" JX'silioli uas si..f,ii!y put III a state of (icfclic'. 
and heavy lire was liroiiL'iit io luar upon tin- cni-iny 
now rctrcatiiiu' Im'Iii t!ir n^'lil. TImi: ]\ coiiii.aiis . uiidir 
•Jiid I, Kilt. Harris, ciniu tln'ou^h and cont iniird tlic 
;id\anc( until a chain of jiosls was . stal'liMi. d a (piarti r 
,,f a mil.- m front, protect mi: ihr liu'lil of the divisi,,n. 
Sf\(nt\ (.cnnans w. iv tak-n l.y the Tw>'ifth. and thf 
l,,,llaiii.n lost •.'nd l.i.ut,. \V. H. I.ock.-tt and TcifiT 
ai,d :n nirii kilLd ; I'nd lanit-,. .1. II. 1,o\ms. A. '1'. 
Hunt. A. i;. Hairs. A. H. \\alla<'.'. .1. ( . Hujzall and 
\V. ('. I,t;:;_'att and stl wouniii'd. 

\Vh.n~rhc Twelfth advanced t!ie Thirt.enth kept 
in toiicii \'\ means ,,f a jsitr,.!. some ol whom n aeiied 
shell-holes ' fr.mi uineh tliey eouhl lo-e at and I'omW 
(he (.ermaiis m t!i.- sunki n road. Hut the In a\>- enemy 
l,arra':e made it ditlieult to send liaek information, 
and It" uas not till nearly half-past tw.. thai news of 
tlie eaptniv of tlu' TaiiL'le arrived. At tiie same tune 
patrols III loueh witli the troops on tlie left reporf.'d 
lh:,( ihe '.ith \'orkshiris required support. C eoni- 
paiiv, under t'a]>t. H. F. Blake, weiv therefore directed 
strandit at tlu' Mlla-e south of llie cr<)ss-roads. while 
li companv. I.d h\ (.apt. 1). H. Clark.'. M.r,. foHoweil 
ni lose sni>port. uitli to assist the Vtukshire- 
ni' n if necess.ary hv heaiiiiL' hit and el.ann^ the 
houses on the ne.-ir side of the 15ai.aume nad. Tlie 
Cermaii ma. hiiie-^'uns m ie ^ars hroueiil ih. hadme 
wave of (■ .-oiLlialiN to a halt on the outskirts of the 
xillaoe and the ti;:lit eontimied uitli ritlc aii<l lioiiil.. 
H.r.'^Capt. Mlake fell dead, hnl ulan 15 c. inpaiiy 
.arrived lla- m.n liin> -l'UIis had l>een silenced and all 
press,-,! foiwanl I.M'.lher. Kiitermj.' tlie sunken road 
(" compaiiv tia- du^'-oiits tii.r,-. while t'apl. 

Clark.' I.ii his forwar.l thr.aieii Ih.' rums ,.f the 

hoiis. s. wiieii' (..rmaiis in .hie-outs ami eiiiar-. v.cre 
tak.n .'r kill.. I. Ml i.sislancc was sn,,n at an < nd and 
Durham pilr-h ,ipp. ai.d l.e\-..nd tlic mILi^.' ill op. n 

The Battk- of llic Soniinc, \^>\() 

couiiirv. v>luif, 111 xiiiif |;la(t>. tiny ( thr 15i'ili^h 
l>;irrai,'f. Sonii after lialf-pa^t thirc tiny rcp<>rt< d that 
tlitTi' \stTi' III) si;,'nv of tlir tP'iiu'. 

A coinpaiiy were stiit up to uoik on tlir (Itfcwir- 
of if Sars. strouj: points liciiij: mailc an:' tlic >uiikiii 
road consolidated. The wliole of the eajitiired area was 
now fiercely shelled hy the enemy, hut I" fore eii;ht 
o"cloek m the evening,' these tasks were done and the 
(ief. nees inaiiiied. the rest n\ the l.aH;dion returnini: 
to till' old trenches. Hut attacks to n;.'lit and hft of 
the division liad not jjoiic so well and the dispositions 
were soon afterwariis streiij:thencd, a company of the 
lltli N.F. and four S'ickers (.uiiis conrnu under the eom- 
mand of C'(jlonel Lindsay, while the sappers and earry- 
mj,' [lartics from the l.">tli Division helped to iiii,iro\c 
the defences. 

The c:iiitures of the Thirticiilh coinpiised l.'iO 
(icrmans. includiiii,' oiu otlicer. liesides .iiiotlier otllcer 
and .'50 men found woundtd in cellars and duii-out>. 
The death of (apt. IJlake has lie.n record- d. l.uut. 
II. H. Markhani and -.'nd Lieut. K. W. .\tknison wer.' 
wounded, as was I'lid Lieut. K. (.ra\. I. ill he remained 
at dutv. There were .")T casualties m the ranks. 

The (.ermaii l.omhardmeiit continued durui<: tlie 
nij,'ht and next day. .\ll telephone wires were cut and 
the only commuircation ua^ h.v runner. In the after- 
noon of the Nth a {latroi of t!ie Thirteenth i,'ot in toiieh 
with the enemy at a fioint on the Hipaumc road %vell 
lieyoiid le Sars. The liattalioii lost 1 "i more men killed 
,ind wounded Itefore relief hy the I'.th Division at ni>.'lit. 
Hoth Twelfth and Thirteenth withdrew t,. H.courl 
Wood to rest after the i/rcatest ^m i . ss lhe\ hati so 
far won. Honours were lustowed upon ma!i\ m t ach 
hattalion. Of the Twelfth I't-. (,. \V. KiIIhuii r.eeiv- d 
the Distm-zuislicii C'liiidiict Me.ial for making; a darm^,' 
dayhjilit recoimaissaiice and carrying messai,'es under 
heavy tire after heme woii.idid. Lance-C'orpl. (i. 
.Slas(>r, who led successful patn.|> on three oeca-^lolis 
ami sliowt'd cousi)icuous courai,'e durmj.' the attack, 
was awarded the same decoration. .Anioiii,' the re- 
cipients of the Military M«(!al were .Sertits. C. (,.\ey and V. Monk; (orph^. T. Lackey and .L 





h: u 


Tlu- Durham l-orccs iti the Field 

Milhurn: Liinrc-C'nrpl. C. lin.wn ; and Ptts. N. K. 
Ayar. .1. H(Ui1".t. K. Halford. J. Harn.-ss, V. Joluisuii. 
W. R. N\-sswnith>\ \V. K. Watson, II. Wils..n and 
W. Smith. 

In the Tliirtccntli Capt. I). II. Clarke r.'ciivrd a 
bar to liis Military Cross for liis rapahlr direction of 
operations in le .^ars and lnvond. "Jnd Lieut. E. V, . 
Atkinson, who led his platoon wdl and <:allantly and, 
though wounded, remained with his men unhl eon- 
solidation was complete, was awariled the Militarv 
Cross. Ser!.'t. M. nroiiL'h, M.M.. won a har to his 
medal. .S.'rt't. C. .\. Stirlini,', Lanee-Corpl. C. Cuwland 
and rt< s. T. V. l?owman. \. Thrown. A. Constantm.'. I). 
(;rahaiii. J. II. (ireen. T. Ilarle. T. .laekson. (;. F- 
N. why, C. Nichol. C. O'Rourke. H. Purvis. .T. Tnnkm 
and y. E. Vii)ond all received the Military Medal. 

rU i 



JULY, ivi,, -MARCH, vn: 

Thk Tenth Went hack into the liiK' soiilh <if Anas 
nil July Mil to lind liad tniiclics and an altrt 
tntiny. Tlu-y nturiu'd to Arras a fortni^dit later, and 
witlidrew from iliis seetor to do battle training,' at 
lliuzecoiirt, which was reached, after several tryiii}: 
marches, on Au,i,'Ust 1st. The battalion moved to 
C'aiidas on the 7th, and went by train to Mencourt ; 
later in tiie day th. y readied a camp north of 
Dernancourt n ady to enter the battle of the Somme. 

On September isth the battalion marched l)aek. iii 
jjoiirinjj rain from I'omniu rs Hedoulit to Hibemont, 
and arnv.'d in French buses at Ic Souich and liit villtrs 
four days later. Traininj; ami recreation tilieci tlie 
days till the Durhams enibnssed for Arras in time to 
take over trenches ai,'ain on the nij,'ht ot the -JTtli. 
The line was thinly held by this sector and there was 
so mucls work to do that few men could \>r spared for 
patrols, lint the enemy, apart from his tnneh mortar 
lire, was (piict. A rcj/rettablc accident ha|)iiened on 
October l"Jth ulieii laeut. V. t'. Clarke, coimiij,' in froiu 
patrol, was mortally wounded by a seiitr\. 

The Tenth left the line on October •Jl'.th and aiii\id 
at .\mliiines three days latt r. Drafts weir ie(ii\rd, 
but traim. <f was interrupted b\ bad weather which 
contimied until Novemlur Mh, wIk n con^'einal quailcis 
were found at .Sibiville. The coiiiilrs' m the vicmity 
abouixh'd in <,'ame, ami there was phntx of time for 
football and recreation of all kinds. I)ee( luber H'.tli 
saw the battalion on their way back to .\iias, \vliere 
they occupied the ca\alry barra< ks m the city. On 
Christmas Kve, when the 'leiith buik i\<r \<i\ wet 
tienclic- !!i f'i'il '.'.( ilhei. IK) ;;iiiii bonis were available 


,:ii l!:inks. Caj.t. 
he I. It ami hunt. 

Tlic Durbam I'orccs in tlic I'kIcI 

an,! r;,M.s ,,f tir,.,l, f,H,t . 1. A , l-pM I . Alt.r llns tour m 
nn.l.n- paitv stailr.i tra.ini.^ aiid tl,. . tit. rpiiM- ^^as 
larrud oil! iii .!a\li;ihl "u .lamiary f.tli. 

Kullnvvu.- an' ,lalu.r;,t, artillrry ,,,, parat i-m. tlu- 
,;,„lr,s rrusM.l -No Man-s Land" uih - r a l';* ';',•' ^'' ;' 
al.nut a P.M. an.l M,t..v,l tin (.,r,nan Uvx M.IN ai.. 
I,l„,s,,l„,n.ns l.nn.hs uv,v tl,n,un intu \\u- .l,,u-nuts an-! 
ll,.. ;,nlv (.,.,,., an m. n v...s sl„.t l,v (apt. IVnsfon!. 
'I'll,.,, til,. ,.ii,'ni\ lionilH-'l III "n 
H.-iisroi.i cMiiilnctt.l t'i( li^'lit Ml 

T I. wh'. ha, I l.r.n (iHailr.l t,. l.a.l all a.ivan.T to 

t|„. ( liiu-l li.'-. uas iiivnlv,.! ui ti.r .tniLrl'-'" 
,)„■ n-lil. soinr ut his nirn liail K""-' "" "^7' ' "' '"''• 
|„it th.- l.oinluiii' m nar sunn .mumiI tli.-.n to 
uilhiliau. Capt. Hrrisfonl ^asv Hi. ni return an.l t.-av. 
,|„. s,..nal to I, tuv from tlu- (i.rnian iwurhv., .11 
..,,.1 Kuait. IMl. uitli a small p.artv. lia.l now rca.'l.r.l 
111.- .n.Miv s,ron.l hn-. IL-v Uv .iu^-.iuts urr.- 
l,onil-.| an.l th.' a.haii.'.' uas tli.n .■.mtmu.-.l unt, tlu- 
,|„r.l Im.' uas n.arlv -a.n.'.l. la-ut. H.'ll n.Av r.'al.s.'.l 
II, ill 1„. u,,.. uitl,..nt supp,,rl an.l ,..i,mi.-n.'.-.l t.. NMtli- 
,lr.,w (hi na.'hin- tli.- (..■rnian front trench \n- ha. 
,,;,,.,„.l ;, l„„„lan,atta.'k. hut lu' -.t all his woim.i..! 
,,!,..,,• .,[ th. (..rnian uir.' an.l int.. a shcll-hoU'. ^ -^V^ ■ 
!?,.r,sfonl an.! la.'.t. T...l,l th.n to,.k .ait s,,,,,,' ni.i, 
to •• N.. Man's l,aii.l "■ ha- w.ain.l.d of \\h.un tlu'V 
fouml an.l laoUL;ht in six. 

N,, pns, or i.l. ntiticat ions w, r.' .■oll.ct..l m Hus 
vai.i. hut, .•.Misi.lrnn- that nun w.t.' 
|,roii.'ht int.. th.' affair ,.t llu' .l.v.nlh h.air an.l that 
plans" \v.r.- altrr.'.i s.'vral tini.s. th.- r. sult was sa is- 
f.H'l..rv. Casualti.'s anmuntci t., •-' otli. crs Nvoun.h'd 
,„„| ,1 ,.t|„.i'- kill. ah u..un.l..i .'11.1,,,-. -JiHl i>i"Ut 
\ (, !{,|| u|,o ua- ..iiK- !'.• \-ars ,.f a-.- and ha<l lia.l 
1„„ ,|„v.. ^w,■ks• ..f f-n.'h warhir.^ was 
awar.i.'.l Hie M.lit;iry ('r.-^ an.! m\ Military M.-.lals 

''''prrparati..iis h.r th.^ Srriii- ..ihnsiv,- w. n- h.inj: 
,,„.h.-.l h.rwai.l an.l th.' 'I'-'nth woik.-.l liani ..n tlu' 
;„Hh'ri:r..un.i sIu'U.ts an.l at Arras when not 
hol.lui.' th.- Im.'. ().', K.'hr.iarv .-in -Jiul Li.'Ut. 
M.'( wa^. kill.-d hv a sinp-r an.l (apt. 

I'riiicli W.iifarc, Jui\, 1'>W) Mai. I'M/ 

son was accidentally wouikIciI <>i\ tin- folluwin^' ila\ . 
In the nii(l<llc of the inontli a slow thaw foilowt d a 
spell of frosty wcatluT winch uicnasid the ihseoniforl 
of life in the trenches. The whole front was very iivt ly. 
for there were niaii\ Hritish raids and the activity of 
artillery ami aiteraft, lioti; Ikitisli and (.erinan. 

On March sth I h< 'I'eiith \Mthdr( w to hriLradi- res( i\c 
111 Arras, now a much-stricken cit\. and on the Kitii 
the l.attalion reached (iraiidc IJiiliccourt to train tor 
tiic coniinj,' olfcnsive. The (■ernians were rrtrcatin^ to 
the Hindeiihurt,' Line and had already \acatcd their 
trenches south of Arras where the Uth !)i\ision wiiv 
to advance. On March -.'.'{rd lh<' 'I'cntli nuAtd up to 

. I 



.\t the iipeiiir.L' "f the Somrnc hatth' the El< ventii 
Were still workiny in the Vpres salient liehind Wicltjc 
.lulv Uth was ineinoralile for the visit of the Prince of 
Wales to the heaiiipiartirs of the liattalion at iiraiid- 
hoek. The '.'Dth Division now left the line after holdintr 
It for two months, during: which period the Pioneers 
hail lost ■_' otliccrs and S'.t men 'illeci. wounded, or sick. 
After several moves in Flanders. earrvin<,' out training' 
when op|)ortiinity occurred, the Klcventh left Havinj,'- 
hove hv rail on July "Jath for Doiillens. Next day 
they marched to very filthy huts at Couin and 
spi lit a day cleaninjr them. The .'(ilh were now 
iclieviii!,' tlic a.^th Division in th. C'olmcamj)s- 
Iiriiuterii.' sector, and on July •-•^th th. I'loiieers took 
over, at the Dell, the dirtiest camp tlay had vet seen. 
In this portion of the line I'oth sidi s were l>usy re- 
pairing: 'he havoc wroiijxht ou the opeiiini^ davs of the 
tiattic and tlii' Durhams were enijijoyed upon the 

sup[)Urt trenciles and also in liUlldllli,' deep dutr-DUts. 

Occasionally the (.erman shell tire was very heavy. 
The (Juards relieved the division on AuL'Ust Kith and 
four davs later the Kleveiith moved liy train from 
( an<las to Morlaiicourt in the Soinme area. 

The PioiK els htid a hii atliiiiL' space at Meaiilte and 

\ ll|e-sui-.\ni re flolil Oetoli'-r '.ttil onwards. Colonel 

T'lic Dur'nani iorci s in \\\r 1 kUI 

Colhiis r.-iciimij.' til.' !i:ilt.ilh.ii fr..n, m- k I- .vr. 
Altli(.u<,'li llir '.'11111 Division II. AS V. I.. 111.- 
•• ivst " ,ii.;i, tli<' (. iii'f Kntiiiictr "I tl"- ^ tnips 
claini.a th. srivic.s ..f 111.' Kl.v.nlii win. in..v..l t.. 
th.' Citii.l.l at rariM.v oii Or! -l- r l^tli. Tli.- rrst ,.f 
till- 111. .Mill ua-, sp.iit 111 r.painiiL' aii.l unloa.liiit,' 
mat. rial ainl st..ns. Tl:.' Nvratiar uas vil.'.'.rs aiu 
iM.ii w.iv ..ft.n w.t tlir..uj,'h. aii.l w..rk \\..s .l.lay. .1 
an.i nii.l.rc.i in. .it .lilli.ult l.y lli. -tal. ..f tlu' ^roun... 
In their f.w nil. Hunts ..f 1. isur. llic ri..n.irs !ia<l !.> 
npair tluir ..wn Kuky huts. " S.-Moin." wiit. s an 
(.nicer <.f llir l.altali..iK •• l.a.i in.ii in. .re l<. !.;r«;ns.' at. 
i)ut a <,'runil.le witli.ait a l'Ihi was ii.\ir kiu.wn." 

OiTtli.' Inst .lav of \..v.iiili-r cam. ..nlers ;.. entrain 
f.,r th.' •• nst ■• aria. The Kiev. nth w nt hy tram 
l).rnaia..iirt t.. Sal.ux. liiv..uaek.'ii m th. w.t. an.: 
marehe.i llir..U!/li ram aii.l nm.l ii-\t <lay L. i.ilK-ts at 
li.,iir.l..n ..n th.- riv.r S..inin.'. Th.- l.attali.m rould 
J1..W i-ni..v a huh- f..nif..rt an.i\ati..ii. th.- •• Mlaek 
aii.l Willi.- ■■ ...iKrrt par- .vlii.-h uas f..rnie<l proving; 
ail mini. -.hate sin-eess. Wli. n they m.iv.-.l t.. l»ii<nu<riiy 
,,M Mh th.- Pi..n.-.-rs had to . 1. an ._.ut s..m.- 
very (iirty hill, ts hut there was aiiotli.r w.-.k s r.spit.- 
hcfore m.iMiii.' lorwar.l a^'aiii. 

Corl.i.- was r.-ac-Iu-.i l>v hus ..n N.ivi-ml..-r K'.tli .ii.i 
the liattah-.n rnareh.-d to the C'lta.iel in li.avy ram <.ii 
th.- " The camp was dcp in inii.l and th.r.- was 
little pn.l.'clioii ri-<.ni th.- w.-ath.-r. n..r w.-re Letter 
<iiiart.-rs f..und wh.n th- L.ttahoii r. ■ .1 to M.-ii- 
taiil.aii. Work was don.- on I h, .-..list niit ion ..f a hj,'lil 
railway till th.- -HItli l)iM>'.,n r. h.v.-d th.- '.".ttli iii th.- 
fi,,iit l'.ev..nd l,.si..i-iils an.i M.>rv..l. Th- n j.arties u.iv 
|,r,,\ i.l.-.i t.. .arrv up rati. .lis. wat.r :in<l!s 
t.. th.- liii.-, .-111. i' the etllars ..f (.iii.-h\. L.-^ImcuIs an. I 
.M.,rval w.r.- e\p!ort-d ..nd .-U-ar<-.l. Tw.. mam e..m- 
,„i,„„.„ti,,n treiielu-s call. . I (>/.<.nc an.i Klaiik Av.nius 
uer.- put 111 hali.l. Th.- latt.r was t.-ik.ii up t.. tiie 
f,,r'vard si.i.- of the vulw north ..f Morval. hut furth.-r 
prof,'ress was imiu.ssil.Ie as th.- i.M-..uii.l was so ha.l. 
Tlu^ tr.-iich fieeame a drain .m.l llu Pior.'-eis spent 
tiiMih ..I till!.- •• pidliii" "Ut stn.k infant rvin.n 
;m,l hrlpii,.. th. sir.t.-h. •,\h..s,- t.e.k was m- 

r.cnch \\arl:itx. Jul\, 1M16 -Mar., ^917 

('.'■scritiiiliiN (i:i:i.-ui! . ('ill- i>[ tlic UdUiiiii-d (lift after 
lain;; tliirt\-t\V() Imiirs dii the way from the fr.nit 
trt-iiclifs 111 liir I.rsliii ufs-.Mi>r\al road. 'i'lusf iniii- 
iiiuiiic.itic.ii t rciicln •-, wire afterwards ahaiidmied iii 
iavdur (if till' (lu(k-li(iard tri:eks \ hicli liad heeii 
Mri;,'ii,aliv sUJ.'l^'■^1l d \>y tlir Klevtiitli. 

Oil l)i (Cllllier •JOtli. wluil tilr dlVlslUil were rellesed, 
the IMoiieirs reiiiaiiied at umk. The exterisiun of a 
hL'lit railwav for tlie ^nniiier>. well lieyoiid {iiiilleiuont , 
I iitaihd the renuAal of pil' s of (.eriiiai: dead. \V. ather 
eoiiditioiis wi re as av fnl as tliey could he; it was a ioii^' 
;oiiriiev to .Mid from work ; and hivouaes were v,ry 
l,;.d. All ranks weir Ikcoiiuiii.' thoroii^dily tired out 
i!id ii'itit and the ejiniax was reached on Decein- 
i.r '.".ith when heavy ram Hooded the camp at 
Nfoiitauhan. ' r< suit of tht medical oMieer's repre- 

M ntatioiis till h w( re movid hack to N'llle next 

day. the (iiiards n ' to fake o\er the old camp 

which WIS certainly ' or human hidu'.ation. 

The Durhams won d under Ketter conditions 
JiMiiiL' .January, while tlie '.'Otli Division held the line 
ill froiil of Sailly-Saillisel. Coinfortahle hillets in 
iri'M'-ourt and C'onihles wcrt occupied hy the hattalion, 
\\ho were employed on the defences of this sector and 
had to Mas) the frozen j^roiind with ammonal hefore 
dii:i;in;i was possihle. On .fanuary "Jltth the Eleventh 
withdn-w to Miaulte. hut after an interval of ieii da\s 
•he old Mor\ al-Leshd-ufs sector was o(i;ipie(' aLjam. 
Work was done on du<'-oiits. canioutlauc screens aiul 
;i.\v treiiclns until the (ierman retreat hc^'aii at the 
,11(1 of l'"ehriiai\ , will 11 liie I'iorii ( rs toih d hard on 
■>i;tds and r-nlwa\s as the British line was pushe(| 

Ahout this time Ser;:l. (.ardiier was awarded the 
Italian Hroli/i- Medal for X'alour. 

The (;inch>!i(i nfs road was taken m hand hy 
A comiiany of the Klexcntl. on March l.sth, the da> 
dler the enemy evacuated le Transl(>y. l{efore the 
•.'."(til. when the Pioneers iiio\( (I forward to that \illaj.'e, 
ea\alrv were encountered os' tla ir way to kee[) in touch 
with ill'- rctreati/iL' (iermans. Ere the end of the 
p'oiith (htachmeiils of the hatlalion had n acln d Bus. 





|-|K- Durlram I'orccs in thr I-k1(1 

1; J;:,;;::;i pro^n-s^m repamn, ilu- .ia.Ma.. ... .1. n.a.!. 

wrouolii i.\ tiir (Hiniaii limits. 

August lUh. a..l n:n-l,.W Ann,...Hns a --^ ';' ' ;, 

,'Vl.u; .i..'>.-a u. n..r^; an,lM.p- 

if,,, la,-.,, uurk.n,' partu-. -uitu August - '"'• ^^ 

1,.., n-lu^T.i lln Tlmtr.ntl; ,n thr trmrh.- All uas 

■, unt.l .h- Kns,lur. ..n .lu. i.n ^"'•'■'i; j '' " ,;;;^: ; 

ciisnalt 1. s. 

.^.liant n.n.iu.t .-,, thr Su.mnr was ukuI. >;'*'''I"- ■ • 
T W:i";l!l. r i'v. •'■ Il:'nn„t,.,u W. I' auM 


'A. I'rat. . , , 

On li.. 1 u. ilth w. i- nUr^ 

,(i l.v tl 

,,1. H.,v'al Sn.ts an.l n.anh.-.l f. '■;;'"1'^,'" ^ . 

' ,h. hattahoM ilM.. ntunnW t,. tlM- S.nujH. i..^^^^^^ 

• nMVU..' l.v Iran, at Lon^ -.„ Sr,,t, n.l.r .otl- 

my n.arrh..l ,„ M,.11h M.-au-l',.... an-l tl.n..- h.nv:u.l 

\n..r LnntJ nh.v..l ..m O.h.l.. r Mh at •■ ^•"-- "" 
Tvv'th nst.-.i Mt !».V,.url \\..o.i. l i- -.^U. HiviMuu 
w^V ,u .l.stnu.l f..r th.. Vpns sah. ... an. th- D.n-„ ,...r.l.-u-.l. .hmnn.-l a 1''-- ■, .. 
iVtohrr l.-.lh. Th.T tirst t,..>r, in tr.iwh.s ,,ust s.,n.h 
„f thf M.-niii r.'a.l. was a (piK't ..i.''. r , , i, 

.'or til- ...Nt fnnr .nontl.s tin- n.ut.n,- <;f " "'' 
^sarfarr ..,.ntn.n. .1. NVhm not hol.l.n.' part """;'• 
„,,,,h ..flMI .'.n to tl... M.M.n n.a,. th- ^- ' 
! U ... snpp..rt at Zm.l..k.. Hun.! or at th. l.arra,.ks 
, Y ' U. ' Wh.n th.. .-.sth l?n,-a.!.. pass..! .nt.. .-.s.-rv... th,. u. nt ha.-k ... h»ts at 
M.. " Van.p n.-ar On-l-nl-.n,. \V..rk>n,r par us wen- 
i, «vs ii.r..n. tl.- -...1 -f H'- y-ar th-^.- was 
:^ ran., an.l ,1,. rwarcls ...n- .a. t-r fr..>. an.l m.,,,- 
s„ow. Th. f.o..l was ..Uicallv r.p..rt..l .pn.t 


Trvurh Warfare. JiiK, l^'U)-Mar.. PM 7 

■ i'lniii; flu-, poriod, inn with lus i \cflliiil ol'st r\ :itiuri 
till- rii(rii\- inailc a pract icr (.1 liriii;:in;: tire to txar U|n>ii 
all (ia\lii,'iii iim\irnrtit ami liunilianlcd at iiittrsals ail 
\ iiliK ralili- taTLT'ts in liiiiii tii< I<iili>!i iiii<\ 

In the \i \v \'tar's Hofioin^ Majur f. \.. t liiuiiiiir. 
was awardnl liu |)istinj:iii-.!i((i >ir\i(i- Ordi r and many 
iif tiif 'r",\(litli Wire nitiitionid in dispatclics. Sfum 
afterwards \sas annMnnci-d tin- award nf IIm' I''rrnrli 
M,J,ulh Mililiiir, tn IMc. J. Ilariios. 

On Fihrnary lltli Lu til .-('u!. \V. W. Maciznc.', .r 
left tlir liattaii'in. and was siicct idi d \>\ Ma|iir l{. 
ryndaii <4 tli.- 1st Durliani L.._!it Inlantry.' Tii.' 
iWclftii lost a j^'iiud otlictT oi tin- •JOtii, wlirn (apt. 
I>. M. ( liaiulirrs was killed li\ a shell splintti. 

At the end of the niipiith the Dnrhanis withdrew 
for three weeks" trainiut: ni the Merekei^lieui area. 
Tliis was earned (m. tirst m tutter edd and sni'\\ and 
then HI Wet and misty wiath.r ( )n Manii "Jls' the 
Twelfth nlieved Ihe'lTth H.W.I", i,. ar Klv<r.mi-li( 
and worked hard for .1 week liefore witli<ira\Mn ,' to 
l\)I)eri!i<.'lu'. when' lariri parties wt re m ihrnand for 
Imrvin^' si'.Mial ealile m the forward an ;i. 

'I'lu I Aperienees of the 'I'hirt 1 1 lit ii differed lillt little 
iiom those of the Twelfth. On m .Vrmentieres. 
\vhere hillets were taken o\er from the Twentieth. 
Major M. K. L'lidsay. 7th Draijoon (iiiards. assumed 
conimaii'l .d the ii.ittalion. 'I'lie ■.'."{rd Middlesex were 
relieved hy tile Thirteenth in the Irenehes on 
Aiitinst ITfh and a (piiet four followid, altlioiit.di I) 
cotnpany on the lift lost a patrol. When the division 
went out of the line at the hc'.'innin,!,' of ."^eptemlier. the 
Tlurteeiilli sfayid at NorlMc.nrt for a few da\s liefore 
entrainiMj: for the Somnie area. The liattalioii 
ivenluallv re.aehed|. ts mid \<\\- s ;it Mdhrieoiirt 
on Septi'tnlii r IJth. 

( >n ai rival at I'mv a n on ( )etolier 1 '1II1 the Tlnrt. entli 
niarrhed to Wmnipii,' (amp near Oudcrdoin. Wet 
weather was siieieeded hy frost when the hattailoii re- 
lieved the 'I'welfth in the lim soulli of the Meum road. 
Til fiisnin^ months win spent li.twirn the front 


Tlu' I )iirb..nn iorccs in the I'lcld 

,,,..,„. y.aWWk. KUI..1 a.ul thr -.a.nuks in Vru-s. 

OCCIlliH il \\ nil jlfjr (-ill. p. > I I ,. 

ll, tl,. N.w V.a-^ l!u,:..urs tnl„ml /,n.lsa> 
m-fiN-.l 111.- l):shn-uisi,Ml Srrvir,. Or.lrr aiul th.- Mili- 
fwv < -OS. vvas ;,wan!.'.l to tlu- ni.-.iical ..llir.T. La])!. 

(l.MfMiau. a>Mi tuC.->.-M. I!- V;'',';""' m"'V n C M 

..,,,1 i,„,it. K. Iliill and S.i^rt. II. Ira.Mock D.l.M.. 
,,,n"r.l nul a us, lul n.'uiina.ssan.T ni tlu- tlurk fo^' .m 
.January lU!,. ,n F.hrua,, S.-rut J- A^^'^; 
,,„, Lai... -S-.rt (.. H.ll ^v.•^- auanl..i t!.- MUitarx 
M.-lal. i-..r tlu- ivsl th.-.v IS littlr t.. .-x.-- i- 
,|„. patu'nt an.l .li-.ri..! - n.lnvan.-. -.f tl,- n^'.-urs nf 
anoth.-r uu,!., n, tl,,- tnn.-l..s. Al Uu- . n.i -f thr 
month Ih.- ■rhirt..-nth n..,v.-.l hark to thr trauun-an-a 
.„„, ,,,,, l,„,,t..l at h..lli-/..fl-. Th.y ranir up ai,'ain 
,,n Man-h I'.Hh. an.l sp.nt tm .ia>s at %v..rk mi Nsmtn 
wcatli. r Vpri ><. 

,,„ .|„K Kt Ih. K.,iirt...,th i.a.h. i Ih.utk.r.iur ..n 
Ih. ir uas i.a.-k t,, Ih.- sahrni an.l nu y.l t.. .-an.p at 
Ih-uvn n.xt .lav. \Urr th-v stay.-.! f.:r a h.rn^hl 
supplvu,.' r.-olar w.,rkui.i parti.s t-. i.urv - ahh- an.l 
n-p,nr tli; .lu-.-ut- ..f th-- Vpn s .l-f.-n.-.-. I ramm,' 
was ram..! -a. ^^.•ll H"- nun.h. .s availah .■ t.H th. 
,i,v..i..i.! th.- ■JiMh u. th.- hn,- ..n -luiy l.t... 
■n,,,, Hi, l.attalion ni..v.-.l t.. support positi.-ns ..n tl..- 

nv.-. t..n.h. ar \V..II|.-(r..i.i ih. -.'...I Durham L.-^hl 

Infantrv. A .|..i. t t-.ur. .iur.n- Nvh. eh •_'.,.! U. 
M„h. Kon ua> u.,un.i.-.l. xvas f.-U.-w.-.l l-v a stav al 
fan.!. .1 .a. th. P..p.r.n-h.' r..:,.l. \V,,rk.ML' parfp 
^^.•^.■ sl.ll .all. .1 for h.r.'. hut Ih. Division l.'ft t i.- 
sali.M.t so.u. aft.r. Ou Aufrust -n.l th.- !• ..urt.-.nth 
n, at Ks,,u.r.l.-s. an.l oi. arr.xal at Doull.-ns 
niarrlu'.i to huts at A.'li.ux \V.,.,.l. Atta.k tram.n- 
was assi.i.i..uslv pra.t.srd h.-re an-l at Kn-. Ih. lM..r. 
wlu-n- th.- mth ( h.-shir.'s w.-r.- n-ln-v.-.l. Aft.r o.cupy- 
i„„ bill, ts an.l l-.Noua.'s an.l' part..-s 
t.r%v..rk ^vltll th.- sapp. rs. ih.- Durhains w, nt "it., th.- 
Inn- n..itlwas« ,,f llan..l .... tin- .■v.-niu- ..f Au«ust llth. 
Tl..- (I.rniaiis «.r.- ti.rt.K h..inhar.lii>j,' the trm.-l.. s 

Trench Warfare, July, 10l6-Mar.. 1917 

and during' llif iiiirli! tlif >.illi;. of tiic Amic licluml 
1!k' iJritisli fititit vas (litiuiiid witli tear and ^^us slit II. 
The t-iR'iny innrtars wen; also busy and this activity 
(iintinucd until tin- ! m nfit nth wtrt- nluvt'd afti-r a 
tour of livr days. Tiny had sustained surprism^dy 
few casuaitif s. 

In hiilfts at KriL'clhclni'T niijlif ly ".orkinj.' jjartics 
Wen the rule and a raiduij,' dff aclniifnt startcil 
irauiiui,' under (aiil. J. IS. l{osher. At 1 a.m. on 
.\uf,'Ust '.'.'(th in att( nipt to < nter the (.ernian linr failrd 
in th<- face .d an aiert eniin\, with a I'l'-s of t'apt. 
Hosher and 11 uihers woinided. Next ijiy the hat- 
taiion li :^'a!i a nio\e which hroii^dit tht in to \'i;j;nacourt 
on the .'idth, where traminj,' consisted of nuisketry and 
practice in the attack. I,.,ssis m the ranks durin{; 
.Vuj^'iisf amounted to tk 

On Septeinher (Itli tht roiirteeiith left for the .Sonnnc 
liattle front. 'I'iiey marched hv C'oisv It) Vaux-sur- 
Soiuine ami theuer tt> >iand Pit N'alJew 

i 1 

! t 


The Fourteenth Kdt VilK'-sur-Ancre on ()ctoh« r "Jikd 
and reaclieii Oisemoiit hy tram, liein<j continuall\' on 
llic fnovc until I'my ariuid ,it I,apu{:no\' on the .".•Ih. 
Here they sittlei! ilouu for a fortni<,'ht "s Irainmj: in 
f.>ooi| wcathii. The Isth Hri;,'ade now relieved the 

• 'itlh in the (anihrin sector ;uid the rourteenth \vcrc 
set to work with the tunnellinj: conipanii^, niovin;,' for 
this juirposi to N(i-u\des-Mincs. Saitiy-l.alioursc aii'l 
.Vnrutpiin. Major .1. H. Hosher n turmd lo the hat- 
talioii ahou! this lime and look o\tr coinniand f'-oni 
('oh)nel Mciizics, who \vas recjuind at Ih' I'irsI .\rmy 
School. On \o\. rnher •JHh tin- hattalion mo\(d to 
Lapuirnoy, hut wcr m hiii/ade rescr\t' at Annc<piin 
hy tin end of the mmth. 

Tiiey relieved the 1st Wist Yorkshires in the front 
htif at I'amhrin just so,. " of the la Hnsst'c canal on 
Dcccnitii r (ifh. ■Jud I.aut. I{. H. C. Macdonald with 
s nun altenijiteii to eiil' r the (ierniaii trenches 

• ti thi ev( ninu of the inih. hut the «-ii« niy wh.s on the 
alert and opened tin'. Most of the party were liil. the 
otliccr hem-.' mortalK' wounded. Scr^jt. 1{. 'I'. 'S'oun^ 

• iihI (orpl. r. .Ia\i- xhiiwed irnat eoiiraije in atteiupt- 

I 113 

The Durham Forces in the Field 

,„.. t.. n-cnvrr l,ini ;i!i'l l-'t'i nc, iv.d thr Military 

Tlir !-',.mt> • nil, w. n- m aiid mit of tins part ol tlir 
1,,„. ,,„j,i t!„. n,i Ml.- ul r. i.r.iary. In tlu- N*w V''"r - 
IIuiinMrs Maiur J. H. H'-lirr Nvas auanlci thr Mj ''f >' 
(i-Mss ami C.-S.-M. .). lluDt.r 111.- Military Mr.lal. 
CaMialtirs ,iurin^' .laiiuarv iiiclu.i.'.l (apt. H. K. Hryaiit 
;,,,.! l.i.ut. .J. II. K.lwanls kilh-.i. an<l C'apts. H. !<■ (.. 
i-:\ri- .-mii A. i;. '!'■ Hnns.-n wnimd. il. 'I hr (.rniiaiis 
sfi.ll.M .\nnr<iiiui at tmi.'s an.! M-v.ral woimii 
;inil cliiliircii wirr ainmi'.' tlif Mctiins. 

In til.- cMrU mcrniiij.' uf .laimary .'.".tli tlic Kt \\.".t 
Vnrkslmvs (-arra-ii ..ul a mi.-c<-ssIu1 rai.i and tlir |•"..ur- 
1,.,.Iltil |.r ptlv arran-.-'i h. m iid ..\rr a parly jii thr 

»\-.'Miii.'. h.ipin^' I., .alrh tlif (WTiiiaiis r-pairiiiK 
Ir.nfla's an. I .lii<j-.,uls. l>ris,,n. rs r.pnrt.-<l that a r< li.-f 
^^,.lll,l 1,. m profifcss. ■-'ii.i la.nt. S. M. \\ils..ii r.n.l 
C'.-S.-M. NMii.iKnii .-a-.h Ir.i a Ir'.aciiimnt of 17 nun 
.„".n,ss ■• N.. Man\ Land " uh< n th<- l.arrat:c canif down 
;,t al...iil 11 I'-M. On the Hanks w.rr small cM.vrriiis 
j.arti.s aii.i (apt. (.. .\. liiclianis. .n. M.C.. dnvctcd 
,,p,.rati..ns th. British fr-mt line l.i.i.t. Wilson 
,uiiip..l iniM the cn.-inx- Ir.iifli ii|M.ii t\v.) Ci-rin.ins. oiir 
i.f \ iw shot. 'I'll.' ..tluT ran away, l.nt sonic of 
tJK- .nriiiv w.Ti nior.' at.'^r<'ssi\.\ and d. li\<r. .1 a l...nih- 
iiij: atta<k uhuh \voiindr<i tli.- oilier Ixdoi. it was 
npuisrih ( .-S.-M. Nuholson's imii had only oin- 
(Jcrniaii. uho pr..ini.M\ II. -.1. and. as the . m. my mortars 
II. iw 1.1 ^'an to lir. on Ins own hiir. I In- si(,rnal to 
withdraw was ^'i\< n. Tiif raid' rs. wlio lia.l idcntiiii'-.I 
A .had (icrniiHi as 1.. lollfjinu to thr •-'f.lst I?rt:t.. 
r.-aih.-d tiu-ir own tr nrh.s witli a loss of 7 ni. n sh^;htly 
\v.,un.hd. -Jnd I. l.nt. Wilson was award. •<! tin- Military 

On I-'. hri:ar\ l.'itli tli< 1-oiirt. <-. M. iiand.-d ovi-r 
tr. I,, Ih.' I'lftc. n'h. ami sp.iit th.- r. inaindiT of 
th.- month at Husii. s an.l la Mi<|ii.ll. ri. . wli.r.- ('olon»-l 
M.ii/i.s r.-ioin.-.i thf hattalion. Early in March the 
l.attah..n cMnif up liy way .d H.'thiiii.' ami Ma/ini.'iirl>.- 
and to.)k oviT n-s.rv.' ipn.h.s m the l.oos sali.-nt inst 
north-cast .d the villa-'.' .>n the :tr.l. (.'ol.)n.l Mcnzu's 
n..w ,1. tinit. 1\ \a:al. .1 th'' loniman.i and was siacci-dc.i 

11 1 

IVcnch Warfare. JuK. I'HC) Mar.. 1^17 

l:\ .M;i.i«ir .1. 15. Husin i'. 'i Ik I'oiii ii tutli dhl tu.i tuiirs 
in tfii- fmiil lim licforc i.'<iiiiL; into (iivisioiuil rc-irvr iit 
Mfr/.in<;ariii . At tlic iml of Manh tin y ui ic in tliv 
icscrv*- or ■■ \'illa<,'c " line, ami casualtiis for tin- inontli 
had anionntcd to n kilKd mid -.'nd I.itiit. \V. Ss \( is 
ami K) wotmdi (1. l'orj)l. .1. \\ . \N ilkinson uas auardtci 
tli<- Military M.dal. 

'I'lic l-illi 1 ntli lic^'aii to 1.1. i\r aua> from the Soinnif 
on .Iiilv 'jot!! and ht-forc llic t nd of tlii- niontli ucn- in 
trcip In ■- near Arras. 'I'lif wcatlur uas u.iini. and tiir 
I utiuy nia(ti\r tli(*iii.di ai<rl. Winn ni duisionid 
ifscrv*' at Duisaiis ( arly ui AuL'nd, I.Knt.-Col. .*>. 11. 
rnllvy. ( .|{., i{o>,d \\tst K<iit l{<;:t.. arrived and 
look conirnand. (asnaitics diirni;,' this niontli only 
aiiioiintcd to T. ami the first ten days (.f Sr|it. nilur 
wen spi III al Izfi-lcs-IIatiR'an trainiiii: in pn [i.iratioii 
for tiir nturii of the division to tlir .Soninir. Thf 
l-'ifti'oijtli arrived at Frevfiit l>y train a. id r<ai lied 

I'ollllllh lifdouht on "srpti Ilil»T l.")t!l. 


















' ! 











I'iftrcii d.iys later the lialtalion arrr>fd at Foin- 
nuers liedoiilit on their ua\ out of lia!t|, . Tli. y went 
liy bus to Hilu'iiiont ami afti r i fi u daxs" ust j/ot 
on tlie niovi- au'aiii. ev< ntiially reaeiuii'.' Hitliiine on 
October lltii. On the IMli fl'.e DurliMiii- took o\er th<- 
line on t!i<' extreme left of the Camiirin sietor. The 
(ieniKiii trench mortars \v( r( very active ami ■.'mi I-ieiit. 
F. \V. (iood was woimdtd diiriii'^ this tour. W lit n 
not III till- fioiil liiif tlir hittalion nou oeen|iied keeps 
in the support iini' or were in reser\< at .Vniie()uin. 
.\s the wealliir jjot uorse the enemy lie<'ame 1, ss 
afTRrcssivt', iut Iwo attempts in November, led by 
Lieut. V. \. \. .b ssel. faded to procure an identilica- 
tion. In mother expedition -Mid Lieut. 1{. Cudworth 
\^■ns uoiimlcd b\ .1 bomb wIm!'' euttnii,' the (.'rm.ui 

Hefole lh«- end of N'oVi Ilib. r *.\\r I'ifteenth w.iit b;i( k 
to billets at Hethime, and lure Coloiu I Pedhv pres.nt- •] 
to the battalion a banner of white silk bnckiil with 
i/reen. On the front was a green cross, witli tin' !i iji nd 
" Saint ( iillibert of Durliam." Tht <'oloml lehiteo 


The Durhair. I-orccs in the Field 


i Av III tl).. ,iavs of Kdw.inl III ili<' Qu>vn liiul a 
iKiiiii.r Iliad.' an .iM s\\k nlic <>i Mimt Cutlihrrt 
HI DinliMMi Catii- .Inil. 'I'liis l.anu.T. Ix.rru- hy tlif iiicu 
of Durliaiii. rciKl.r. ,1 .•vrr-viclonous a<:a'i)^t tli.- 
Scots, and Colon.! I'.'.ll-y liop.d tli.' n.w llil^' ..otild 
|)ro\c as full of virtu.' to ins in-'ii m tlu-ir stru^yK- witli 
the 'I'luton. 'lliis .< r. iiiony took i>ia<'.' on D.-c.-ni- 
hcr tith an.l im \t day tin- Fiftcnt li inov.ii to the 
N.iu\-I. --Mm. s area,' \\n. re workui^' partus w.-rc 
suppli. li until fli.'\- wi nt into t!i.' lin.' in Hh' sector. II. -V.- til. n- was .vry i.m ..f a 
Ct-nnan aita.k. hii! Clinsttnas pass.d with nothni!: 
worse ihaii a L'a-^ l.onil>anlnieiit of Ann.-.iuin on -.Till. 'I'll.' Kil t.' w withdr.w t.. 

N(i'ux-I(s-Mii!i ^. and in tine fp'sly w.ath.T nearly tlie of .lai.iiarv was d.\ot,d t.) training ami reer.a- 
lion. H. for.' til.' liattali..n into tli.' tr.'neii. s a-ain, 
(.'olnn.'l I'.'.llev. api.oiiit.'.i (i. (>.('. .•Utii Uri-'a.l.'. was 
sucec-.'dc'.l !.v >iaj..r \. K. Daiii. 11. D.C.K.I. an.l Ma.jor 
.1. Falvev-H'.'vts l.eeain.' sd'ond in .■oiiinian.i. replaein.L: 
Maior \{. \'>. Jolmsoii. who lefl to eMinniaii.l a teelinieal 


On F.! i'iar\- I'-Mli t!i'' I'lfl'. ntli'V..! tli.' I'.air- 
teciiHi in th.' '•• \ ilhoj.' ■■ lin.' aii.i t..ok over front 
treii.'lies SIN divs lat.r. 'I'lie thaw lia-i w.irk.'.l -^reat 
|l,,\.- and ll was oft.n IM'eessary to td-e t.i tli.' open 
..round With .'oiis. .|i!enl easiialtus th.' lir. of th- 
(;eriiiaii sn-p.-r-.. The Lattdion n a.h. .1 IVthiin.' on 
their wav out of this sector ..n March and le S.>uich 
wa'. r.a.''h.<l on th.' I-Mh,. Trainin..' was .arri. .1 ..nt h.K' 
an.l loloiiel DaiiMl!. wl,.. h ft I,. .Mumiaial Hi.' '.Mh 
K.O.N'.l-.I.. Slice. ('d..l liy Mapir Fah . \-li. > !•-• 
Attack pra.'tic. in pr.paratioii f.'r th. Spring' off. ii ave 
.■nntiiiM.'.l afir th.- l'ilt..nMi inov.'d L- r..nm!.'ra. 
'rii.'v arnvcil at I I.u.l.'.'ourt on M;irch -'sth. 

Lt'avin<; l,ou\ .neourl .>ii .Inly 7th tin KiL'htcenth 
were on th.' ino\.' .v. rv .lay until they r.'.'iche.i la 
I'ern.'r.' in th.' ar.a of th.' I'lr-t Army. A w.ik lat.a 
thev to.ik th.' road imam, .inii traminj: w a- < ..ntiiiu-'d 
at la F..SS.'. On .Tulv --'Tlh the l.attalion w. iit mt.^ th«- 
hue II. ar N.uve ("hap. 1!.'. That satn.' ni.,'ht the 

Trench W'arfiirc, Juh, 19U, Mar., 1917 

(icriiiaiis til rcelv hoiiili.trdtd tiit- \\ i 

lolr liil^ailc fiiillt. 
;i.- ;iaps wfi'c blown in the t)rtaslwurk, conununini- 

t;(>n trruclR's "■■^•rf piact' 
tili-jihonc wirtvs ucn- cut. 
iiittTfd ]} CDiniiaiiy's lines hii' 

Iv ilfsttovfd and all 


I riHiii 


iivf minutes, (.'aj)t. Ince's imn drove t 

ifter a stru^'j.'ie 

Vit rinans 



lelJl Oil 

t. Corpl. 

\I. 11. Pinkney, who shot three of tlie enemy with his 
revcilver, won tiio Distiiu'uished Conduct Medal ni this 





je L 


t. V. (,. Alli 

son, who was 

ou the extnnie left of (' company's front, cntlladed 
With his Lewis jriui ii parly of atioiit .Id (iennans as 
tliey climlied the parapet. Most of these fell, killed or 
'.MUinded. and the few who tjot into tlu' tnnch were 
Noon driven off. On the rij.'ht .V company luid not 
-uffered so miich. from the iiomliardmeiit and. when the 
t.erman harraj^e lifted, their I^ewis ijun lire easily 
cheeked tlie enemy ad\iinee. I'he iinl\' prisoner taken 
uas discovered by 1) eijiiipany in the rums of Neu\c 
rliai)'lle. It was estimated that ipiitc '.'(Ml (Jermans 




ed or Wouicled, Willie tl 

losses o 

itecnth from 


tin- amo 

t line 

Hritisli artiller\ \v 

imted to T'.>. 


f th 

At till 

IS M\( rel\ 

afioiied as 

Ipport of the 1,'UI 


reijards ci.imnnition, but the si 

durinji tile raid was admir;d)le. 

'"or tlie rest of the tour till Kitrliteeiith worked hard 

lep.iirin;,' li ima;,'is, and w<re able to do so \utlioiit much 
nterfereiici- from the encni\ . W'Ik n the battalion with- 
drew to la l-"osse on Aiil'H^I Hii. (dlon 


Wes tl 

li a\e of ihc I'litditeent h and i' turned lo Phi<,'land. In iiiij 
■ilec(eded 111 the command by lacUt.-C'ol. I{. 1'^. 
( lie\ IK , •J'.Mli I,ancers (fndiaii .\rm\) 'I'ln next turn 

II th- line was 111 flirlit wf |-'est llllbi it , 


re th 

I'liyht* eiith foimd that I he breastworks had fallen into 
decay and could only be manned at mter\als. 'Hie 
-alietit called I'opc's Nose m tlic (iermaii line was the 
eeiitrc of strife in an otlnrvi^e (|uii t sector. Dunnp 
"SI pfembiT the Kii,ditecnth had one tour at Neu\c 
I liapellc Hj,'ain in \ttt. cold weather. On the 'Jlst the 
liattalion took over the front at (iivcncliy, just north of 

the la Hassce canal, a centre of mil 

lint,' acfivit; 



nu'n worked with the tnnncllers here 

la]it. .1. |}. HiiL'hi ■- (■•lilies was wounded while out 


The DmlKiiii. I t)rcc>. in liu' I'lckl 

w.ti. a w,nn^' |Mrty nn OrL^KT 1st On -h;- '-th tl„- 
Durhatus .i.part.,1, sprudnit.' urn- mt,'lit in Inthmi.- "-, 
11,,.,, w;,v tn la l>.rn.p-. OimIK'. m th.- I^imiav Army 
ar.'a. uas rfachr.l .m ()r,,,lMr ;.tii an-i truinmu was 
..arnr.l ..n till tlir hattali-n .lartr.! i,,r th,- 'uir a-rain 
„„ ,i,.. 17,1,. Four .lay. iat.r th.- Kioht.-.iith arr.v.-.i 
at th. .hatnn.i v.llam' -.f ami t.u.. uvvv 
supiM.rt p..siti„ns tti.r. . Ait.r liv .lays .,! har.i unrk, 
..alrviH^. ui.M,. an.i .li-m- un.i.r iu'avy tin. 1 1,.^ 
huriiaius ,K<M,pi, .1 th.- hu. u.'ar aiM l..un. 
,|„. tn-n.-h.s thi.-k with shim-, ll.avy aiUh. ry lin- l.a.i 
t,, \h .:. I.ut i..iin<i lU' si^ii-- .'I th.- . n.-iii> 
wh.. iM-v.-r v.utm-.-.l lut,, th.- .-xpan-M- ..i u at,-i--l..^'^'.-.i 
shrll-hoU-s .alh.i •• N.. Man-s LaiKl/- At tlu- rud ..f th.- 
,„„nth th. K,-lil.-.-i>th w.nt l.a.-k t.. lull.ts at K.^ssi^n,.,! 
Farm. Hi^ working.' parti.-^ w.r.- pr.ivuii.l win .- h.-n- 
aTi.l a .l.ta.-hm.-nt hrj.'a!i tiainm- f.-r a rai.i. UiJ 
Nusntiln r !;Mh. uh.ii th.- '.••Ju.i Bn^'a-l.- I...,k. hut .-ouhl 
,„,t h..l.l. til.- (..•rinan t nii.-hrs s.aith ..1 >.-rr.-. the 
p;,.-ht,-.iith pn,M.i<-.l a party t.. assist in p.ittin^' out a 
Mimk.- MT.-.-n; hut th, hattalinn w.r.- n..t .-n-a^'.-.i an.i 
.suficrcl n.) lasiialtus. 

\t this time IH. i'iaci- '11 th. It,. lit was 
w„rs,- than th, H.i.ut.rn.- s,..-t,,r. All t.. th.- 
tn-uch.-s l.-.l^-h tlu- villajz--. which was k.-pt l.y th.- 
(Wrmaiis iri.l.r r.-as.l.-ss lir.- ; th.- w.-ath.r ••.m,. 
not ha%.- iH'fii an.i tli.- ti-...)ps livoi ami w..rkf( 
,„„1,.,- thr mis. rah!.- ima-iiiahK-. Mnall 
w..n.l.-r that th-- Ki-ht..nth. in <-..min,.n with ..tti.r 
units, ivacuatc.i manv sick nun. 

lU I).(-cmlur ^ Ml tlic Durham, vs. r. n. arly 
,,, ,„:,k.- til. ir rai.. Wlui, th.- l^ritish l'ui.s w.-r.- lu.m-' th.- (.,.mmc.-..urt vili. nt .m that .iat.-. Hi-- 
(;..,„,an i.taiiat i.,n kilh .1 Capt. I). S. l',n aim --'n.! 
I „ lit \{ (. ( Hnslu. ami shohtU ufiuiui.-.l -JihI 1. lent. 
^\ u I., an. Th.- w, nt .,v.r .,n tli.' I'.Hh. i..un<l 
,1„. .,ali.nt .i.M-rt.-.i ani N.ry mu.h .lama-..l hv llu> 
British -un lir.-. aiul r.turn.-.i with a lew m.r. sli-lit y 
.^,.„„,,|,,,|. Tw,, -lavs iat.r th. K.-ht.-.uth Mith.ircw t.. 
,,.o at Fam..'h..n. ulicr-- Chustmas uas spent. 

Ian.-. -Corp!.,.n an.i IM,-. N.-slntt l-.tli r- .-iv.-.l 
'I,. Military Mclal for tlu-ir -allant cn.iu. t .iuruig tli.- 

Trench Warfare, JiiK. I'Mh Mar.. I'M / 

laiil and iii tin- New \'iMr'^ Hcimmiis \v,iv aiiin iiiiioil 
tlic award cf tin- .Mditar\ C ros^ l., Ma ..i W. 1). l...\\c 
and C'apt. J. H. Hnt.'li(s-(,aiius. 

Tlif Ki;,'littfiitii had aiiiitli-r tuur in tin' line uIrti- 
tiu> found the trfnclics \suv<f tiian vwv liffi-rc <,'oin^ 
liack fni rest and trainintr. lirst at Fmluii-lc-I'ctit and 
( hdrcliDis. Wist nl Ddulltiis, an<l then at 'I'lnivrts and 
MarifUN. On .lannarv 'J'-'nd t!ir Durham^ moved to 
Hcu/.rconi t . wliiTf Iraninij^ and miration contnuicd 
in hrii'lit, fro>-t\ wcatlur. It ua^ nrarl\- a month hitcr 
uhrn tlicy canif hack into viiji|i(irt positions ui tht- 
Hi Initi !!!<■ strtor. 'I'hf iinniy was known lu In- rctir- 
in;,'. and wluii thi' Ki<,'liti<nth ocinpuii fiont tit-nrhcs 
oil l''(liruar\' "J.'itli tins \srrr sitii 1" iiind Ins linr. 

Karl\ next morning' si\ phitoons. iinih r 'Jml Lituls. 
Ktifli and Liaii. w<ic ordi-nd ti. oiriip\ tlir (.iiiiian 
tirst and second line tniiehes near Nami-less Farm, hut 
the enemy was slulhni,' these positiniis ami the aiKance 
was held Up hy ills harraye in " No Man's Land."" Mi an 
while I.anee-l'orpl. Wi-!^' and I'te. I.auer paid an 
unolliciai visit to the (.oiniiiei'ourt salunl, whieli tiny 
penetrat((i as far as tlie li;:ht railwax, s.-.-nii.' iio 
(.ermans. Tin- liritish harrai.'' pri\ei,tid further 
pro;;r('ss, so tliey returned with their ie|iorl. 

In the afternoon an ail\anee was made aloni.' th.e 
siinkt'ii road and liy mi(hii;.'lit positions were taken up 
as ordered. l-'iirtlur j,'round was yarned iiy dayliL'ht 
of the •JTtli and at r).!.') p.m. two platoous. led hv Jiid 
I.ieuts. C. {;. l-"indla\ and J. 11. Huhv , entered (loinme- 
eourt and estahlislied posts whieh were iianded o\cr 
next morning' to the troops on the left of the .'Ust 
Division. Moltke (.rahen was oeeiipied lati r and in 
the e\cmnL' of the '-'Nth p.itrols found the (.erniaiis 
held l''irst (iarde .stelliiiiL' in stnn^'tli. .\t f. a.m. on 
Mareli 1st. •.'iid I, nut. .Mel'oiinell reiioited that iie had 
attacked up Hom (iraheii a water-l iL'u'ed eoinmuniia- 
tion trench witli oik |)!atoi)ii. luit could make vers 
little |)r(ii.'ress. Attacks up Lihmann and Meeker 
(-rahcns lioth wide, shallow Ireuehes much damai.'ed 
hy shell lire also falLd. .\-. th. Stokes (,nins wtTe 
' loijyod witli mud it was oli\ious that more arlillerx' 
preparation wa^ needed, Duriiifi tin- afternoon patrols 

1 in 

6 ; 





Trench Warfare, July, I'^lo .\lar.. 1*M7 

kept cDiilact uilli \\iv riii-my ainl all !,■ \l iia\' tin- 

lintlsll ^'UIIS cut till- (.Mlliall WlIT 111 IliiUt of !■"l^^l 
(.aide Sttlliuii,'. At iiitilit RpailiiiLT |>aitic> Wdc 
rcporteil to be husy aiui C'orpl. Hij:^ found that lut^xt-u 
HrckiT and Leliniaiiu tlu- wire was iiiiiia!iKi;;<il. At 
t, A.M. on Mareli ;ir(i -.'nd Lieut. M. K. Hit. !,iii, .M.M.. 
led hoiubiuf,' attaek u|! i'ioiiier (.ralRii. but altiiou^'h 
he did >onie damage a stroiiy block with thick wiii 
cheeked the advance, .vl T.'_'") A.M. a platoon umicr 
Script. Keav vorked up Lchniami and <,'ot a lootiiiLr iii 
First {.arde Stilluiii,', lionibm^,' n^;ht and left. Anothi r 
attaek was made up lieek-r and sui'eeedcd in joiniii^' 
hands with Serj^t. Heay's men who were m touch with 
the tioops on the left. Duriiii,' the afternoon repeateii 
attempts were made to work siuith-east aloii;: I'list 
(iarde Stellunj,', nj) .Sehwcickcrt . which was Jiill of 
water, and up i'loiiier (irabcu; but the wire and barri- 
cades were \ci\ stroiii/, ami tlefeated i \cry as■^auIt. 
Our posts were tluii withdrawn while tlic luavics and 
mortars carried out a forty minutes" lM,mbardinent. 
This ceased at :>.\U r.M., when -Jnil i.u uts. llitchm and 
.F. B. Bradford rushed the whole position and liombtd 
the duj,'-outs. Nolle of the ^'arrisou escaped and •_'■; 
(.trmans ami twu niaeliiiie-t;ims wire taken. .\ 
cduntcr-attaek from St coiid (iaide Stellun;,' followed 
iiut was easily repulstd and at nijiht the Ki<,'hteentli 
withdrew on relief to l{osai,Miol Farm. Casualties 
.imoimted to 1.") killed. 'JS wounded, ami ."t missii:^. 
'I'he battalion received the conj;rat ulat ior:s of the l-"irst 
Arm\' commander and the Dist int'iiishi d Sei \ ice Order 
was conferred upon •_'nd l>uut. II. F. llitcheii. NFM. 
•^nd Lieut. .L B. Bradford reeeiveil th"- Militar\ t'ross 
Mild the Military .NL-dal was awarded to Lanc<-('or|)l .. 
I. Bi^';.'. H. W. Lawer, Laskey. llutehm-on ami Fra^ir 
and to IHe. Voekniek. 

After a rest the Ki<,'hteenth \sorked for mm ral da\s 
on the broad-ijauL'e railw;i\ from ( olincamps lo Serre 
across the old bat ! le-;,'rounil of .July 1st, P.Hf,. They 
moved away on ^Llreh Ihth, and arrived m B>thune a 
week later. Here the Diirlianis staved, aitaelieel to the 
t'.Htli Division fe)r defence purposes, until A|iril I'Jth. 
when tliey eunie se)ufh ai'aiii to work on the' .Vrras- 



'I'hc I )iirli;ini Icrcfs in tiu |-irlii 

li.ullrul li;^lll I-^lllv'.^IV III llllr I'Ut i.rld U.alilM. 'Ihrir 

(■aiii|i was Mfiir M. Ni>-li(ilii-. .i ii'iiili.rn -uluif I Ana-. 

Th,. Nin, tc. !,tll lilt tlir SnimiH- liilttlc l:'t'- Ml 

Aii;_'u->l. ami u-ir cdii-t ant 1\ mi tin- niiivc until tin- Hiij.'aili \v(iit I'ltd till' t niicliis at Ana- on 
Scpt.nilMr :iiil. 'ria l>attalh.M. umu (^ •tiiinandiil l.y 
1,11 Ml .-(,,!, K. (. Dciil. riiiiaiind in this sector till 
Ihc . 11(1 I.I N"\i mix ,-. \ltrr a iIim ha r;:.' ni ;:as ,,ii tlir 
liliillt 111 Ort'ihi I- stii. tuu ral(illlL' piirtics nf the Niii- 
ti.iith al triiipti-ii 1.1 cntrr tlif (.iniian tiiiichrs. Imt 
Ih. iiiriii\ \\as all rt ami his uirr was ]ii.iii' rl\ I'Ut. 
•.'rid I.Hui. I-'. (.. ^^iiiith uas iiMirtalls vm'Uu. hd iii this 

On \ii\rnili<r -titli tin- (■iriiiaiis l>liu a iii'iir m 
th'- larU iii.irnintj. and thru (iiiiiid a ciatrr in tin- 
hattaliiiii liii.'. Hrl.iiT tlir>- urn f..rird ti) uithdraw 
I.iiiit. .1. Mundv Wiis fatall>' wuuiidfd and s(\(!al nicii 
and '.'nd I. lent. Hardini: u<ir also jut. 'I'hr Diiihanis 
Wire niakiii;.' a raid at almiit tin saiii;- tiiii. . Imt tin 
Hritish liarraj,'c \\as shnrt ami fill aiming' tin- men as 
thi\' ajifuiiarhtd the (frrmaii \\irr. Ni\irt litlrss the 
cii'inx tniii'li was ( iitri'cd ami sc\tral dn^-uuts wcrr 
lii.nilifd lirfuii' Mir party witlidrrw witii tlir lnss (,f 
'l\u\ liifut. W'tllHiiirnr \'.ni:mii(i and 'J imn l<illid. 

On Dfcrndn-r ".'mi tin- Ninrttinth niii\fd nut of tlir 
Arras trfmliis t.ut stayed in tlu ( ity till tin- 'JUtli. 
siijiplyin^ workers for tiie tinii.illers who were Imsy 
eleann;,' tlie vaults and underground passa<,'es of t!ie 

elty. 'I'llrsr \M!e to lie utilised in asseinfillUf.' for tile 

hiir offensue 111 tlu spring'. Major \V. H. (.reeiiwcll, 
from the 1st Diiihaiii l,i<..lit lnfantr>, joined tlie 
liattalii'i here. UuriiiL; the month the inlaiili> ol the 
disisiou well all mi diealiy examined and, as a result, 
the authorities alioiislied till ■■ Haiitaiii " standard. 
■|lie whole of .laiiuarw I'd?, \..,is spent liy the Xiin- 
teeiitli at .Maisiiil .*^t. I'oi. wlieme unlit men were sent 
awa\ and replaei d l.y new-eomeis of ordinary licij^'ht. 
'I'hiis the Nincteentli, III coiriinon with all the lialtalioiis 
of tlu .'J.'ith Division, ceased to !:.■ •• Hai.lauts.*" The 
(iri},nnal leeruits had I.e. n men of wondiTful plusuiuc 
despite their hitk of .iiclios— it was not uiudiihuoh to 



■|-r, iu-h Wan.trr. ,lul\. I'Ho \ T'l; 

till,! a III. Ill '. In) III ll.ii_.lit \Mtli ;i <ll. st 1 1 nasurt'IlU'Ilt 
I, I Kl i!u'ii<-s luit iliiriii:,' tlif scr\ici' .>t tin ilivf-smi in 
Fraiicf tlic ranks had lucii rtpliriislud \<y .Iralt-- .•"ii- 
taiiimj: a l.iij:.' |)r..|H.rti..ii ..t st n|)liii<.'s ami iiicu who 
w. r.' in.(ii.'a!l> iiiitit. Tli.' u<\\ nifii ii..u r.f. iv.d unr 
hii.' iiiatt-nal aii.i a (h\isiMi,al tiaiiiiii;:* ih.m ua- 
|.,riii.(l t.. j.'1-l th.- .iralts lit for sctm. .• as soon a^ 
l„,ssii.h'. (...l.iii.i Driit ii.niinan.i.'.l and I.init. 
.laiks.iii ol 111.' Niiitt. ciith l..caiii. .luait.rniast.r of 
I his niiit . 

On FfhrnaiA 7t|i tin Niiiit.iiit h Mi..\.-d at:aiii and 
.irn\''d at N'ljiiiar.iiiri Iraunnj: on ih-- '.Mh. Diirin;,'' inaii'lMs 111 fi.i^ts wcath, r tiif httl.- iia n still uitli 
the liattalion utTc on tlnir ni.'ttl.- ami nothin.: could 
p.Tsuadr t.i fall out. AH.r t.n da\s" trainun.' at 
\'ij,'nac.iurt. th-' NiiH'tcciith ii'.w a s[.iriidid tij,dit mi: 
unit canii- smith \fy tram t.. Marci'l(a\f. The 'Ar>\\\ 
Divisiiiii w<-ri' rill. A mi.' th.- I''r. neh in tin- l.ilions M-ctor 
s.iuth of the S.iinim' ru.r ami tii.' nnrhanis caiiir int.. 
a support | ..n K<liruar\ '.'tUh. The tnin'h.-s 
\v.r<' poor and \(T\- iiunldy an<l tin- . ncniN' was kni>wn 
to lie on the point of r.'tirmi.': iait uli.-n th.- Nimt. ruth 
took ovtr th.- Im.' the rein f was int<-rrui>t. .1 hv litaxy 
slu'U tire. In the front tr. nc'i- s iiio\rmtiil was alnio-t 
mipossililf owiiiL' to the Mind wlmh |ir.\ .iit.-d two 
attempts of aii.ithcr hattalion to can) up tr.nch IiooIn 
to tlic Durhaiiis. Tht- slmrp frosts cans..! tr.-mh foot 
and whiMi t';c lour was finished ful!\' >!» \>vv cmt. of 
1) coinpanv, uii'. ha.i ha<i the voirst p..siti. n to hold, 
were unalilr to inanh hack to lull. ts. Th-y wen- con- 
veyed by motor amlmlances and th.' hattaiion limbers. 
This company w. re personally < i)ii;Matiilate<i on tiuir 
cndnraMCf hv th.' di\isi. .n;d (ommaiider a.iil S< rt;' . 
\V. \Vils(.n rtceivcd the DistmHUished Coiidu. ! M'-dal 
for liis wt.rk during' this tour in the line. 

After the battalion im.v.d back t.. l^osi.r.'.. ..n 
March tlth. th.' last draft ..f th- unfit w. nt awa\. 
Working' partus were now m L'leat d.niaml until th.- 
liiif was taken over a^-ain. When th.- (icrmaiis retreated 
oil this front th.-' in(;th Hricad. wen- iti divisional 
reserve an.) tii- Nmct. .'nth. folliwinn up the a.han'-c. 
occupied the old iJntish fn.nt liiic near Chilly on 




The Durb.iiP.i Inrccs in tiic I'icld 

^'arc'li Istli. Nt \t djiy liny i;ni\((i f.jiwanl (i\ir thi- 
rail\va\ track to Hallu for uuik < n tin roau.s, wlnU- 
Colijiicl (iri-cii\S(ll aii.l iii> Dliicc.^ -.tiHiiid ilic inriiiaii 
(l('\t' sysli 111. I'lir wiatliir was --lill \ ( ry Lad 
wIrii, oil .Maitli •J'.Mli. tli( wiiik v.ic coi;' uiiuil from 

Diuiiij,' March the (li\;sioiial tiaiiuuf,' hattalioii was 
(lishaiuh (I, Imt ColoiK 1 I)tnt \vt iit to tli. liii'ii (. lif-hiri' 
Hff,'f.. la. 111. -Col. W. H. (.r.diu.ll Ikiiij; (iiiiliriiifd 
III !lif coiiimaiKi of till- .\iii(t( tilth. 'I'hc spirit ami 
(■tlici(:i(\- (if th«- ii-constitiitfd hattalioii alnady owi-d 
niiK h to hiiii. 

|!i V 

III July |{ coiiiiiaiiy of thr 'I'utiit iclli. iiiuh r (apt. 
I). J'). .ItsMij). coniiiM ii(( d to iiiiin for a r.iid. The 
haltalioii wfic still m fjic s(( lor north of the river l.ys 
and on July •J'Jnd (.dloml !,• atlur uas wiaindtd while 
visiting' the wciiiij.' partas. Major J. \\ . HilK. M.l'., 
sueeeeded till he eollllliaial . 

The raid \\as to he oii a Lut^e seal.. r.arlied Wire 
;,'ates f.u' liloekini,' tln' (ieiiiian tr.'ieh.s and ladd. rs 
sealing' the parapet wire paii of the . (lUipiiHiit . while 
a part\' of sapp. 's \m n- lo earr>' ileiiiolition ehar^'es. 
Many of Ihe nun \Mie ami. .i with re\ol\-ers and knoli- 
kerries. The ni^'lit . lies, n was that of Jul\ •2('>t\\. Tlic 
raiders were to form up on ta|).s laid iMit'id.- the wire, 
hut as t hi > did so ,1 hiisi lie harraire .ani.' dow n. causing' 
liea\y losses. C'apt. Ji ssop wiiit foiward in tin centre 
aiiif then I ndeavoiired to l" t in toii.h wilh Ihi' men on 
Ills Ihmks. lie Vint hack laiiil. {'aiioil to i.orL'aiiise 
and hrin;; forward all th< m< ii h.' could lind and. with 
tills I emf(,reeinent , appioa.hi .1 lla- (iiriiiaii win- vUmli innul l,y uiir lioinliaiilment . K\intuall\ all wre 
Older, d to withdraw and did so, liiinyiii); the Woumled 
with III. in. •Jml I, nut. Hiitlon ami his part\ on the 
lilt hail III en nior.'. Tin \ foinul tin wire 
.lit, r. aehi d the ( par.ip.t. and het;iin to 
hollili I ill rill 111 \ w !ii II till- sitriial to \Mthdraw was sei n. 
On the riirht Ser^d. Hanlnii and I in. n hst direelinu 
wh. n (Oil Mill.' haek and sfient next da> in the ^.Tass 
of •• \i. Man's Land."' llu y i.'..t in safely afJrr dark. 

.\s iiearK half t'- I ((» im n . njia^'cd were kill.d or 


I'lcncli Uarfarc, Julv. 1916-Mar., I'M 7 

womuii'd liy I 111' fiKiiiv li:>rr,ij_'c \vliicli \>v:<]< liji ilic 
;issfiiil)iy. III' r:i!ii v, ;is (loiiiiicd to failupf. "Jixl Lieut. 
IL -M. Full|aii]( s was awardtd llif Military Cross; Laucc- 
Corjils. T. ('nimii;n;,'s and \V. S. Smith and Ptc. H. 
i^ockt y nciivt'd tin- Military Medal. Losses am. united 
to ?•_'. iiiejudin^ •-'!!(! Lieut. IJntton an<l Capf. Jessop 
w ho were lioth wour.ded. 

On Aui:ust Itllli the Hs» Division were relieved, the 
Twentieth liandinj; o\cr their billets in Armentieres to 
the 'I'hirteeii'h. The Wearsiders entrained for the south 
a week later and then earned out hattie traininj^ at 
^'alleollrt Hiissiis. On .S( pleiii' "T (Ith th.e mo\e to the 
.■^''niine liattle fr<>iit eotnim need. 



'I'he W'earside liaita'''ii iKj^aii to move away from 
the battle aii'a on Oeti'inr i:<th. I'landers was the dt s- 
tinalion of the divi-ion and the Twentieth arrived at 
(;odewaers\i !,!e liy train on the '.'Oth. After oeen[>y- 
inj,' huts at Ontario Camp, near Heniii;,'helst . they took 
o\(r treiieln-. on ()etolier '2Uh in the s; ctor near St. 
1-loi \shieh was eoinmandi i liy the enem\ on the 
\\ ytsehaele-Messiia s ridi^e. Hire the winter was 
spent. 'I'he Tweiitiilh fouiid had trenehis and weak 
\\ire, liiit iiy working hard they effi etc d i:'( at impro\i'- 
iiient. I'.itrols were so aetiM' that the tneiiiv rarely 
Miitiirei! into •• No Man's Land " and the efforts of tlie 
I)iiihani stnpi's He' with such siicet ss that (ierman 
iiipiii:' \i!tu..ll'. ><as-d. >Lin\ men <if tin battalion 
worked with the tuninlhrs who wire Imsy with pi«- 
paratioiis uiid'i"roiind fo?' the offensiNc of IIk followinij 
.lune. ( )n .laniiaiy 1st, I'.tIT, the trineli streni,'th of 
the bali'dion was |u ollieers aiMJ tii.'J men. 

With the >,■( w \iar lame eohhr weather and more 
opportunities for patrol work. The Miitish artiller\ 
and niaeh!ne-:.'uns opened with ifreat effi ct on several 
occasie.ns will I patrols loeati d i in ni\ parties working 
.it niulit .uid lliiM indicated the tar^'it. .'^■verai times 
duiint; .I:inuary the derman :,'Ui' and nii'i'ars boin- 
bardtd the trenches of the Twintuth with <,'reat 
\iolcnce. but the l< sfs of tile battalion fur ihis month 
wore only ".'<<. 

.Snow fell !>< foil' I'"ebruary !■ ;,'an and tin hard 


/^ P] 



'f ^ ' 

The Durham Forces in the Field 

,,„,,,, ,,, ,,,,,,1,,., ,0 1,111, rl,M.,s. On thr 
of iMl.rui.rv -.Mih th.n u.s a imtr.a .ncountrr m wImH. 
„,., ,,„,„v fuu^'ht .t-.utiv nn.i S.rj^t . Wmt-T. M.M.. 
Nvas ,nort,.l!v u<miMl. ,1 aftr, l,av..n.t t ,im -mr (.t'n.uin. 

nni'.n.v.-,!. Thm. umv f, u ra.naltHs. and .Iraf ts 
„„.,.. aM.,1 th. stnnj.'fh nf th. I.attah..,, who tzr.atU 
,„.,„.t,lr.l l.v s>. I. malic trainiu- wh.n out of tlir Imc 
sp.rial atl( iitiou li.iii!.' I»:ii'l •" nin-^k- try. 

■ii„ Tnv. nlv-S.<oii.l u. IV on th.' nio\f from .Inly Mr<I 
„„,,| ,1,, sth niviMon -an,.' thr linr at <'">"•'>•; 
,„st soutl, of liu la Mas.,r canal. Hv July l<th the 
|.„,n,Trs ucrc asscn.Mci at Annc,,uu.. ami i.ut n, nearly 
., fnrtnn'hfs w-.rk with the -J.-.Kt Tunndin...' ( ompanv. 
Hntivh nniuni' op, rations wcr.' a feature of th.- a.'tivity 
,,„ tins I.ut th.' .hviM..n harn.-i th. . n.iny m 
,M rv wiv an.l provoked vif.. roils r. tahation in kind. 
Th. I' ih.r.h.r.' w.-rk.'.! un.ler ^'tvat .lith.nlties. 
(»,, th.' n.L'ht of .Iiilv -J'.Hh a (..rinan '"MKlintTj.any siir- 
|)nsc(i a corp 
th.A l>!.\v UJl 
Durhatiis w. r.' kill-.l .n-i on." was cap ur..l. 

On \n"ust ih-' hallalmu f.. 
l„,l u,.rk c,.nlniii..l on s an-l nnne-shafts On 
l|,r -jnth -A ni.n wer.' hiiric.i l>y < n.'iny sh.'ll tire. 
l„it u.M promptiv .hiL' ""t owinf '" H"' a.tion 
,,f |j,,'. \\. I?. Wlut.-. HeavA- rams now .niail..! 
.lalM.rat.' .Iraiiiinii op.ratioiis and m Septemh. r a partv 
sp.nt n.r.rlv a f.>r1iu.'ht at V.rm. Ih's dramm-jth.' hst.n 
„'„ .,,ll,.n.s south ..f tl,.' Hulln.'h n.a.l. On the -janl 
,so"".n,o,i m. n 1 d fn.r.i th.' titl. ami '.Mh Durham la-hl 

Inranlr\. 1 i ,1 

In Octuh.r til. Mh Division rehev.d bv tli.' 
•'1st an.l th.' I'i..i' ui.i\<'.i ha-k on th.' lotli an.i 
rntrain.'.l f.>r th.' s..uth afl.r a hw .lavs* . 1 Iwv 
i.ach.'.l Ih.' (■ ta.1.1 .'am!. ..n O.tohcr l.-lh. 

Three (onipam's ^.f th.- h.ttt dion r.aehed tli.- (dad. 1 
a.,ain .'ii \..v.Mnl..r 1st aii.i .\ ...mpanv arnvc.l two 
dav- hit.r. On the "Ih th. I.attah. m marched to la 

pns.'.l a ...rp.iral an.l M m.n in a mine-shaft which 
tlHV 1.1. w III. with a' char^'.'. Thr..' of tli.- 


Trench Warfare, July, 1916 Mar.. 1917 

i'>M(|iU't( ric. iiiar Moiiiaulian. ii ditlicult joiiriKy <ivtr 
tniidtly roads coiit.'i'stt'd with transport. Tlif Sfli 
Division u<rr now f,'oinf,' into the line luforr K' Transloy, 
and llif I wcnly-Sccond startid a period of strfiinous 
work on the desolate liattie irrounds. aeross which 
eoniniunieations liad to lie niaiK' j,'ood. Three com- 
panies worked on a new c<inHniinieation trench from 
t.meliy to thi front line, wliile I) eoinpanv Iai<l dnck- 
li.Mrds up to Flank Treiu h. --o well known to tlie 
Kievcnth. On the lOtli the liattalion lost ti killed and 
r.> wounded hy shell tire. A iiarra;^e of ■,'.is shells cut 
off the Pioneers from the forward c!ul of their task next 
day. for the jjas helmets of most of the men had liecome 
saturated with tiu- wet and were of no use. 

The division now went out to rest, hut th.e servicis 
.f tlie Pionet rs were > ! auned hy the Chief En^'inccr of 
tile (■ori)s and work was done ( n corduroy roads from 
(.mchy to Leshdufs and l.incli\ to Flers. The liattali( ii 
also made fascines at (aft. t Wood, near Carnoy. and 
tilled m the pipe line from lii< remains of that village 
towards Maricour!. At last, on Novcmlxr •.".»! h, the 
haftalion left to join the Nth Division, doint; most of 
the journey to Horiiov m liuses. Durin<,' the moiiMi 
casualties Jia'l totalled U\ killed and wounded. 

Training,' was carried on duriii!,' most of Decemli.r 
and reiiiforci rill nts of 'J"it'.. not all fully trained, arrived. 
When the hattalmn moved uj) on l)i ci nilier "JtUli, 
Major D;r.idvon, iaeut. Cooke. C.-S.-M. Woods and 
C.-Q.-M.-S. Hol(s were left behind to form tlie staff of 
a new Works Hattahoii. The Twcntv-Sci'ond r( nclied 
camp at Hray. only to move on Decemtier '2Tth 'o 
another pioneer <'amp where a<-conunodation was 
insuiru'ient. The line taken ov. r 1)> the ,s;li Division 
was heyolid Hancoiirt and faced the wood of St. Pierre 
Vaast. Work was commenced at once c>n communica- 
tion trenches, hut at the end <»f the month it was 
decided to do no new diL'i'Hi:,' wliilc the mud lasted. 
The front was to he held liy •' island " |iost'. which 
could Ix' coiuiected when the ground was drier. The 
Piotit ers soon had twenty of these jiosts under «'on- 
stniclioi!. tliousjh tnnteriai was hnni to ohtain and 
proi,'riss suffered accordm;;!,\ . < >n .lainuirv '.Mh the 


r 4 


I Wl u. 

The Durham Forces in the Field 

(„iinaii ;niuiur.s scored Iwo dmct hit- -n (Hic " island,"* 
killiii" :{ in.u and woiuidniK iinotlur, whilr (;ne of 
the l^n-vnif,' pi.rlv was alsn killed. On the foUownit; 
day the" Tu.ntv-Seeonil iiin%e(i hack to Freneh tuUets 
at"(hii)iliv, on'the Sonirne. Tlie eanips lure were so 
maeeessihle hv reason of the mud that the wliole l)at- 
tali(jn had to "work on niovinf,' some of the lines nearer 
the road, after draiiiinj,' the new ground. On 
January -J-Jnd the Pioneers moved to Maure].as Havine 
where shelters were fairly -^ood. \V..rk now (. .mm. need 
ui)on two main eommunieatioii trenches, called Affile 
and Ahode Amiiucs, u^nna forward to the Sth Division 
hue which ran ro!i<:hl\ from north to south hetwet'ii 
IJouchavcsn.'s and Moislaiiis. Hard Iro-^t made |)r<)j,'ress 
slow and ditlicult and tli.' trenches, owm« to iiisutfic lont 
mat. rial, were no! prolxrly revetted and could not he 
( \iiected III stand a thaw. 

._,,,,; 1,1, lit. (i. 1{. iJurnett was wounded on 
iMhrmiiv- As the montti went on the wlwde 
l.attalion ;,'rad.iiallv moved forward to Marrn"'res Wood, 
al.oiit a n'lile I.ehmii Houcha v. sn. s. All work was in 
preparation for a pioiected attack 1ml tlie thaw niiide 
matters diHieiilt. Infantry carryiiii,' parties, hrmu'iny 
material for du^r-outs. were del.ayed t>y the mud and by 
the trallie m the trenciies and sometimes did not arrive, 
'i'he sth Division were to attack the (.erman 
,,u,'li.iiis r:iJ. and n(irth-east of Houcha\esiies. uilh the 
■ ,h(. (I of driviii;,' the ( neiiiv fri'm the t:n.mid winch jrave 
(il.s.rvalinii of Hoik ha\( sues \alle\ and the valley 
riiiiiim;' iiMrth-wist '■> ilancourt. A and (' companies 
of the' 'I'v.eniv-St I oml were attached to the 'JMh 
limeade on the left, and \\ ami D companies to the 
•J.-.tfi iipnii tlic rl^'lu. .\s usual the task of the Pioneers 
was to di!,' commumeation trenches across '• \o Man s 
Land '■ when tlu' infantry had entered the enniiy line. 
The opi rations had lieen delayed first hy tht frost and 
then l>> the thaw ; hut now ions were fairly 
(rood, thniii,'!) A"ile Asctiue was only passable as far as 
the hriL'ade lu a<Iipiarters at Aldershot and the dun- 
oiiis III tlie -lifiporl line were untinished. 

At '..l". \.M. on March tth the mfantry attacked. 
.\ (>.mp,iii\- "\ t|p' Twenty-Ser(,n<l were hronj'ht up anil 

TrLMich Warfaic. JuK, IMK, -Mar., KM 7 

.larttd vMirk li\ n.Io a.m.. tla- tXiirt site of tin trciicli 

liavitit: In I 11 (Ifcidcd fill [)n\ Hiiisly by Ciipt. (i. I'. 

HMJiit s afttt [)trsi)iial rccoiiii.ii^Naiic''. The luislilr ^lirll 

tiic, fi clili- at first, <,'r<\v in \nhiinr Inwards inid-iia\- 

and at '_' r.M. was almost a !> irra;:r. |{iit A company 

had nuw i\\\<; a sinni>us trcncli aliouf -Hi \ards Iniifr tii 

a drptli •>{ '} fttt. 'I'liis comiictcd tlir |iiii(tnin of I'allas 




^^UtH ^ 




J." •,•' 


'rrtiicli and Pallas Allty with -air old fr-int line. Tlif 
cuinpany witlidn w soon afl<r. luit wiTf nitiayt d next 
dav m assistiii},' the -J-'dli l{rii,'a<lc to consolidate flic 
captured positinns. A lar^c (piantity of wire and sen w 
pickets were carried up. hut work on Frit/ Trench, 
winch had Imcm much damat.'ed 1>\ the Uritisli shell tire, 
v.a-. impossihle l>v dav so all liands e'lie. n'raled iifion 
deepi iiin;i I'allas Alley. 

(' cfimp.niv, iindc! (apt. K. W. While, ■ ame forwanl 

. 1 •_".» 


i n 


Tlu- Durliam I'orccs in \hc V\M 

.„. ,'l,r rv.M.n- ul til.' Ml,. MH.l nut !,.;,vy sImII lire 
l,rf..r.' na.-hm- Uu oM I'-nH-l' f'""' '""• -"'' ';"''!*• 
\ .1 Ailrock w.iit forxsaid iumI! thr sit<' of tli(' 
iask. tlu.iit,'li hr Nvas >ni|'..l at and ins ..rdcrly 
v.oui..l.-.i .n thr 1.-. Tlir .•..nipauy crav.!. .1 ..ut into tlir 
rornur " N.> MaiiV I-an.l " nndrr tlif (;cnnaii iM.inlwini- 
in.-nt and a F"""' "'" ""' <'^' ''"'•■ ''f """'^ 
.,f the atla.k. 'I'lns was .cinctly ^an-rd l>y means 
,.f a c.Hiipass l..ann-: anv drviafioii fnrtlirr left would 
havr l.r.Miiiiit t.. .inpit-r Tnncli. still ocnipir.l 
|.\ th'' cnciiiv. The IKU coinniiiiiicatuni tniicli, l.>(» 
\ards :n i<ii<.'lli. was .In^: i fret <1 iinlus .icrp Imt an 
:,tt.inpt t.. wnv It liad to !„• ahandoiird as th( niylit 
was not dark <n.i'i.;h. On th.- tu.. rollowiii}: nit,'hls tlic 
.■-.mpaiiv dn^' a n. w Inn.ii. 1M> > lonj,' and :. f.<l 
t; mclics df.p with lire liavs at shott intirvals. con- 
n,rlin.' I'allas Alhx and Pallas Snpi.ort. A part of tl.r 
n. w fn.nt lin.' winch had l..rn llatt.nrd !.y shell iire 
was r<-dii^ and iioinl'iiu' liairieades were « re»'ted in 
I'Vit/ Alley and at the <nd of Jupiter TreiH h. 

Cipt. A. II. KmI'som. with l.aiie.-Seiiit. A. L. 
Stephenson and a iniiner. v,.nt forward ( arlv to tape 
,,-it the ronminnieatioii tieiiih oi, Itie nijhl tiaiik \\liieli 
uas to !.. .In;: l.v H eoniiian> . They aeeninplished tins 
with i,M(al ditlieultv under th.' (.eriiia:i 1 irrajje l,v 
crawlinir from |)oiiil to pt.iid. taking' advaiita«c of rvery 
eoiiveiiieiil shell-hole. Tilt re was euiisideralilc iiiacliine- 
t'un tire and snipin[r from tin ri<.'ht. so tin' <-ompany 
had to come f.rward in small parties and fii^r Ivinfr 
down. \ small post was . stahhshed 'IW yards forward 
and atioiit h.ilf that distance from the enemy line on 
Ihe daiit.'irous Hank. At <;..'i(i r.M.. when 1) eomitauy 
took ov.r the task, the trench wa , •.".'(» vards lonjr. half 
of it .". fe( t i; inches (hep and th( r( st I f( ct ") inches 
.jeep. I) com(>anv. under (apt. J. .1. Kv( rati, worked 
steadilv through the m-ht. and ijot down to a imiforin 
d( pth of six feet imd( r (,ccasional hcaw shell lire which 
(■•iiised some c.isuallies. On the next m<,'ht the com- 
pany went out a;iain to wire Hh trench and put down 
fr. nch l.oards. I.nt the S.O.S. si.Mal involved " staiidin<.' 
to ■■ and little Work could lie done. 

The loss( H of the T\\( nt\ -Seicnd were H killed and 

i t 

Tiuich Warfare, July, 1916 Mar., 1917 

■js \v(iiiii(l< 'I, inclndiiit; •Jml l-nnts. ('. A. H. Wliitc and 
\. (;. L. .Mullen. tiqit. A. II. Holisoii was auardrd 
III. Military Cross and Scr^'t. U. (.arl>ntt, I.ancc-S<Tf,M . 
A. I.. .Stcplunson and I'tc. H. Hopps rcctivid the 
Njihtary Medal. 

On the ni{,'ht of March 7th li roinpany had :J 
III. 11 woinided wliih' di;,'(;int,' and wirinfj the ne\> front 
lull of the •J.'ith Hrij,'ade on the rij,'ht ; on the '.ttli the 
'-aiiie company dug a new trench eonneetiii},' Pallas and 
I'ntz Trenches. I) company pnttinj: out the wire. 
Tlieic were se\tral casnaltics and 'Jnd Liciit. I'. I). 
Minimcr-^cales was missiiif;. Uy March lllh the con- 
tinuous rain made the {,Mdund very liiHieult to work in 
and the troo[is were very tired. A and (' companies 
willidreu to Maurei)as IJavine for work hehind the- 
luic. hut (' company came n|) a<,'am on the 12th to 
di'j III place of I) company who were exliaiisted. On 
!hi l.'ith •_'iid Lieut. K. I{. IJichmond was killed. 

The (Jerman re'reat iiad now commenced and l>y 
'd irch r.Mli Moislains was clear of the enemy. A le wly 
ilu:: yraxe there was foimrl to contain the hod\ of Lieut. 

Three com|ianies of the Tweiit \-Second, reinforced 
hv two iiifantry hattalions and the personnel (vf two 
trineh mortar hatlt'ries, now fell to work on the repair 
ipf the roads. The Pioneers mo\cd forward as the 
craters were tilled in. On March '2t)th \ and (' com- 
panies wen near Ilaut .Mlaiix-s, and H and 1) m Vaux 
WOod, north of Moislains. All enerj.'ies were now con- 
Miilrated on the Haul Allaiiu s-.\izicourt and the 
Moislaitis-Manancourt road luit pro^rress was slow as 
tiiere was little traiis|ior( axailahle for liriiij,'in<^ ii[» 









Tllh BATTLK Ol ARKAS, 1917 

Till i.|i.iiiiii: (if the Arras (.ffcnsivr iiKaiit. for Hk- 
T.iitli and Kiftrriitli. an attack n|)..!i tlu' HiiKiriihurf: 
Liiu'. Tlic ciu'inv had b«'ii> workiiif,' npnii tins t-lalioratc 
svstiiii of tiit'l fortifications tlir()iif,'liout the winter ami 
h'ls cii^'iiiccrs had laiilt into it the lessons h'arned upon 
tlie Soiniiie. Vet the IJntish t:uns l.histed a way 
throiii.'li the tlnek helts of wire and hlew up the slielters 
and eiiiplaecments eoiistruett .1 of concrete and steel, 
so that on Ai)nl '.tth a wid.' extent of th<' Hmdenhury 
!,ine was carried hv the infantry without nndiie loss - 
MS losses were reckoned in tliose days. Proniiiient 
ainoii},' the successful l)attalions in this tirst advance 
was the preinicr .Service Hattalion of Durham. 

The Tenth arrive<i at Damville. a south-western 

sul.url) of Arras. ,,n March S-irA and. after a plan of 

the (;erman trenches had i.eeii carefully du{,' one foot 

deep, practice for the attack was earned out daily. 

Our aircraft were already en^'a^cd in their j,'allant and 

successful stru'r;,'lc for supremacy and the volume of 

our artillery tire steadily inereas.d. On April ."ith the 

battalion moved into the caves at Honville. on the 

southern outskirts of the city. The front line had heen 

piishcil forward |>ast lieauraiiis as the enemy retreated 

and asseml>lv trenches were now diifr beyond. These 

were ociiipied oil the lutrht before the attack. ->nd 

Lieiits. A. (i. Hell. M.C. and P. Hraidford t-'oinj: out to 

nconnoitre the enemy wire. The weather was wet and 

the i.»round viTV ii.uihly. 

.\t 7.:U A.M. on .\|)ril '.Hh lh<- 'I'eiith ad\ uiced soiitli 
of T<'let,'rap!i Hill m four wav.s. •• Moppers up,"* 
l)rovided l>y the D.C'.L.l.. follow.d the leadiii},' line 
wluch went forward in |)erfect order and was ohlined 
t,, |i:dt iirfore Nice TicikIi the outer t(l{.'e of the 
llindrnburi: s\st<ui until th<- ereei>in>: barra^'c lifted. 
lit re rilli' and niaeliiiie-j.'iiii lire caused sonu' casualties. 

The Battle of Arras, 1917 

includiiii,' i (.tliciTs. hut most of tiic C.friiuii's 
u. re 111 no coiKiilioii to n-sist ami tin- trench wa^ soon 
takiii. 'I'lic tiicmy coimtiT-l.airai,'!- had ln'cn fnlilf 
;iii(l vsas now (iin(ti(i princiiially u|)on Ttlcf/raph Hill 
whin- stveial Hritish tanks could hf snii sitting' u|n.n 
llif nuns of a liiiiuaii ndouht. Hattalion luad<iuarl(is 
I, arh.-d Nici- Trtncli alxnit h a.m.. hut thr commamiini,' 
., nicer followed the advance which, without much 
h^/iitiiij,', had now reached the Ark on the eastern ed«,'«' 
nFlhe Hindi uhiirj,' trench systiui. The dehnees were 
(iillicult to reco^rnise froui the map, for the Uritisii ^uns 
hail |)layed ferrihle havoc ami most of the (iermans 
. iicountered Were thorou^'hiy cowed h\ the homhar<i- 
iiient and ^,dad to surremUr. The prisoners were turned 
into str<tchcr-hearers, while the victors helptd Ihem- 
srlves to the ei^'ars aud really excellent sausa<,'e f. und 
III the dii^-outs which had »scaped destruction. 
Machim-j,'un lire came from Telef,'raph Hill Trench 
hirthcr to the south, hut when this had lieeii dealt with 
ihi- Tintli were ahie to reorj,'Hnise in comparative (juiet. 
'I'wo companies held the front line and two were in 
siifiport. Soon afterwards cavalry appeared, asked 
ahoiit the situation and sent out patrols; hut tiii'y 
(ould make little headway aj/ainst uncut wire and 
(.eriiiaii maehine-fiuns and, as tlie\ offered a sphudid 
lart;et to the enemy j^'unners. tiie Tenth were not sorry 
to see them withdraw. 

\hout two hours after the Ark was taken another 
hattalion came tliroui,'h t(t carry on the advance, l)Ut 
met with no success. Snow fell in the afternoon and a 
(old and wretched nij,'hf was spent. On this day the iptured four nuu hine-;.Mins, a sniper's riHc and 
te|esco|)e, and many (iermans of the Itl'Jnd, It^ird 
and ;<lst Refits. Losses amounted to ."> otlieers and 
I t-J men. 

.\t half-past ten next niornini,' came orders to attack 
(III- Wancourt Line at noon. The conimandin;: othrer 
mana>,'ed to secure a concession of twenty-live minutes, 
which f^ave time for the Tenth to (.'ct close up to tlic- 
harra|,'e hefore It lifted. The Ijurliams started from 
their trenches at IL.'iO a.m., the ri(,'ht of the hattalion 
marehinj.^ on Wancourt Tower, seen on the hi^jli (,'roiinii 


.. 1 


; ; .9 

The Durham l-orccs in the Meld 

' iilii i)f the ( Minil ii\( r. 'I'Ih ikIvmic. u;is iiloii;,' tin' 
north sUpc nf ;i liKiail \:,llr\ ami \\.i> < nllladrd ti\ 
tlifliiv iiia(liiiii-;,'Uiis, \^lll(■ll inaN t\|ilaiii \vli>' ilif 
hattnliiiii nil til'- iij.'lit (pf till' 'I', nth nij,'..! imrthward. 
so that till- tuo units aiiiMil intiriniu.!!li d l.iforc tin 
wile wiiich hail htcii httlt- daiiia^^'cd. As ^aps wtic 
.lis('()\(T«-d groups .tf null foncd thnr \say in. 'llu- 
fioi.t trt-ncli was not hi'ld in str(iii.'lli Imt tlir support 
hi.i-, thouj,'li much liattcicd. coiitauitil many (irrmai.s. 
One |)arty put U]> tlicir liands in tokt n of surrtndcr and 
then shot a Durliam si r^^'caiit who went tiAvards tluin. 
'I'his trcachtry was suitalily punisluMi and ah 
rrsistaiicf soon ceased. 

The Tenth were now esi;ilihslied in the Waneourt 
lane at a cost of over 100 casualties. includin>,' -'nd 
laelit. IJell, M.C, mortally wdunded while on the wa\ 
to tilt rear with a messaj,'e. He was a f,'allant youn}.'ster 
who had twice heeii recommended for the award of 
the l)istinf,'uislic(l Ser\ ice Order duriii!,' his six 
moiitlis in France, "ind Lieut. P. IJraidford. who 
received the Military t'ross. was amoiij; tin- wnuiided 
thoUt,'li he remained with the hattalion until tln'V left 
the line. t'olonel Morant described these two youn<; 
ollieers and Serj^ts. (iordoii and Todd as •" the heroes 
of the attack.' 

Further to the soiilh the (.ermaiis wire still hohlin^ 
the Waiicourt Fane, Imt in the e\ cnini.' the Ust Itrif^ade 
eaiiie in and the Tenth withdrt w in falliiiL' snow. At 
the old (i»-rman treiielns east of Heaurams another 
miserahh' ni<,'ht was spent; then tin' haltalioii wire 
relieved l>y the ••th Durham l,i;'ht Infantry and 
marched off thioii^'h a !ili//ard oii l!iiir way to 
I'leiiperate at Sus St. !.ej,'er. 

When, al llie end of Match. I'.llT. the .'"si Division 
took over the fioiit south of Hoiry-Hec(|ner( lie. the 
Hritish line was still |)iishin;,' forward after the relreat- 
iii;,' enemy. On April Isl the Fifteenth moved up from 
Hendecoiirl throuj,di showers of ^iiow and two da\s 
later came mio the outpost line as centre liattalioii of 
the cull hri;/ade lielweeii the norlliern oiilskirts of 
I'rolsilles and lleliin-sUI-Cojeul. In the offensive of 

Ilu- Hciltlc of Arras, 1917 

A|,nl 'Jtli till- l.ri<;i(lr uiii [n f"iin iiir <\tr«iiir nj'lil 
wh. If, .iltluHi-li ^1 j:n;il L'aiu .'I ^i;.in.l v. is ih'I mI:i1. 
It uas tsst'iitial I hat IIt iiuiiiy l>t clnstly .nj/Mmtl. 
Opposite, on the lii>;li l'K'HIhI MXitli-rast of Martiii-sur- 
Co|cul. rail tlir lliiKlciiiiiiit,' l.iiif. 

'Oii April :.tli tlif Fiftfditli lost Linit. \. A. \. 
.I.ssfl, kilKd oil patrol. Ass- inhly trench, s were eoiii- 
iiieiiceil on the lollouiii^' day and all was ready liv 
\pril sth. The Diirhains had 111.- Kast Vorkshireiie n 
.,11 th.-ir ri<;ht : on their left the '.tth !\.0. Y.L.I, iiad 
to advanct" from a sunken road fiirtlur hack and 
eoiisecpiently it was not ( asy to krej) 111 toueh on this 

Hank. , , 

Tile liattle of .\rras op. n. d in the larly niorinn;,' ..f 
April '.nil. l.ut til.' (lUh Hrij,'ade tlul n*it attack nntil 
ahoiit four o'clock 111 the afternoon. C company on the 
ri'.'ht and I) company on the l.ft le.l the advance of the 
I'Tfteenth. On.- Ilioiisan.l yards away, n« ar tiie t.ip of 
a f^'.-ntle slope, was ih.' doul.K' Ik it ..f wir.- in front of 
tlit'^ (■erniaii line. t>iif tlier.' were in the ground 
whicli in some pla..s j,'av.' cover to the attackers from 
.■n.iny iir.- an.i view. The f.-el>le (..■rinan l.arra.;.' 
neither affected tl .• jierfect ..rder and st.a.liiiess of Ih.' 
advance cans. d many .asualti.s. W an.l A •■om- 
panies, who f.ill.iw.d in support, halte.l in u sunk-n 
road where tlicv waitc.l till the re<l Hares sh.)Wed that 
the lirst (itrnian treneli was taken. The lea.liii}.' <<.m- 
paiiics !iad littl.- dilliculty in making tlicniselvcs masters 
of this trench and (' company at once .j.-ine-l 
witli tlic East Vorksliircs upon the ri«rlit. Hut IJ c.mi- 
pany f..un<l (Hrmaiis still on left wlicr.' machine- 
.'iiii'tire prevented the advaiie.' of the ".Mh 1\.().\.L.I. 
The e.impanv eommaii<ler, •.'mi Lieut. K. U- Saunders, 
pr.imptiv le.l a l...nd.iiit,' atta.k an.i look :»n(» 
of the trench: hut shorta^-e .if li..mlis th.n eompell.<i a 
with.irawal. Icasinj,' tiie h..stil.- niacliin.-t.'uns still 
active. This trallaiit oil', r. \vli.. ha. I tiv.- w, 
h.fore he conseiite.l < . r.lin.iuisli his command, 
nceived tli«' Military Cross. 

H and C c.miKmi. s had now arrived, i>ut in |)assiii.r 
thr.-u^'h th.- Mal'-^ i" <•"■ <'crman wir.' tli.y had heeii 
.au'dit I'V a v.r\ In avy l.arra^t- and s,,m.- dis-.i^anisa- 


I I 





« 1 


The hurliani lorccs in llic Mclci 

tmii was till- risiill. ()iil(r'ii tu attaik tin (.riinaii 
sccniiii llllr, tliiM ( iiiiij.alilis liiiid tlii' captuitd tllst 
tfiiicli wulf ami ililiicnit Id i icss. Wliilr tti>r^Mmsiii;.r 
Ills men ( a|)l. ( aitinan. M.C .. Iraiiicil thai tin' 1st 
Mast N'lii ksliiri s oil tjic I'ljjil uiic nut j,nunL,' 'iii ; nmic- 
(ACf tile liatlalmn un ilu- itit lia>l imt \tl snctttded in 
taking tinir liisi IkikIi. A iiatinl, uimIi r -JikI lanit. 
I'!. \\ . Williains. iiail i^Dncout to i tcdiiii' iit it tlhciicliiy 
s((i)ihl Inn-; tlir (illici r ,\as wuiinilid. and lli'- iru men 
\\liii ;.'iil iiai'k ri-|)(atid lliii'c struiM.; iidts of wiic uncut 
li\ iiur ailillcry and strun^t ( uliladc luaciiiiit -^'iin tin 
fi'iui till' l<lt. (ajit. laitiiian a(C(ii<iijiirly npuilfd td 
I'ciioptl l''al\ i\ -Hiyt s that furthir aiUauci- uas 
inipossiiilc witimut fresh artillery jui paial luii. 

The Uiirk (if eoM^dlldat in;,' tiie ea|iture<l tlellell \\t nt 

steadily nil. I'",neiu\ IkiiiiIh rs niadi a d( eided iiiiDad 
ii|i(>n the left Hank and (apt. .S. 1). Tlniipe, nn\s in 
eiiiiiniand I'l till' fi'iiiii lull', hail a sliuiii' puiiil (''in- 
structed tu meet this ilan!.'er. the l''lft(enth thus 

ant K'ipat my an mder liiiiii the iiriL'ade. 

Three plaliiDiis of the liattahnn iii re->'r\e weic 
pushed up as relllforeelia lit s, liilt. as t;l|»t. 'I'hdlpe ll(i\'i' 
re|ii)itcd Ills line t(Hi thickly manned, souk men utie 
witlidiawn to sin lldiules in the cm my wire where they 
cdulil provide sup|i()rt against a ( I'Unter-attaek. 
At the same time a eduimunicatidii treiicii. to connect 
the stroiii; point \\lth the sunken r. ad, wa-, put in hand. 
Thus |)asse(j the niLilil . 

.\t .") \.M. ne\t day c;imic aiiothir lioiiiliiii),' 
attack down liie Iniieh from the left. This was only 
repulsed after a tierce liylit lastiui,' fop an iiour and a 
half. In the aftcinooii an air report that the trench 
to the left Wiis imoccU|Ued Was 111 \ est li.'at cd hv •Jnd 
Lieut. I)a\ics and a part\ of lioinl'irs, hut they had not 
ad\a;iccd .">(> xai'ds licfurc they encoiinfcnd the ciu my 
in (jreat streiii,'th am' were forced to fall hack. .-Miout 
a (|iiart< r of an lioiii' later came another eounfer-at tack 
from the left and after a struyt,'ie lasting twenty 
Ill!llllte-> the (.ermaiis welt repulsed. 

At 7.1."> I'.M. Iiomliiuy was heard on the riylit and 
the Mast \ oikshires were seen r'lirin^' to the sunken 
road. (apt. Tliorpi made an rlfoit to resist tins enem\' 

The Battle of Arras, 1917 

.iltack. uliicli tliitittiii.'ii tu oviTuli. liii th.' isiilatrd 
riftifiUli, hut it WHS :i li(i|)(liss task and tlif tiattaliini 
had ti) <H\r Up tlu' trench tiny liad wi.ii. 

Till- ((.niniauduii,' otlirtr was inakinj.' pr. paiatioiis 
\^•v aiit.tlitT advaiic<-. stiiduit: Imward all tlir hum Ih' 
rwuld cnll.ct With suppiiis (d lidiiihs aiiil aliiiiiiiliiti"li, 
whiM tht li!i>,'adc caiKclKd f'lrilicr optrat loiis ami 
dir.ct.d tlu- l-'iftctiith t(i with(|raw tc thr src.iid liiif 
,d ass.iiihiv tr.iich's. Thry caiiir hack -.Ml stroiis,', 
th(.ii«,di I. tlu IS arrived later. 'I'lie spiiit (d the men was 
as hi<,di as i\er. hut the troops iii Ihi' hatlle front w< re 
:dioiit to he r( heved ami the Diirhains moved hack 
h. vond tin- Arras-Mapaume road to IJoishux-St . Male. 
l,osses in the ranks amount. -d to -J 1 1 . Of tlie otlu < rs 
•_'nd Lieut. 1{. Weir was killed and --'nd laeiits. K. II. 
.Saunders. H. S. \'iny<'oinh. 1). H. Consar, 'l\ 
...imph.reys, V. (i. Davies. H. M. Nieliolsoii and l'"-. W. 
Williams were woundtd. (apt. 'I'horjie received the 
Military Cross and the following: were recommended 
for the" award of the Military Medal: Ser^'ts. .1. HI. ike 
(missini,'). .1. Lavdon and J. Uohinsoii ; COrpl. T. 
Waddle"; Laiice-Lorpls. T. S. liell. T. Hlades. (i. l\ 
Dallon and Oshorne ; IM.s. '1'. Murra\ and V . Spencer. 
iMe. (;. W. Croft, a \try >^allaiit man who was killed 
less than a month .afterwards. recei\e.i the Mihl.ary 
Medal and the J''reiich Cmii ih (iin rn . 

Later in the month the Fourte( nth wiTc heaNily 
en<,'ai,'ed on the extreme left of the h.ittle line, at I he 
porthern limit of ttie Cana<liaii advance diiriiiir the 
opt luii^' sta<.'es of the haftle 'I'hcy came under the 
orders of the If.tli l?ri>,'adc on .\pril Isth and two da\s 
later went into the line south-east of I.oos, occupying,' 
Netley Trench fioni the railway on tli< riu'ht to No\el 
.\llty! On the followint: day the hattalion were ordered 
to coinpit Ic the capture of Novi-I ,\lley and laki- NeM> 
Trench and the concrete stront; |)oint on the railway, 
where tlirce attacks had already failed. 

The Hritish heavies pounded tiie (.erman jiositions 

(1 inn^' the aftcriio. II of Aj>ril '_'Ist, the advanced troops 

.1 ;.r Fourteenth liaMiij.^ heen withdr.wn to eiiahic 

I'm. to he done witli safety. \\ and t coiiipaiiie', w- re 



The Battle of Anas, 1^17 

littiiilnl for tla- attack. Al :< I'.M.. M;|.iHirl( .i \>\ nil. - 
L'n iiadr and Ltwis ",'1111 iii< , a platonii undrr -Jiid l.icut. 
1.. \V. Maiisi'll aiivaiucil up No\il A1U> ami aimtliii. 
I(d i.v --'nd Lnut. W. S^•V(■l^, altack.'d up .Nero Tnnch. 
M.aawhiU' -.'lui Liiut. t . H. (i<dd liad crass Ird out with 
l^ lui-a tliroiii,di tlu- iium-d houses to dial with t!u- 
Mroiij,' i)uiiit. At zero li«>ur t!ic olliitr, arcoiupaiufd 
liv Srr^'t. W. S!iii|.soii. M.M.. toipl. >.', l.aiui - 
(.orpl. i". I'laisoti and I'tr. li. Colwcll. rushi-d it from 
I he rear hiforc the ;^arrisoii could <,'ct their rnachuic- 
-iwiis into action. 'Iwcnty (.cnnaiis were kiHcd and 
•_'() taken. 'Jnd l.icut. l.ohl then liiiirKd ahjiij,' tiie 
railwa\ iinhanknicnt under heavy lire and ealUd up 
lemforceincnts from Xero Tnnch. The wiioU- attack 
siiceeedtd, ;};> prisoners were t.ikcn m all and numlicrs 
wf wounded C.eriuans were left in till hands of the 
Durhaiiis. I'asualtics dunnt,' the advame wire few. hut 
the Fourteenth suifircd heavil> from enemy shell tire 
hoth liefore and after the ti','ht. 15; ^ricades w.r«- Imill 
ill Xetlcy Trench l)eyond .\o\(l Allc\ and in .Nero 
'I'reiicli and two liomhui},' counter-attacks were icpulstd 
with f,'rc;it loss to llie tiermaiis durin;,' the nif,'ht. 

.\t S A.M. on the iiiornmi,' of the •JJiiii. after our 
heavy artillery had doiii- its hist to smash the enem\ 
jiositioiis, .V ami I) companies adv.iiiccd to take Nash 
Ml. \ ami th.' rcdoulit called the l)\iiamite Ma^'a/inc 
I'his was part of a I>i;;k<''" uttack 111 which the troojts 
i!n eitiicr Hank joined. .V compan\ were on the rij,dil 
and 1) on the left, a s(|iia<i ol hoiiih' rs from M coin- 
pans liominii;,' U|i the tnnch south of the railwas . 
( hir shrajdiel liarrat,'c was cvccllcnt and. althoii^'h the 
I ncmv foilf^ht well, he was liliahle to 0, t Ins machine- 
",'uns into actidii In fore llie Koiirteeiif li wen- upon liim. 
.\ll resistance was soon overcome ami the olijcct ivc. 
laki n. A loiniteiat lack which d'Veloped on llic left 
alioiit nine o'clock was rt pulsed without mmli dilli- 
ciilty and tlie l'"oui tceiitli proe<cii<'ti with the task of 
eiiiisolidat inj,' the captund posili.ns, j he Hntish 
artilhrv iiad laid most of the tn nehes Hal ami the 
Dviiamitc Ma>,'a/int now coUMstid of <<v.i- du^'-ou! and 
a heap of earth, so then- was little ( fmm the 
siiipiTs and machine -yiiiis tinii;; from the hoiists of llic 




The Durham Torces in the Field 

( it(' St. Liiurciit. 'I'u" tiMi!it< r-altatks in\ Hk- ri^'ht 
u.n- (Irivfii l)a(k aiul tli.ii at '.iA:, I'.M. the (.criiiaiis 
pill .1..WI1 a licavv harra},'.' ami attack..! ..\(r tlir <.|)tn 

.,M til.' left of tllr r(,Ult..nth. Tlic tluups 111 tills palt 

<.f Nash Alicv ucr.' (inv.ii <mt and lialf an li.nir lat.r 
llif CrnKiii ■|iifaiitrv assailr.l tlir 1. ft ..f 111.' Durliim 
liii.', will!.- on till- nulit tli.y Im.i..I"<1 tli.- i,arn.a.l. .. 
Till' Foiirtc. nth, thoii^'h vny \v< ak in niiiiil» i--, inaiii- 
taiiir.i thf slriij,'t;ii- f<>i m.iiic tiiii.-. I.ut ha. I t.. j.'i\v 
<ii., 1111(1 at last. Ki^'htiii^' har.l th.v f< II I'.i.k '.l..\\l\ to 
N.A.I Alltv. Itaviii;,' .Mily :< lia.lly nan m tlu' 
hall. Is .if the tiuniv. 

in th. .arlv iiDiniiiK ..f .\|>iil -'^ii.l th. F..iirtf. nth 
w, n- n h,\<ii. and witlnlnvs l.> h s lii. Ins. l,.iss.s in 
th.- ranks aiiioiintr.i t.. -J:?! and ain..n-,' thr kill. . I was 
•Jiid I.i.iit. 1-. \V. Maiis.ll. C'apts. A. (.. .!'■ Hniis.i, 
•Hid A. !•;. Oul.s; la.Mits. S. llai \. y-Sinith aii.l J. II. 
St. ■all! ; -'n.l l.i.iits. A. Hi.kfonl. K. V. K. 
(.illi.s, T. H. W.lsh and C. K. Hi.>;;.l. n u. n- .ill<l. M.iny h..n..nrs f.ll t.i tli.' I.attali..n. l.i-nt. 
.]. II. St.arn rnslicd a (..rmaii ina.hin. -;iun aii.l. 
thoii>;li wouiidf.l. nniainiil in c.ninian.l of his .uinpany 
iinlirth.' liatfalu.n ; (apt. l'.>tts also 
t.)ok a iiiathint-^'iin, winch he turn..' on the . n.iii> 
an.l uh.n his c.)nii>any nlrcat.<l fr.>in Nash Alley h. 
.i.v.r. ' the withdrawal in fx rs.m. having' n..t a man 
i.eliin.i. H.-th .illicers rec.iv..l the !)istinj,'insh.<l 
SeiAi.e Ord.r. an.l tin- same honour was conferred upon 
•Jii.l laeiit. C. \\. (...I.I. I'te. J. Collins who. lliou^'h 
tliK'c times, was am.m^ flu- f..reniosl l.omli. rs 
lhr..ii^'lioiit the two days, receive. I th<' Distmnnish.'.l 
Con.ln.l M. .lal. Serais. F. Hurt,'. s> an.l (.. Maw ; 
C.rpl. S. (al.le and Fan.'. -Corj.l. .1. l.raysnii ; I't. s. 
IF Hrook. .1. Cawlhonie. IF (olw. II. .F W. IFdl 
an.l W. Fiper all receiv..l th.' Militaiy NF.lal. 
Ser{.'t. \\ . Simpson. M.M.. was awanlcl a har to hi-. 
(1. .•oration. 

Th. Fifte.nth nniain..! at K.nsl. us-SI . Mar.' until 
April nth and then moved further west t.. Hlairevill.^, 
wher.' a llUtre cave provided a Ih'V.I iMN.aiai-. .\ il.afi 
.if 7". arn\e.l .m the ITth an.l th. l-'ilt.. nth then .am. 

I to 


naclu'il 111' fniid niiiiiiiit,' liin tjist into Foiitaiiif and 
licyaii sliootiiit,' down ttif titiicli. Hut the ■iKiny 
cnticfiitralfd tin lire nf li.s tniicli iiKirtiirs and (•n|)|)l( d 
d. At aJioiil a (inartcr l«i mx t'apt. Tliur|M' with H 
'11.11 sfdrimd tlic (.(TMian li;irricad<', Iml on n acliin^r 
iIk- Irciicii Ixvoiid 7 (if the party wtrc killfil or 
UMiiiidifl li\ a siirll. Till' straiidfd lank \vas mdw the 
t.irL''l foi tin- of all kimK. wIikIi r<arli( d oiir men 
roiniii!,' forward Ik liiiid it . 

Till- idiii|iaii\ on the riirlil couM inakr littlt ii<adway 

I 11 


TIk- Durham I'orccs in tbr Ticld 

.i..\sn Ihr fp.iil tP'iicli dunii,' lo li<av\ losses c.niM .i l.y 
llic (.( rriKiii l.itrni<.'f at llic l.fKiiinin>,' of the assiiiilt iiiid 
I he sl(.ut nsistaiice of llie enemy. Colonel Falvey- 
H. vts MOW onlered (apt. Tliorju's eomiiany. n^mforeed 
l.v'llie eompaiiv iii support, to attack over the o\)rn 
JMMwreii thi- two tretiehes; l.iit tliis assault, delivered 
undtr heavv I'm', failed Ixfore a cross tn ncli win re 
the win (i<'f<iii'<s were very stron<,'. In tli.- front hue 
I lie li^'iit still swaved to and fro. \W iiii<l-day we were 
lioldint: our own in Loth trendi-s. hut the Ion;,' iiiorn- 
inu'"s slni-,'-,'le under a hoi sun had left the trooj.s very 
c\liaiistcd "and in the afternoon the liattalion \m re 
I, hev.d. -.'lid l/ieiil. C. W. IJaildon and 10 others h m1 
JM.n killed: (apt. \V. iMfmenson. Limt. C. S. Ilcrh.rl. 
•Jiid Li. uls. K. Lyall, M. H. (.rant. W. Wtui: and U . I. 
Ciirnow and <is nun were wounded; -Jnd I-nut. .1. H 
\\;u\\u- ami -'s nil 11 were missmt;. .May Ith was pass- d 
in diMsioiial i(ser\<' and on the ev. nmj,' of t:ie ."i(h. 
iifter a Ihuiidt rslorm had rendered the he;ii a little less 
opptevsive. the Kifteenlh rcoccupicd their harrieailes 
m l.ic llmdenhur;,' trench. s. -'ml l.ieul. K. A. (.. 
Ma< (Ion lid was wi-unili d on tlic- .lay. 

No fiirllHr attack was t.. !..■ ma.l. . hut smi.. rs ^nd 
niaehine-;.'unncrs. hoth Mnlish ami (ii rniaii. w. re active, 
till' distaiic lietwi. n our lilocks and those of the em my 
iHiiit: .(Im.iiI on.- humire<l \ards. On the lu.irnint,' of 
May^lth a moveuieiil was seen m a sliell-h.ile not more 
Ihaii Ml \ fr.mi the (.ernians. It was a w.mmh d 
nia.i waviiiL' an (inpty water-t)ottle. I'n send out a 
stretcher-parlv while "daylif:ht laste.l was, .)f course, 
uiip.issil.l.': hut IMe. Mhhael lleavisidc. st retcherd.ear( r 
:iml v. t.raii of I h. S.iuth ,\frican war. a miner fr.>ni 
( rayluail. at one.' volun'eered to lake food and water 
I.) the sufhrer. 

Crawhiii.' forward si. a. lily fr.iiii s||,l|.hole to sh. Ih 
hole, pausing' t.) rest wlnn the ^Toiin.! off' n .1 a hllle 
protection, (sciipin;,' as hy a miracle sniper's huUel and 
iiiaihme-;.'nii fire, lleavisi.le c.)veri'd the distance un- 
harm.'d. ^ H.- foun.l a lia<ll\ w.. undid man. who hail 
lain ..lit l>v several days ami ni;:hts siiff.rin<: ajZonies 
from thii-t. and rend. red him such ai.l as h- conhi. 
'I'llen. when darkness fell, lleavisidc lua.le the return 

1 VI 


i'U!\ \ 1 1 \i. Ill \\ iNim \ I : 

l^lll llurliiiin I iklil liit.iiilrv 


'I1ic Battle of Arras. 1017 

■ III lir\ 

iri<l \siili a >■ 

r< lilK i'-i':i 

rt\ went mil :i;^'ain 

il l)i<)U<'lit tin- mail 111. 

\\v cool uii^i'ltish coiira^T wliicli tiiids its cNpicsMon 
f tlir wouiuicd at ^rrcat personal risk 

in M sciic or cart' ( 

iiiarkcil cliaractcristic of tin 

\\as a 

tlirout:lioiit llic war. 

till' \'ictoria Cross. 


latii so 


Ptc. llcavisidc's (Iced won for liini 


Diniii},' tlit'sc (lays casualtiis were not heavy am 
MM tlw >th tile Kift.tiitli wtri' relieved, anil w- lit hack 
to tent', at I'.oyi 111 -. 

lief.. re the <iiii of April iln I'.il'IiIi < 'd h i mie into 
III,- hattle zone further to the north. On Ih- -.'.^th the 
1 itlalioii wen atlacheil to the C.-iril Divi loii. who had 
l,iken (iavnlle a fi w da\s pri \ lotisly. ami at 11 CM. 
Mill ni'rhl .\ coiiipaiiy were sent to occupy Hill .so, a 

iiimianiliiiL' inoiini 

I iiortii of the (.avrelh Hailli ul road 

re li-av\ liostile shell lire, lint casnallies were 
|,u. In the cMiiiii',' of the follown ' day llie '.•;<r«i 

r>ri::.ide took o\ er the line whil 

111 l.illld the eastern 

itskirts of (;a\relle and turned west md tlieii norlli- 
|s to Opp\ and Oppy \\ood, hoth lill m (icrman 

w I II 

ColllpalU re|i>lliei 

1 nest inorniiij.' and tlic 

i;ii;ht( <nth. as hatlalioii in rcscrxc. pro\ idi d carrying 
parties for the rest of the liriL'ade. The (icrinan 
;Minn. rs were ^till aiii\e and inan\ c.isiialtics oc- 

On Mav Isl the Kit'lileeiitii withdnw to .1 position 
the Hindi 111 irtr lane and at iiii,'ht were eniploved 
prejiarations ..r the next attack, collcctini,' aiiiiiin- 


lilt ion, ^rcnai 

Irs. |{.K. inatenal. iron rations and w.atcr 
at two Tariff forward dumps. Then, after a few days' 
i-st, tlie Kiidifeenth <ame forward .i^ain. arrivint: in 
In nches west of Cavrellc at 1 .MO \.M. on May :trd. As 
llnv dul so a hostile t.arra^'e came down and. (hoiitjli 
it luavw H compaii\' lost some «_'ood 

asiiallics Were ii' 

d. Th 

niL'lit wa^ 

mi 11 licfon- the (icrman tire slacken 
mild and there was a l«rij,'ht niooii. 

At ."J.t.") \.M. the time West Vorksliin hailalioris of 
ilw l.riiradc went forward to the attack imd r a h;irraue. 
On thc'rii'lit. south of the niim d svindmill. the a<l\an 

U;|> ()\( 

r fairly o|>cii ^'roimd .mil cxpictcd to make 




riic Diiiliani I'orccs in tlu' I'ickl 

(|iiiikii- priiLTi S-, than tin attack iurtli(i ikiiIIi. At 
lllst all U( 111 well, liut ^niiii after livr o'lidck tllf Ititl) 
Wist ^'orksliircs (III tlic left askfd flic KiLrlitccritli for 
rt iiiforcctnciits and H cDiiipaiiy were tiioNt'd ii|). TIhii 
canic had mws fimn iirii:adc licachiuartcrs ; tlic ciiciiiy 
had taken the null, whence, if tninU cstahlishi'd. lie 


cniild eniilaije the wlidc l?iitish ad\anee. C eujnpanv . 
ninler lapt. Ilitchiii. I).S.<).. w- n detaded In enuiiter- 
altaek here at once. 

liejiiirl^ fruni tlu' lift were \ely dlsipilet in;.'. Til' 
't-ud Hriu-ade attempt nn < 'I'p^ \\ ihu! appeart d tu lia\e 
i.nlt d .Hiij a (iiriuaii i i liiid. r-at t.n k wa-N de\ elopini.' 
iipM.i ih, I, ft ,,f Ihr v:trd where the It;tli West \'(irk- 
sjiiies Wire linldin^ un near I he railway. M eutiipaiiy 

1 1 1 

The Rattle of Arras, 1917 

u,r, iii>w iliiiuii li;i(k to til. iiiirtli-\v(-.t In in< '■! any 
Ihnat at the left ivar of th.' lin},M'li'. 

At lialf-|)ast s.vt'ii ( coinpaiiy were s' tii a|.|)nia(li- 
uiL' tlif windiiiill l>> short ruslus, hut tlitir llrst a1ta<'k 
.i|i[i(art(i to tx' litattn tiack. 

On the left tlif situation still cinixd niucli anxi'ty 
I ill at ahout nine i)"cli>ck •Jiui Li-ut. Kmdlay rcjiortcl 
that U company were iii position n< ar the railway aixl 
that no (.(rtnaiis wcrr I'lurc wivr certainly lichind the line Soon aitcrsvanls -Jnd Luiit. I.caii 
arrived. \vounde(l. fmni C coinpan\ and sai.l that oiir 
..uii artillery lire i)ri vented the occupation of the 
uindinill. A nicssaj.'!' was acrordin;,'l> sent hack to the 

Help was now needed li\ the hattalioii on th<' rijihl 
oi the line. Two counter-attacks had l>cen dispcrs.d 
h\ our artiller>-. hut the eneni> was now inassin),' for 
,! thiril. .^oon after ten o'clock .\ and I) coinpanirs 
iiiov.d uj) to stren^'tlicn tiic front '.re. thoii<,'li tli.y 
\wie onl> ahle to ;,'et forward hy d. -rees. hea\ y liostilc 
helhnj: making' inovemenls of formed hodies of men 
,dniost^imi>ossdile. An hour later Lance-forpl. Taylor 
hrou^'lit in a valiiahle rei)ort. I'atroliin;,' a trench rim- 
:iiii(.'''north towards Ojipy he iiad located a harricatle 
hi Id hy tin- ( iiemy in forie. 

A iiiessaLre from (apt. Hitehin reporting' that he 
had taken the WUl<imiil was rec. ived soon after 1 t'.M. 
( companv had starttd on tluir mission at half-past 
(iM. Ill the niornint:. A short i< cdnnaissauce revealed 
no Mi;n of the . Ill my at the windmill, so (apt. Hitchin 
li. elded Upon a frontal attack in two waves, the house 
In the south of the null marking the riL'lil Hank. Serj,'t. 
I'.lliott. with No. '.I platoon, on tin rij.'iit and Scryt. 
(loss, with \o. I't [ilatooii. on the left, formed the 
front wa\i'. ■_'iid I, nut. |,ean followed with No. II 
platoon and S.rirt. ('arnfi;!ii with No. f_' was m 
iisiivc. The attack launched ,it ti. I". \.M., when a 
hrst rush gained the 0|)py road. Althoii-h Hares were 
Milt up hy the enemy and shrapnel hurst <)\erliead 
no one was hurt, hut the ne\t move drew a hail of 
Miac!une-!.'iin tire. The railwav was reached, hut the 
.iltiekei . had to wilhih.iw to tin road to n or^-anise. 

K 11". 




The Dvnluini I'oiccs in the I'icld 

TI..A IriMi :,'.;.„, ;h,.1 ,..,1- .^ 'i ,- n (i.|.t. liit.lm. I.mI 

j.lloth.T :,M.iil|'l Wlucll <M1M. • Ihr .MlvilUcr to Wltluil 

-,(» VMnis ..( lltr mill. \hvi .. hall wms mctssary t.. 
pici'Mif for tj.r liiuil i.s.aiill. Tl -■ (i.'iinans now l.r{,'|Ui 
lu ntirc aiul this iiiov.iik ril was ivid.iitly s('<mi l>y 
.mr artillrrv f(-v a l.oinl.aniriunl !-> Hntish 
liowit/,. rs fuilowcd aiid drov.- C company fnitlur aiwl 
fiirtli.r Lack till tli. v nach. d Ih- road a^'am. v.ith ha f 
Ih.'ir niiml..r killrd ..r \\unii<l.d. Small liirhhii},' patto s 
w,T<' now s, nt in. TIicm- start, d at iiiiriAals of ! alf 
an honr. en . pm^- from sli. II 'ol. I., slull-liolr. till livr 
posts wrr rstal.lishrd. fan-v . Wlfll L«'Wls amis npoii 
ihi' flanks. Tln' mill was now ..l.andon.-d l.y tin »n< my. 
Iiiit h.' still held till- ninams of th. house, so fa|)t. 
lilt. Inn (inploy.-d rifli l.oinl.s and I., foir nooi; tlicsr 
(Jcnnans vmt.' dri\..i out and the captiirf of the 
position Nsas (•omi>l(t. .Snipirs of C (•oin|)any i)ick(d 
off manv the (.crmans .(in l.otli to Ih.- north and to 
tlu' south and later in the day the four Viektrs ^nns 
and two St..k<>s mortars, with which the mill liad ticcii 
(>ri{,'inallv defeii .ed. w.T( fonnd and hroueld in. I'oin- 
inunication uas . stal)lished liy rnnnmu' a wire hack and 
tap|)in^' in on t!ie line of 'Hic of the \ orkshire 

\t :< CM. the troops on the left. iii<lndiii,!,' H coni- 
paiiv of the Kiirhteeiitli, l.ej^aii to push out northwards. 
Twc'i hours lat.'r .\ and 1) eoinpanies were in position 
cast and south-east of (.avrcHe iindt r orders of the rifjht 


There was no further attack or counter-attack and. 
after sonic vigorous liostilc slicllin;: on the niorninf.' ol 
the 1th. a fairlv (pnet day followed. Heliextd at nii;ht, 
tlic Ki>;hteenth movcil i>ack to the nortti<rn snliurl-s 
of Arras. Losses in the ranks amounttd to Ht killed. 
Si wounded and ".• niissins:. 

.\fter one <la\ "s rest the liattalioii took over the linc 
cast of (iavrelle. The we.atlur was we!, lint the rain 
ceased al.oiit mi. 1-day on the Sth. Our {,'Uiiners ccr- 
tamlv lirokc up any coimti r-attaek if such were in- 
tended, liiit inoMiinL' and (MTmil' the enemy shelled 
the village. Karlv on the lilh a West Vorks! ire 
l)attahon~rclievcd the Ki^'hteenth who witl!<lrcw int.> 


.» I \r 

The Rattle of Arras 1017 

\ (;mi|) IK ;ir Kciiric whs k (cIkiI httt r jnid 

,u', until .M;i.v r")l!u tniminu' Un a iii;:''! i'ltuck was 
I irrird out . , 

riir same Iniiclirs wvTv taken over M^-aiii en tlw 
u. t. dark niKht of Mav, I'lit Ixforr tins was arcon- 
nlisli.-.l --'nd Licnts." WVIfonl and Ai>p.Tl«'y w<tc 
V (Hind. .I. The Ki^'lit.cnth w<ic to capture (Javnllr 
rnncli. an ai)paniitlv drcp and w. II tiavrrsrd iiric 
wlu.'h lav astride the (;avrelle-Fn sues roa<l. With tins 
Ipiieh in onr hands there would he room for a sui)port 
liiir ui front of (;avrelle and our def.nee of the villaKC 
unuld Ix- nia<le nuieh easier. It was also important to 
MM the enemy the impiession that our operations on 
llie Arras front were to Iw continued. 

The li;:htin<,' strcn{,'th of the hattalion was o?dy :>-M) 
;ind the two strongest companies were <-liosen for the 
.i,s:i.ilt. with two extra platoons to act as earners. 
/..p. hour was \-2.W \.m. of May IHth and. allhon-zh it 
u,is a ni<:ht attaik, there was no question of surprise. 
ill. enemy was v< rv much on the alert and his eon- 
iiniious shower of Verv li«hts revealed the attackers 
soon as thev left their trenelus. There were some 
sualties in formin},' up, amoufr them Capt. Dormand, 
roinmandin}: A company, hut at the appointed time the 
troops ailvaneed under" a very j,'ood Imrrape. A rom- 
|.iiny were on the riplit, south of the road, 1) company 
ti.,rth of the road on tlu> left, and each went forward 
m two waves with Lewis <,'unners hetween. The hostile 
liMrra;.'" canw down thirty yards behind them. A 
eompanv, when just short of their ohjective, were 
-re, ted with showers of stiek-hombs. whil<- the boml>- 
III!: Miuad told off to enter the (;erMuui trench on the 
n^'lit seems to have lost direction. But the company 
n^iiimander speedily orj^anised another party who pot 
it.fM the jind bombed the enemy out of several 
!>:i\s. Thev killed 12 {Germans and sent back one 
vM.iiniicd prisoner; but the position was unt.'nable under 
til. showers of enemy bombs :unl the company wilh- 
dr, w. |)ursued b\ machine-pun lire which cheeked a 
platoon coniintr uj) to reinforce. 

Hefore 1) company reaclwd the (ierman trench '.'nd 
1,1. lit Richardson, the company eonimander, was 

1 IT 






The Durham Forces in the Field 

ui)iin<lc(| ;iM(l •_'ii(i I,ifiit. K. 'l'li(>iii|)s(>ii killed. On tlic 
(xfrcriic lift miciit wire fdilcd the jiltdckcis ((mipltttly ; 
on the ri(,'lit our artillery IiikI so (iaiiia};e(l tlie treneli 
that the men overran it in tlie dark. liealisiii}; the 
iinstake they came hack and entered it, hoiiiliinf,' 
northward and hrinfiin;: Lewis ;,miiis into play overiiead 
as occasion demanded. I'he (iermans counter-attacked 
vijjorouslv from l>oth flanks and in front, and tlioiij:h 
fresh sii|>|)lies of {,'renades were sent up more men 
would have oidy crowded the trench no further i)ro- 
fjress (Miiild lie made. To liold what had been won was 
impossihle ill davlij.'ht, so all were with<lrawn to th' 
oriyiiial line. 

Tlie result of this operation, which cost the 
Ei;:hteenth (i*! men in killed, wounded and missinj;. was 
a j^reat disappointment, hut the attack had been carried 
out at extremely short notice against an enemy in much 
{,'reater streiiirth than was suspected. 

From da\li;,'ht to dusk on the istli the (iermans 
shelled (ia\re||e and the treticlies liefore tlie village 
anil our mms were busy in reply. Knemy aerojilanes 
(lew o\erliead, and it was douhtfiil uliether the enemy 
antici[)ateil another attack or was piepariiif; one in his 
turn. At myht the Kitrhteenth handed dm r tlie liiie to 
a liattalion of the tiJJrd Division and moved hack north 
of Arras lo camp in the old " No Man's Land "' east of 


The Tenth came l>ack into tiieir |)art of tlie field on 
^L•ly •Jnd, after spendini,' ten days at Sus St. Lej,'er. 
On May .'{rd the battalion occupied trendies in (ne 
W'ancourt line near the portion captured on the second 
<iay of the lialtle. Twice on tliis (\ny the transport 
camp was shelled and had to be nioNcd. If was not 
till May Stii that the Tenth moved into the front line, 
now well beyond Wauconrt. On th<' Kith a man of tlie 
liattalion crawh d out •_',")() yards and brought in a 
wounded Hifleman who, for seven days, had kept 
himself alive liy the food and water obtained from the 
dead around him. The en«'my position, on tlie low 
ground south of the Cdjrul river, was not well defined 
and patrol encounters were fre<jiient. tlie Tenth niakiiif,' 



The Battle of Arras, 1917 

-.vcral prisoners. Linit. Lod^'f was very activt- m 
[.(•(.miaiSNancc and hroiifjlit in many valiiahlt- rcjiorfs. 

i'lir hatta'ion moved l)ack to snjjport j)osi;ions on 
May r.'tli and tlirtc <lays later to the vicinity of Heau- 
i;,ins, havini,' lost 7(» men kdled and wonnded, prinei- 
|,:dl\ liv slieTl lire, -.'nd Lient. J. K. Lneas was amon^' 
I lie fallen. The remai'uier of tlie inoiitli was spent at 
work upon the wnprovement of eonunnineations, the 
aclivitv in the air i)rovidint,' some relief from the 
monotony while on the JJOtli a violent thnnderstorm 
v.iish. .1 the l.atl:ilion ont of tin ir dnfT-on.s and siielters. 


N t 

lUi..s<:il W AKIAKI-: 

Al'KII — JLM:. IV17 

A'i the iHMrJiiiiiiit; iif April till- l^liMiiili ui r. hiisy 
rfpaiMii},' the (hiiiiiif,'! ur()U;.'lil li\ llu- (.< rinans t.) tlic 
toads III tlif \i(iiiity .if IJiis iiml \ Ins. Mv Apiii Uli 
all sIk ll-liolts ami craters iii tin- road IkIuiiii tlifsc 
\iliaf,'is had Ix-i ii tilled iii and ua^ciis and (miiis ucrc 
cotnuif,' tliroii^'li. On April I'.lii a d. Ia><(i action tiiinc 
cxifiodcd and uicckid M coiii|)an> 's iicad(jii:ii tcis al 
Vtrcs witli a loss of I killed ancl I wounded. 

Tile '.'(till l)i\ision liad now hej^'iin to arrive Ik fore 
I lie Ilnideiihiiri,' Line wliicli ran lieyond N'illers-I'loiiieli. 
At the liei,'ininnj,' of May the I'loneeis tinislud their 
Work on the roads and started a ( oniniiinicat ion tieneh 
to the nt w front. The Kl< \entli \v« n eniplo\((l nii tasks 
of tins description untd Ma\ -'•_'iid, wh. n tin \ moved 
out to Hanconrt. cast of Hapaunie, to nst. The L'dth 
Division had i;iven place to the t-_'iid, hut onl\ 
to relieve in turn the .\iistraliaiis further riortii. On 
May iHth tin Klexcntli rein ved the .\ustraliaii pioneers 
lu-yoiid the ( a'lilirai load and s( ttled down to work ui 
the N'oreiid sector. i.ayuiji s|ee|)( rs for the \aul\- 
Xurciiil railway, niakitij,' dt ep dii;»-outs for tlic ^runners 
and keepiii},' roads and coniniunieaf ion trenches in 
repair were only sotiic of the tasks of the hattalioii. 
On June I'nd Lieut. Wardle was wounded and n< \t 
day a dui'ip evplodcd at \au!\. iniurinj,' l.'i nieii of 
the Kieiiith. .\t \'aul\-\'raucourt the I'louec rs were 
io< ated anioiiiT the Mritisii liatteries, Imt suffered few 
iasiiaitiis in spite of the constant (icriian shell tin-. 
'I'lie jjood work performed hy the l.attalion in this 
sector ;, .iiicd the aekiiow h d<,'mi nt s uf the duisn.nal 
I omniaiwhr. 

I'he Twelfth Went t<i Merekeylit In a;'ain for tr.iiii- 
in<,' oil .Vpril }lh, hut ten davs later th. \ leturnid to 


Trench Warfare, April-June, l'>17 

Vpr.s MM. I suppli..! w..rkvrs to h. Ip Ih.- Australian 
t.niu.ll.i- 111 pni-arm,..' [mi- tlu- .•mnm- uff.i.MVf. 1 ims 
,,nlv' plat.Mnis w.-ic a%ailal.l.- tu tak.- ov.'r t he 
!,„.: 1..V.....1 Z.lUluk.' uM April I'.ith. Although tin- 
.n.n.vnn.rtars vv.-r,- arliv, his artiil.ry i.ft tlu- front 
1,„, alonr for til,' Mio.l part: lilr m \ pr.s was i.ior.' 

Wli.ii tlu- Durhains w.iv m tlu- liiu- aj,'am on 
\pnl -J'.ttli a Hntisli a. roplan.- crash. .1 m "No Man -^ 
l.;,,„r-an.l tlu- -.voinul.-.i pilot an.l .,l.s, rv. r w.-n- n-sciu-.l 
uu.l.r liril.v a parlv of ulinn, -.'n.l l-i.ut. W . l- Hu;.'lu- 
.as awar.l.'.i tlu- Slilitary Iros., I't.-. .1. (■• (.anliu r 
Ih, l)istiiii,'uislu-.l l.aulu.t M.cial an.l IM. . Ols.n tlu- 

»1ihlar\ Mfdal. ,„ ,, , , 

On tlu- nu.rnint,. of Ma-. Kt tlu- iNv.lfHi arnv.-.l 
,„ th,- St.-.nvoor.l.- to an.' r.-nt. hut tlu- 
■>:u,\ DiMsion w.-r.- ahout to ...<-iipy th<ir l.atlli- front 
m tlu- vu-inity ..f HiH «•'". -<• '!':'> »'"• I'-'""!"'" "-""" 
I inu- l)a.k a^'ain. ,1111 

Mv .laun of Mav IHli tlu- Tss.lftli u.r.- . vlal.lish. .1 
,n ha.llv .lama-.. I tr.-n.lus v.liuh onlv a.lniitt.-.l ..fa 
hiu- of p..sts in front, hut u..rk .-n tlu-..- an.l on tlu- 
uir.- l.a.l t.; Ih- postpoiu.l as tlu- whol.- I.allalum w.-n- 
,,.o„ir..i t., -li- tr.n.h-s. Uliih- tlu- Hntish 
„uns u.r.- l.usv h..n.l.anlni;,' tlu- . n.niy p..siti..ns an.l 
" tfini,' I'l^ ^^■'''" ""• '"f;"'''^ ''"' '•' '"■' <':'^' l'"""^'y "" 


lluir f..r tlu- coimn^r t-attl.-. 

Tlu- Australians v.. r. oMi-.-.i t.. I.iou a small 
,^„„.,„„,., „.,„• Hill •;(. on May ITth to p..-v.nt tlu- 
,n.n.v tirin.' a niuu- an.l -Jiul la.-ut. 'luffs an.i a sm..ll 
pirtv -.f tlu- Tw.-lflli w.r.- lu hi m r.-a.liiuss ♦.. ...-cupy 
th,- n. w .-lat.r. First .anu- a luirruanc 
m! th.- front an.l support inu s ..f tlu- battali-.n 
„.,css,tat.-.i a .-o-mt.r-harra-.- l.y tlu- Hritish u'lns; 
,..,r an pass.-.l hcfor.- tlu- .-xpt-ct..! .-\i;l<.si..n. 
\o .rat.r was form..! an-l -'n.! la. ut. Tuffs Ij-.l his 
,,,.!, .,n till tlu-v .-lu-ount. r.-.i tlu- (i.-rmans in flu- ohi 
,, furtlur lorNvar.l. Th.r.- was a shari* tit.'hf with 
l„,,nl.s as tlu- Diithams witlulr. w slovsly. hut la.ul. 
luffs rallu-.l his nu II wlu ti lu- rca<-h.-.i the Hritish posts 
,,,„i ,|r,,v, th.- .lu-inv off. Th. I.atlalu.n ha.l f. 
...^ualli.s III this affair an-l I'tc \\ \. I)ickins.,n, win. 


'Ilif I)Lirl).:un lorccs in the lickl 

^ll^|||a> t(l ;irt ;it fallal. Ir\ as a rm ss( ml'' c vsas awarded 
tlic l)istiiii,'iiislicd (.'oiidiiit Mrdal. 

After a tniir wlnrh ((jsl tliem 12 casualties from 
shell tile til. Tuelfl'. witiidrev. I,> .Montreij Camp aii<l 
|»ru\ide(i lar;_'e wurkmt,' Jiartus f(,f ijie W.K. AlMiiit 
this tune was aiiin nmeed the award i>i the l''r> iieli 
'"'" '/' (-Kin, t.i (apt. K. W. Laforie. and of tin' 
Military Medal to I'f.s. \\. F. Minuel!. I-. (.. Smith 
and '1'. Dohlis. 

l-'rom Ma\ L'Tlh till th.- . iid of the monlli the 
hattahoii ^\erc attaeiied to I hi (.'.tth Mn<_' ide and prac- 

tls((i the assault ov, r a mud. I of ihe (.ermall treliehes 

;n the St(,n\o,ird( t laiiiiiij,' area On .Ma\ .'ilst they 
eame li> train to \pres. imil< i ei.nsKh rahle shell liri-. 
and reluved the ',»th ^'oikshu.- Hej^t. m |{all\\a> 

i)ll;,'-ollts ,illd Zllleheke |{||nd. The (.eriliail <,'ims U . re 

iiovv \er\ li!is\ . and on .lime |si theie were I'd casualties 

flolll shell lite, hilt the strife .i'ed d.iwil dlUini,' t lie 

ileeeedin," da>s. tholiL'h ;'a , s||. 1|, p|i,\ed ,inno\i|.i_' to 

•'"■ lal;'e Wolkllll^ paill. ■. uhieli u,|e shll [■ijiiil.d. 

lapl. 'I'. ( .11 r-l'',ilisi,|i \...i, ■a,,in,,j. ,| ,,n ih, Jnd. ( »n 
•I'll"- nil the 'ruellili \\,tl,,li. u t,i Ih,- r.niiparl at 
N |)res and I h< ne\l imo\. (\ i-, to a -..inhl\ (".-ilioiis 
(or th.- Iiitli. . 

At :he I,. .Miimn- ..I \pril th. rhnt(.nlh w. ni hack 
to ha liamin;' .mil lo,,|. .,\ii tle|iehl^ ayaiii, 
^"iilh wl !h, M, eiii i.,ad, ..n .\pid |-.lh. ill, (..rmai!' 
'" il '"' "as \,fv Moleiil I. a- the rimaiiider of the 
""'ii'l'- -lid I. lent, hr.idx u;e. wamdid on i he •.'•.>nd 
and when t h, liatlalnii xMihdnu from \ pns on I he 
•"'■' •!■"• 'I .\!"il tliiv |. It m L'toiips ,,f thie,- iind. I a 
lieas \ liomliai I linen! . 

''^''""' "I" «■ 'k uas spent III I. ill, I , I,, ar 
(.od> ua< rsM-lde. anil iIm n the Thirleenth w. nt into th,- 
I"" ii'^T Kill (Id. In the early inoriiini: of Ma\ l;uli 
"" >■• ^^1-^ ' (lire,- (..rmiii lioiiilianlmi i,i f,,||,,-,v, d lu- 
•' '■'I'l "" tl" 'i"ht eonipan\ of tin huihams. 
tiiii.ii, s and VM\< had lieen \-i\ l,adl\ .iaina>red. 
Miiji.r |)o\wii \ aiiti.ip ,t, ,1 iroiil.i,' and hid the 
L'lliiiii •• staiidint' lo '■ half .in hoiir earlier than usual. 
Till' tin my ailviuieed it .ihoiil ;{. l,, a.m. and. und.r 


Trench Warfare, April— June. 1917 

cMvcr i)f tlic siiicikf and dii-'l nf tlic I'nMiliardiiH'iit . jji't 
cjiiitc cloM' Ik forr lie was miii. On tlic left alioiit 
t. (ftrinaiis i^'ot into tlic tniuli, l>iit tltd on luinj; 
iltackcd; in the ccntrf the raiders wtrr set r) and <lis- 
|.< rsrd liy law IS 1,'nn and rillc tire htfcrc llicy readied 
the parapet. On the rii.'lit the I.ewis j,'un had Ixeii hit 
i)V several shells and was out of aetioii. luit the i)nr- 
liaiiis iis«'d thtir lionil>s and riths with ;,n>od <lfeet and 
till (ierniaiis wi le driven off vsith many casualties. .\ 
Mcciiid and •-iroiii,'er wave of I he iiiemy was rcpnlstd 
l,\ the lir> of till 'riiirteeiilli ulien half-way aeioss 
■ \o Mair> Land."" The >.().->. Mj:nal was not made, 
.Hid the •_'■; casn;ilties of flic liattalioii ineliidinj,' 'Jnd 
l.itilf. K. Pair. \M)illided Uire all . aased li\ the liolii- 
liatdiiiiiit. H'Mre and diiriii</ the raid I he (lermaiis 
ihnited a tierce lire upon the hit eoinpaiis, evidently 
!o prevent them reinforcing,' the rijrht. 

•_'nd 1,11 lit. li. ('. Miickell, the eomjiaiiy ( ommaiider 
oil the nj.'hl. \isitcd his whole line diiri!!^' the lioiiihard- 
nieiit, and il uas due to his dispos:' ions I he raid 
Was so easilv I' piilsid. lie and "Jnd Lieiit. K. Davis, 
wh<» iilily seeoiidi d hiiii. \Mie awardtd the Mdilai\ 
Cross. ('.-.S.-M.--. (.. A \\..odriiff .md \V. T. Ha/,, hs 
afid .Seryt .M. Hroiii,'h, M.M.. showed (.-reat j.;aliaiitr\. 
and ri soldi ■• and all leeiiMd the Dist iii}.'iiislicd ( on- 
diii t .\ while the Military Mi dal was \son 'i\ 
l.,iiiee-,S<-r^'l . \l . Laurie; ( orpls. |{. Mi Donm II and .f. 
Ki-kii-; Ljiih I -( orpls. t. (■. .\riiislronj,' and .\. 
Iliinson; and I'tev. ||. W . M. Mond and 
I I liipleliy . 

rill 'rilirteelitii A.ii II lit \. doll .Ma\ I till and -pent 
.1 few da\^ il Zilielieke liiind. after uhieh they siipplud 
\arioiis workiii},' parli's until ihe\ coiici iitrated at 
Halifax I'amj) on May *Jlst. The .lu.ird of the 
l)istin«;nisli«'d Sir\ i<'i' Order to Ma|or .1 A. I,. Dowiha 
.iiid of flic .Militar\ Cross to (apt. i M. l.reiriwond 
ippi .ired III tli< Hirthdas iioiioiirs. 

• ih .Inne |s| the liatlahon j-iinu" into the hue at 
Moiinl Sorrel. The Mritish l)onil..irdriii ii' had no\s 
opeticil III earnest and tlie (icrman !ep|\ \i^rt,roiis. 
Ofi till' ni<dit of .In, I Jnd a'\, under I, nut. 
11. ...It.. II ,.,,| jii,! I.I' lit. N'oUiii,'. attempt' d ' liild 

1 y.i 

* ] 



The Durliam I'Orccs in the I'icld 

liiit tlir I iiciiiN iMir.i>it(l till i>i.i(c <ii iiilil> , kiUili",' 
l.i'iil. Ili'i'hdti <iM(l II iiii'ii iimi \v-iiiii(liii>; -11(1 Linits. 
!•'. Hull jiikI (i. ^S . Wood aii'i )'.» utlicis. I'Ihtc wtrc 
■JO iiiori- (iisuahus friMii si|il| tin- !>>■ tin fimi- tin- hat- 
lalioti ucrt- itiitvcd on Jiiiir Uli. 'I'lic (I'.Hli ami TOtli 
l{ri<.'a(lt s imu- took up tlitir positions in tlic linr rtaily 
for tile attack .in<l on tin- nit.'lit of June (Itli flic 
'riiirtccntli iiiovM! into rcssisc, s(,iitli of '/illdickc Lake 

'I'lic l''oiiiti-. iiMi spent the cai'i\ ila\s of Ajinl work- 
1111.' ill the ■• \'illa','c "" liii' and 'lit into the trenches 
at,'aiii oil the ath. Thr. dav . later, when the "Jiid 
Dnihaiii I,ii.'lit Infantry raidtd the enemy, his 
retaliation ((■st the l-'oiirteent h some casualties. On 
Icaxin^,' til-' front line the li.ittahon put a raiding' party 
Ml trainin;.' at ^la/.ill^,'a;■l)e, liut soon came under the 
orders of the lilth Hri^'adt and Wore their part m tin- 
liattle of Arras. 

Whin the I'ourtecnth came hack to tlic iHth 
Mnj.'ad< they r.turiiei to Mazin^'arhe. uhieli was 
reached on April "J.'ird. They were so uiak in luiinhcrs 
that A and M liccaine X eompaiiv, and f and I) W 
company, as u teiiiporar\ mcii.surc. Thus orj,'anis<(l 
the Durhanis relieved the 1st Wist ^'orkshlrcs on 
April ".'fith III the trenches liorth-e.ast of Loos, where 
the notorious Chalk I'lt Wood marked Mie rij^'lit of the 
line. 'I"he enem\ Was luict duri: t; this lour. 

.\t the <iid of till month a hi^ reinforcement was 
re(ei\(d and the lia'tahon extended their front south- 
wards. .\ffer an lnt«■r^•al of training,' at lis Itn his. the 
fourteenth took (vcr trenclus on the ri(.'ht of the 
sector and just north of l! s. ene of the .\pril li^ditiiif.'. 
H(.«- lie shell tire was he.iw .ind --lemed to indicate a 
readjustment o( the enemy iiiic. I.ieiif. \. Wothlield 
!ii\fsti;,'at<ii and, as ,i residt of his reconiiaissaiK e, the 
liattalion dui: a new trench which |oiiied with the K'.tl; 
Division on the ri'^'ht and i-hortened the Hritish line 1., 
.•(0(1 \ar<N. HaMiii; lost , killid and 'Jiid l.ieiil. S. (;. 
llit,'hiiioor and H uounded duiiii}: this lour, the l-'our- 
tctntli were relieved on Mas Kith and passed into 
divisional reserve. Mcfore the t nd of the tiiorith tiny 


TrcMich Warfare, April -June, 1917 

,,iiii( III >iii lln- left a^^.iiii Uhiit r a ^.is lioml>ai<liiunl. 
Tilt (.tiiuaiis wtTf iHiw vrry aj,'<,'itssivf In rt- uiitl 
. iiiployi <1 airial darts, gas, tr<-iu'li iiioitars, slirapiu'i 
all. I liijili t xplosivr, so tli;'.t t!u' i*"i)urtffnt li vvillnirrw i.n 
.Jiiiif ;ir(l with .")() iiiorf casualties. Tlitir strtii{,'tli was 
liiiw less than ">(M). 

The hHttalmii. li.catrd at h s Hifliis, liad to carry up 
tiiinh iiHirtar aiiiiiiuiiitioii a constant task m this 
■,ritor vvhMc 1) coiii|)an\ wi m- orj^auiscd as a raidint; 
, .inpany under Captain Motlitt. 

'I'hc Fiftc. nth were not free of the Arras luitth- until 
ih.A rea<iied Ho\elles on May sth. Nearly ail the 
I. si of the iiioiitii was spent at I5ailleulval. near the 
Arras-Doulleiis road. Major 11. \V. restiii},' arrived on 
the \i\h. The hattalioii niovi d up to l.ivouacs east ni 
I'x.yelles on tiie last day of the niontli and took over 
hold trenches on ,luiii' ith. These uer-- situated in 
the Hillilellhurti; -Sufiport Line ahliost on the scene of 
iiie str> iiuou- .\|>nl lighting. 

Little remains to lie told of the Kighteeiith during 
iliis period. 'I'he l.attalion W(r< at Woelincoiirt from 
M:i> 'J-'lld to the .'Tth working on the •' (ireeii "' Line 
vvhich ran along the sjiur I.. !iinil Hailleiil and reached 
Mie .\rras-(iavrelle r-tiMl at !<■ I'oint tlu ,Iour. Then 
tlirv inoveil wt st to >L»ruuil for training, returning 
-II .luiie ;!id to Ko( liiieoiirt for work r.n roads. 

The .Nineteenth, repairing the ravages of the (ierman 
retreat near Morejiain. inoxed forward oi .Aprii ;Jr<l 
across the .Somnic eaiial to (jiiivieres an<i Doiivieux. 
\ he.iw fall of snow made their work luavur. hut hy 
\pril .sth the hattalioii were eonc< iitr.ite.i at Fie/, for 
training. Tin- M.'itii Division now rehe\ed the t'.lst 
Ml the line an<i the Nintt.enfh mo\ed up. first to 
hiMets ai Trcfcoii and then to trenches norrh-wesl of 
^t (^iieiilm. north of the ()nii).'non !iM I • "April lOtli 
rh. line WIS evtcndcd t. ■' '.ft. win r. :t h.nk.d up 

will) \\\V .">'.»tll DlMsKMl. 

The eiu'iuy had retrcatiif as far as he inti n<lcd to 
fid was cMvermg the r; -estuhlishinent of los front 


'I'hc Durham I'orrcs in the l"\c\d 

1p\ Molnit shell tire; l>ul wlini tin' Dmliaiiis (•(Miiiiifiitt <l 
llnir siconil lour on April istli tin Hntisii line had 
pushed forward north-west of the vdla^e of I'oiitni. 
(Quieter ilays followed, thoui/h •.'nd l.ieut. .1. H. Oz/ard 
was wounded, and the remainder ^f the month was 
spent m di\isi(inal and liri),'ade reser\t'. 

The Nineteenth took o\er front lm<- posts with two 
compaiues tin Ma\' .'{rd. 'I'uo nit.'lits later \' and '/ 
eompaiiies, under ('aj)t. \V. .1. ()li\ti, were detailed 
to attack the niw (Jerman line and l,es 'I'lois Saina;.'es 
Farm \\hieh was lietween (Jrie mt and llit main St. 
(^uent in-C'amhrai road. W eom|ian\ weit to push 
iorwaid thrie posts on the left dunn;; the op( ratmn. 
'I'iuTe was no time availahle for proper reeoimaissanee. 
The attack was ma<le m pouring' ram and encountered 
heavy ritle tire, while the shrapnel lpairai,'e la;,'^'ed and 
woundecj some of the Durhams. Then a hea\y hostile 
liarraj,'e fell upon the stcond and third wa\es uf the 
ad\;.ni'e and the (icrmaii trencii mortars tipeiitd. 'I'lie 
Durhams piess<(l forwani, liul \ eompaiiv, iindir 
Cap!. ('. v.. S. Noakes, fniiiid the faiiii slimij'ls held 
and apparciitK' iintouehid ti\ oiii- ailillei\ lire. 'I'lay 
reached the uneut (icriiian wire and ( n,','ai;ed the 
deleiidtrs w;th their rilles at close ranire. .Mi muhile 
■Jnd I, lent. !•'. HIenkmsop. who h d Z compans' on tin- 
iiL'hI. had fallen, imt some of his nun had rea< hed tlii- 
\Mii in front of the (Jerman ttciichis wliil<- others had 
* onfoinied to the aiKancc of \ eomrian\ . Losses u< te 
heavy all aloiiu the line anil there was now no hope of 
•iieces^, Imt the Diiriiaiiis held on wilhoul Ihoiiviil of 
retreat. ('apt. (Hi\er, comiii",' iiji wilh his nsirvis 
lliroU!,'h the (icrman hairaf,'e, ^'a\e orders lui- the 
UilhdraWal and lliis was done sluwU and ill 
t»ooil older under the eo\enilJ.' lire uf the l,e\M . 
},'Ulis. .Ml the Wollilded who could 1" loiliid in the 
(hirkiHss were iir..u^'ht m and Sii;'t Carver made 
repeated jiinrneys under lire, lesemii^' four mi n sin'rle 

W (ompan\ f/ol forward and estalilis|i(d their three 
posts, allhoiii'li that on the rijdit was euMred hy the 
(.Miiiaii l.air.i."c, •_'nd laciit. (;. K. IladdMii :ilid t'.rpl. 
Dihli doiiii.' ^'ullant work. Losses in tile raiiks amounted 

Trench Warfare, April -Junr, 1917 

I., :,s, -JikI LkiiI. (.. v. (.oii^'litiv (ii'il (if Ills \Miim(is 
iii'l -.'iiil Lirut. t.ray was sfvtrfly wouiidtii. 

Tlif rtli<f «>f th(- liattaliDM caiiu' on May htli, just 
iftcr \V (•(.m|)any"s posts had Ik'I'II drivfii m, though 
II,. I wit'ii.iiit liravy casuiiltifs to the (.tniuius. At 
In frou thf Nirn-tcnitli carried out traiiuut; and work-d 
,,ii llif roads till thf .•t.">th Division moved northwards 
III the line. The Durhanis h;id inarched to Peronn* 
Mild (VdiluLllN went into l.illets at Villers-(;msiain 
l.rhind the new front, which ran across the hii:h t:round 
,;i,t of the villai.'e into the ravines south-east of 
(.nnneluii, Aftei a (|Uiet tour ui treiuhes ojiposite 
II- nn'court. the hattalioii withdrew on .Fiinc '2nd to 
divisional !( serv( at Ai/.ei'oiirt-le-Has. wheie a lionili 
,1, , id. tit wounded t'apt. (.'. K. S. Noakes and •Jnd Lieut. 

,1, IJoliertsuli. 

'I'he 'rw(iiticlh were 111 the treiiclus near Hill <><> 
:,i Ihr lic^'iiinin<r of .\i)nl. -Jiid Lieut. .1. A. Hallantyix' 
s IS \soun«le<i diir;!!-,' the tour, luit casualties were sniall 
111 -pite of the incessant shell tire. On coining' out of 
til liiK the Wearsidcrs went hack to Kperlecciues to 
pr.i'tisc the attack ;ind coiisolidat loti. Hy April -irAh 
t|ii\ reached camp near Henmj.'helst and tiicneeforward 
uorked hard on prejiarat ions for the offensive. Hostile 

Im 1! lire uas a serious cmliarrassniciit and at s.'.'i p.m. 
.-11 Ma\ 7th every yun in tiic Second .Xrmy lte>,'aii tise 
miiiutrs" mieiise lire on the (.erman < ommiinK atioiis. 
Mils was K'p.atid ;it 11 r.M. and thenceforward tin 
> iiemy was much less a^r^ressiv r. 

( )ii May I'.'th the Twentieth were hack in the old 
lunches, their last tour hefore the hallle. Then' were 

.\eral patrol encounters, and a valnahle i<hiililicat ion 
\ s.cured. thoiitrh the (iernuiiis were very watchful 

iiid displaved no dt sire to com.> :<> ^jrips. ".'nd Lieut- 
( .irndl .iiid Khtchcr dist in<:uisln(i themselves in tinsc 


(apt. A. I'uinplirev was awarded the Distiiiirnislj d 

>' r\ lee ()r<ler m the IJirthdsy Honours, and Lieut. V . 

\V.i\ in.iii received the Militar> t'ross. Th'' Kreiich 

^1,'lnil!, Militiiiii w.Ts conferred on Seri.'t. K. rriestle\ . 

^LM.. who was alwavs ])romiiient oi> pa'rol. The tirst 





'^ i 

The Durham Forces in the Field 

(i u (|,i\s of .liinc were s|Miil al WOoiIcmIi l,ini|', iiiitr 
iJriiin;,'!!! is! mainly in n cical mhi. f<>r all [ircparatioiis 
lor tlir offensive were now ((ini|i!rl(. On the ni;,'lit 
of June ."itli I he \\'( insiders liei.'an to Tno\f up. 

The Tweiit y-Seeoiiil Worked (heir Way forward, rc- 
paifiii^' the roads as they wint. At the !)ej,>ininn;,' of 
April they were in the \ieiiiity of Moislauis; at the 
• lid of (he month thcv hail reached III iidicoiiri , 
(•oir/taiieoiirt ami N'lliers-Ciiii dam. All this was not 
done witlioiil fre(pi( rit casualties fmrn shell lire, tint 
I lie woik was never dilaycd on that account, (hi the 
ni;.'ht of May ."trd a shell pitched ii: the midst of '.'iid 
I. lent. ('. |'"osl)rooke"s platoon and the survivors were 
eomplini( ntcd liy (dionel ,''.lor;,'an on the conrayc and 
coolness they rlisplayed. 

.\ W((k spent on new eommniiication trcnclus 
I'cfore the division left this part of the line. Tlic 
rioneers then rested at \'au\ \V()od. north of Moishiiiis. 
till .May -jritli. when they entrained at Peroiiiie for tlic 
^ pres front. Hivdiiaes near Dickc Imsch were eventii- 
all\- (X'ciiiiied, ir the midst of the Uritisli hatteries. The 
liattalion w( re now ( inp'oyed m const met in^ w.iter- 
troii^rlis in jutparation for a pi[)c line; laynif: a li{,'ht 
railway; and makin<,'a corduroy road from Kriiisstraat 
to the Ziilclieke road. Hostile shell (ire was \ery 
licavy on the roads and on the ni;,'ht of M.iy •_'!t1i) the 
doctor and si retelier-licarers of ihi Twenty-Second were 
liiisy tending the wounded of an ammunition eolnmii. 
One coiiipanv uas devoted to the inakin<,' of ^'un em- 
plae(nHnts for the Corjis hca\ics at the h<';,'innint; of 
•'nnc. On the ;{rd jjas slu-lls interrupted work on 
the cordurov road. 'I'hree da\s later the Twcnf y-Sccond 
w it lidrew lo It s| ;ii Stra/ei le. 


TUi: IJAllLi: Ol' MHSSIM'S, 1917 

1 Ml. Iiattir wliicli tlinisl llic (..TiiiMMs from tlif Mt ssmk s 
i:.lj,'i' is uiii<iiH- l)y niisoii of the Hntisli ntta'-k froii: 
iii\!l'Tf;romi(l. Kor iicnrly two y.jirs mimiit,' ami 
loiiiitfi-iiMiim;: liiui li'tii in i)r<)<„'rtss on Ilic front of 
ilic Si'coud Arniy. and to assist m tins work tin- skilled 
lal.onr whicli tli".- t'ounty l.atl.ilions conld provide was 
nnieli i[i demand. So many a Durham man liad played 
ill- part in the preparations for Jniie Ttli, when the 
( vplosion of no less than nineteen mines killed and 
womidcd larj^e niimlieis of (iermans and destroyed their 
front trench svstem. 

in the Hntish battle line, stretehmj; from Ploe<;- 
sleert Wood to Mount Sorrel, the Ust Division 
occupied a sector ixtwccn St. Eloi and the Yi)res- 
(omines canal. The ]TAt:\ \ir\pxih' on the h'ft. 
the Twentieth heiiif,' in support to the other three 
battalions who were each allotted a platoon of 
Wears'ders for " moppint: up."' The task of the 
Twentieth was to <;o forward and consolidate the first 
;ind second line (W-rman trenches, as soon as they had captured, while th<' advance continued as far as 
the Damm Strasse, a road which ran lutwccn hi<.'h 
banks across most of the frcnt hut became a <'anseway 
'A here it traversed the lower jrronnd u|)on the ri<rht. 

.\ tryiim time wa' spent by the Tw<Miticth on the 
uK'hl previous to the attack. Another briizade. which 
uas to follow the T_>:!r(l. started so early that th.'y 
lilock<-d the communication trenches and tliis con- 
gestion combined with 1h aw hostile shelling to dday 
Uk' battalion and cause main- casualties. Eventually 
the Twentieth moved over the open to the assembly 
positions tajMd out by -Jiid laeiit. Shepherdson. 
I'Ik' ni-zht was line and not very dark. 

At :{.in A.M. on June 7th the t:rcat inme under the 
< I liters at St. Eloi exploded with a deafemn;,' roar and 


The niirham l'^)rccs in the licld 

.It Ihc ^lidck IkhI piissrd ii\\;iy llic 'i'sMtilKth prrss.^d 
forward ti. I In- sliattcrcil (i(iiiiiiii t rcinhcs, fsiapm^ l>y 
t!l>' swiftlirs'- nf their ailvaiici the worst of the hostile 
liarra<:i' whieli fell heliiiid tliiii'. 'I"he Mieiny support 
hue hail lieeii aiiiiost tlatt.iied hy tlie Mritisli artillery 
lire and <lead and woiimleil (.erinaiis la\ tliere in threat 
imillliers. A feu dut'-ollts were liollllied. liut there was 
little opposition to overcome. The prisoners were sent 
l.aek I •arinj.' the Hritish wounded with tiietii an<l the 

Dnrhanis were - n dit.'i,'iii;.' new trenches and ^.'eltint,' 

out wire. Two platoons who were in reserve received 
orders to t-'ci oil and assist in the takin;.' of tiu' Dainni 
Strasse. l.,il news came that a jjortioii of A com|)any. 
haMiit: thrust loruanl with ^'reaf /eai into the forefront 
of the liatlle. Were already tilt re. 

An hour after zero the Damm Strass<' was cajytured 
aloii^: tlie whole lirii,':ide front and all tlit jiroimd 
grained was soon eh and, while the work of consolidat ion 
went on a|)aee. Later in the day the Twentieth sent 
four I,ewis j:un teams to assist the troops on the rijjht. 

\W their hold ,ind skilful leadership m the a<l\aiiee 
and their ^'ooil work in direclmj^ tlie consolidation of 
the eaptiind positions, -.'nd l.ieiits. W. ('. Hroun. 
\\. U. Hrooke and H. Wilkinson all won the Military 
Cross. SvvyJ. W . MePli.rsoii. ('<irpl. \\ . 11. Hare and 
I'l.s. !•;. |{(st. .1. .). Hi tteii.lj,'e, H. Keiiwick, .1. Harris. 
L. iMiiirston. '!". il. S. Mathiesoii, .1. Parkin and M. 
(^ninii were awarded \\u' Militaiy Medal. Tlie Tweii- 
lieth captured a comphle searehliuht installation, a 
locktt apparatus, a trineli mortar and a (piantity of 
aims and ((piipnieiit. liesides two machine-;,'uns 
which were used aiTiimst their late owners with innul 
• ffeet. 

The enemy shell lire was. as usual. hea\\ upon liis 
lost trenches, liut did not do much damat:e to ihe new 

lllMS diu: l'> the Twentieth. Losses at the end of the 

(la\ amounted to -Jiid Lieiits. !{. M. Tploii and Peiirice 
killed, -Jnd laiiit. Kijips wounded, and \(>'_' others 
killed :ind uoiiniied. 

Consolidation. iiKludint,' the construction of stroiij; 
|,oints ami the piittiii}.' out of wire, continued on 
.luiie sth. The tra\crses of the iieu trtiiclics wire 


The Battle of Messines. ]')\7 

inadr al.out 1 ' f<'i thick, as tlir (■.iiiiaii l-att.iio 

fiiith.r iiortli uiTc aide to tak.- t! pMsitimi m .'. 

Hut it \\:is iKit till tlif .xfiiiii:.' that tlic hustiU' 

■-hrlhii ' h( caiiic rcallv 


Tlifii Di'.f uf <«iv ai 

jphiiU's sij,Mialli( 

1 a (H-rniaii (■()Untfr-atta( k and tlic 

|)nsiti(>iis ill uliicli (h( 

'r\V( Iitirth \M ir Ili.W -trol 


tal'hshiil i((ri\c(i a hdiiiliardnicnl from <.'uns of 

< aiihri- 

Our artilhrv was vrv a'tlv<- f'^r an h'>ur and 

\M lit t hi 

I half and spasnindic Imrsts nf liir cuntiiiui 

(.lit tin- ni^'ht. whih- our niaihiiic-^'uns su. j 

(.nniaii hue cuntiinially. I..'s-rs in tin- 'I'^mt h-th 

ihirniL' tills and tlif 

- k'llf I and L". \\i 'iii.lrd 

|(i\\ Ml" i la\ nl 

1\ atii'iuntid t. 

.lun.' Kith iirnu<.'ht 
list in thi rarlv iii'irni 

]Uisit i\f (itrinan iiTdiuai 



i-i>n!.r v.t-alhrr iiiid thirc was 

n<,' ulitii 1,1'uis c,'iins r(| > lud two 

At 10. .•',(» V.V.. thr S.O.S. 


tlir llritish front hii«- caiis.-d an iiour of 

I.Minhardinrnt li\- lioti 

■s, in u 



IS jihivT,! their part. .MthoU'jh tli.- trtnchts of t! 


I'w lilt icth \vi ii- daina^'fd in 

■ iilv M iiHi! wiri 



\(vt (Vinint; A and Ii ciwnpaniis w. 

vcd and twcntv-four hours hitrr tin- whole hal': 

II >n 

assenihh'd at Hois C'oiitliK nt luiiind Un i.ld l{nti-l 
front hue siiiith-wi'st of St. Khu. 

Tile •-'■'iid Division forninl tlie extreme left ..f thi 

British attaek. .\l Hill t'.ti tli<- •'■'■"h HriL-adi had t. 

ai|\anee o 


n liofh sides o 

f tlie Yiires-t'omii 

us ranwa\' 

1 the Twelfth Were to take Impartial Tnneh. 'h 
■ft portion of the final objective of the hru 


Dirhams were in positioii. KaiiL' m tin- open near li 

Wood, hv 1 A.M. oil June 7th. .\t thrie 

k 'hen 

Wis a II 

ill in the Hritish homiiardmeiit and ten n 


•r caiiu- the cxjil 

osion o 

f the mines. 

11.11 t'lO and the C.iterpillar were seen a 
finiiaee ; then tlie Hritish s.'uns opeii 
wavis of i 

l"or a nioiieiit 
s line '.,'rea* tierv 

ind the 


f infant rv W( !it forward to the assau 

It. wli 

• he niachine-L'uii l)arrai.:f aih'.ed a new clamour 

to th 

familiar din of hattlr. 

The Twelfth had \et to wait 

ind nearly twr. hours had passed hefore tliev followed 

ttie wake of the advance over the remains 


( .1 rman 

f t! 

trendies, where the Vorksliirenicn "f t},,- tv.Ml 






"?8 12.5 

2 2 




1:25 ||||_U 



The Durham Toiccs in the Field 

Hr...ui. vcn- ronM.'.lal.n,'. At (•,.:,() a.m. thr '^attnl.on 

nasM.l through •• scron.! <a,j...t,ve and attacked Trvuvh .slncl. was tak.n xvith a loss of unh 

.uslud nu stm furtlHM and n the hcusos of 

»1 ll TX 1. 1 ON JvHt 10>\ - 

4.1ti; "Div 


J. I O'-It^^Kt 

Kit 111 Zillrlukr. \vl». 1.' Ihi Hritisli sinlls wvw falling. 
'Jtid Luiil. \V. U. Ilill witli Ills 1.1 WIS ^MiiiiitTs raptured 
\ (i.rinaii .llict is iii the \illa!,'i'. Init our own harrafjo 
iiiadi- It nccfssary to wilhdraw to tlic liric now hciii^ 
roiisdlidatod forwar<l of Impartial Tniuii. Tliis work 
went on diirinu' tlir heat of tlic day. .\l>out noon 
tiicuiy aciupluuts lot'aled tlio |)ot.itiun, with the result 

The Harrlc of Mcssincs, I'M / li<a\> siicll tirt' took tin- tniu'h in ciitilaiir fioiii 

till Il'il'tll illld rauscd !,i-;!".y lossr s. \iy C. \\\\. (,\rr 
'2t'*> null had lit'iii kiUiii nn,] woiuidiil and, m \iru of 
tlif daiiiicr of a ( ouiitcr-al I ack, the 'riiirteiiith wirc 
call: d upon to takr over tli<' liiu'. This \vas accoiii- 
phsiitd licfoiT da\wi of .huii- .s'h and on tlu' follownii.' 
da> the Twilfth ri arlii d Montna! Cainp to liatlic aial 
list tlicrr. Mnt on the i\iiijn<.' of tlir loili tin- hat- 
taiioii cainc up and ri'lir\.d tlir KMli Dukt- of 
Wi llin^'ton's Uv>i[. ni Hattlc Wood on tiic ri-ht of 
lilt hiir. so that the wlioji- liritradf fi'ont was occupied 
hy Durham im u uh > h< Id it until tln' '.';)id l)i\!si(.n 
\s lie w ;t!id!-,i wn. 

'I'll- Twrlfth f.*!'! d that th-- |it;c was a'.oiit l.',0 yaids 
--hnrl of tin- di-s ic.l ol);(iii\c, owili;^' to the tr(.op.s iMl 
th'- inirmiliatc ri-ht liavinj,' liccn held up hy a luachine- 
:,'uii |iost o!i the canal which lient to the south-east in 
front of IJattle Wood. The lirsl task was to iini>r(ive 
the trenches on the hue alnady won and a i.'iiod 
dtfensi\e position niadi' in sjiite of the inaehiiu'- 
t,'uiis of low-flyiiiT (; [-iiiiui aeroplanes and the hostile 
• hell tire ', hi'/li n.Aer eease<l. ( )m the niorniiiLr of tlio 
l.'ith laeuf. \. C. W Hall was kille.l ,,nd two other 
ojlii'crs wounded. 

I'',\<ry iii>:lit ftatrols visited the (iennan d i--i.iits 
siliiat'd pear the final olijective. IJefMn rt lii f on the 
n!'.:ht of June l.'ith li\ a unit of the ITlh lirnrid.' this 
line was successfully oceu|)ied hy tin phdoon of I i. ut. 
I'. \'au\. who, without artillery support. jiu^Ik d for- 
ward in the darkless and aecomjilished a \ i rv sni art 
j>iice of work in the fa-'c of the i nemy. The in-coniin-' 
haftalioii were forhiddeii to hold thise advancid {xists 
and eorifi' themselves with tin front and su[tporf 
hues, now eousistipt; of jjood continuous trcnelas. In 
the enrly nioriiinjj of tlie l!th the Tvvelfth werd down 
til ■ railway traik fluouyli a harra':<- of (.'as-shelK fo 
^'!a^lerti^",'he and entrained for the Herthen area. 

('apt. K. W. I afonc, Lieut. C. \\ri\ nut] -.'nd Lit iit. 
W. U. Hill were nwnrd d the Alilitnry Cross. V'lul 
I.I ut. Thos. IJrandun, wlio raptured '20 (iennaiis with 
the hf'lp of one man on .Tnnr Tth, t\ni\ 'ind Lieut. N. J?. 
I' ill. ii ^'allant and zeah)us tr«iifh nK>rtar ofTu'er. 






I { 

^ ' 



The Durham I'orccs \.\ the Field 

Tavlnr an.l T. W,.!k..r: Lan--.- -rpls I . W.-HilMl. 

M.-.lal. Srr.t. J. A. S,.r,'.l. M.M :n>.i t. .1. _\ • 
Hanirss. M.M., u.r.- .ach a^var.i. .1 a !..r tn ,1„ 
(IfCdral ioii. 

ri;.-,. ,ii,>l.rMa.inr.f. A. !.. \)n^yur^. sv. rr 
i„ ,...MTvr M.-ath Ml- -MUU-kr lak. a! Ha- ''V^nuA "f 
,|„. Irnltlr. A an.l 1'- conipanirs wu^■-■\ ".',"";''" 
H;,tt,rMa Fa.m. -n tlu' s.-uUi-rastnii si'..- ut /ill. Ixk- 
.,t '.. !-■ N.M. and at t.-n ..Vlo.-k at i.i-iit x. • >.; . T.l.n .1 
,., ,,.ii.-v. th,- TwrKi!, m Imiairtial Tn„.lu ''^^ ^^^'^ 

I Ymmii" an.l :'. "MitTs ami womiHc.l -Jiul la< ut .1. 
"Ura.iv 'ir- na... C a,al D rnn.paiM. ^ nr.v. .1 m. 
,„ ,i,V ,,m1v lu.nrs -.f th.^ ■Uh, rasuaHu s nn Has .la; 
an.m.ntin.'t.. jn. In the rv.-nma Ma.,.a- D.Avn.y t-,,, 
„v,T .-aninan.i -f Ha' ul.«.!.- nmli l?rma. . ana n.ati, .. 
thr railway. Af ni^I.t C .•-.mpany an.i a ' ''M':'"v ,• 
,-,i,,„,,rs .... t.. w...k .... a sn,.,.ort Ma I., la, ,!,^ lal 
TnMich Tliis n.'W tn-iidi, rall.-.i Durl.nn l.aia v..^- 
,„,,,pi;,l J.v (• rui.ipany, Nvhile A an.l \) orvv^uA t!,. 
front l.n .' 1< .-..mpany ivinamtai n. Imp !■■ in- 

"lu'th- in"li< of th.' lltl! Ihr hravy tiui.u In, had 
k,ll..l - •' l-i""'it. A. L. Hamiltun an.l M..nnd..l '2.1.1 
1 uut T Mur.'atrovd atid tli.rf wnv r,i\ in..n- .•.■.^nall !.;s 
in th.- ranks. At VJ.T. a.m. on Jnnr 1-Jth 1) r.,n,|.any s 
no^ts in th," du'-outs alonix th, laihvay ^^.n• .Irivcn 

n Kollowin- ii lu.mhanhni-nt l.y a Stok- s n.oi-tar, 
I i.a.t T. (;. Saint ,-,.tint, r-atta.-kr.I a!-in? 
p'artv" aiKl rr^aincd his lost positions at tl.r s.a.aa aftiT h,in- woun.lod an.l losing several ..f 

'"'iriho .arlv morn.n^r ••{ 'l'^l'*''\. '>'' ^;V^^J*\'" 
vnoatrd the trcnrhos on rehof hv n hattahon "f »1;^ ;\»'' 

Dhisinn. n.arrhod bark t.. VUnr,- h- "^nd h-ft hv 

tr.iin for Codfwncrsvfl.l.'. 

If, J 

The Battle of Xkssincs, 1^17 

riic liijiiours awiiriit'fi alUr ;lu> action inc!uii>.<l Un- 
^lilitaiy truss tu Lifut. C . '1'. W. Saiurlxck. ulio liaii 
KlHaft'illy l)ravf(l the intriis.- t iniiiy slitllinu m !iis 
capacity of iiit( ilim ncr ulliccr and, tlioiiuii vvouniifii, 
lid.i oil" till tlic liattalion uiic idicvcd. Capl. K. (.ray. 
(or his fearless and skilful direction of tla- consolidation 
ol the foiward (jhjcctiv. and ins iiutiatne in pn-.h- 
!ii;: out patrols. u,»> woii the Cross and I'.-S.-M. 
ti. Ilioinpsoii. who \va- particularly prominent during; 
. ,,iisolidatioii under th< liea\> >-h>ll liif. nc i\e<l the 
l>|stin;:uislie(i Conduct Medal. 

On .Fuiic IMh the Twentieth were in supji,,!! to the 
I'.'Jnd Hn;:;ad( . who attacked succ( ssfully and did not 
IK id anv assistaiitc. 'I he W eaisidcrs took over tii<' hue. 
now on the forward slope whu h overlooked llolhlicke, 
III tht .■veliini.' of the r.tth. Wet WeatiiiT had turned, 
ih. irciichcs into liithy ditch- ^ ,,i:d at dawn of the 
'.'Utli the (icrinan iiatteries wer-- \er\ acli\c. liattalion 
luadtpiai It rs were soon sli< Ih <l out ol th- White 
t liateau and. 1>> order of tin hri-Hde, ino\.d furilier 


A new support Inn thi< k traverses was duy 
li\- Ihf hattalioii. hilt nan in the Inml Iniieh wen- 
in trlv waist deep in water and a poitam of the parados 
[ell iipoii (ohm; I North when h< wa- inakiiij,' his 
loMinh. Mr Was diiL,' out. for1unal.l> htlh 'he worse. 
The Wf^l Keiits lelievcil th<' hattaiioii on tile ni;;ht 
I th.e i^ird, all tliiir front luir eomiianie> eoiiunir i>ut 
,;t tin- same tune, thanks to tie < Iforts of tlie sapp<rs 
who had luid-id the ornarMiilal wat.r at White 
( ilAt, :it|. Ill spit. ..f the (..Milan shell lir-- ill.- Tut ti- 
t , th had ha.l 1. ss than .■id casuaili.s. inchidmu' Major 
.,. McXicholl. I). >.(■>.. w,,und. d. 

Tiu- lia.ttalion. how m snppiai. oecupi.d th. old 
(.>!-maii front lini' and |ui.\id.(l w.ukiii:.' an-l earr\ ui^ 
parties until .Inn.- •JTlh. \N 1 d. litre hiss.s amoiiiit.d 
' 1 ! *) killeil ami woiind.-d. 

\notlc r toMi m fnuil follow.-l. MoiuMti',' posts 
and Lewis L'uns hehl the line o\ day anil mucli work 
was dune at ni^dd. I>u1 tin rain persisted ami the 
treiiclics urew worse ami uorsr. (in the last day of 


if J 



The Durham Forces in the Field 

)!„■ muu'Ai a uml i>l ihr VTth Division took uvrr tho 
lin.- ;uM thr 'l, Mouii-icrcd hack tliroiidi tin- 
,n,ul. Ill ul,!ci. luanv ..i tlif 1..- ivily lad.n mrn stuck 
f-ist nunii" tti:'. last f,,ur ]•_' in.ii iiad I'.cfi. killtii aii'l 
:i:\ %v,<"an(l -Jixi l.;>ul. r. V.^T liad .lir<l of 
Iiis wmiuhIs. 

Noil -I. 'th Hri'Mil.' nnld^ M|.,vv in ilrl.iil fViTvthin^ 
cnii.l bv thr inl,n.trMii;,ii in tiir ;itl;..k ;.l tlir \>M[W nf 
Mis'-in.'s " Tins iqniimirnt, nliidi ^,;.ri(-l iitti.' ui l!if sub- 
siqufiit actiiMis. is v\.,itliv uf re Olid. It cni^:.!..! of llie 
lollciwin.u. ill lul.lilinii to riiU' and liayuiu-t ; 

Si.ii liflinct 2 (Irciia.lcs ( I in lai 1\ top porkct i 

lla\i fs.u k |oii l.arlsi l-O louniK S.A.A. 

Wal.r l.olljr ,illird, V l-ialis ll m ra. Il liotlolU 

l-;iltl(iulli!i:.; tool po.krl I 

Watriprool sliii't 1 Iron ration 

•rui„. ;:as liclniri 1 !).i>'s l'n-rr\<,l meal and 

15o\ ri'spirator Idsvvno 

2 San.lliai:s b i^ld drt "-Mnu 

l-vcrv oth.r iiMii carnrd a ! .r-.- tool on lii- i'a.k tin llu' 
nr..nortion(d ,.slio\'!s I o 1^ pi.ks,. L.'uis L;nniK-rs. s^nal its, 
M> . carried tluir own v.rapon^ and i'<pii|)m.nt . W irr cu tris, 
VciA i)istoN and caMrid,^t■^. and S.O.S. r.ukets liad also to be 
takiii birwapd. 

f i 


JUNK AM) iCLY. 1917 

On June 3id tlic IV-nth wtiit into tnnclits a^'ain, 
takii-y over a portion of the line httwtin Clurisy 
still ni Ctrman luuuls an(i llir Cojcul rivor. Capt. 
.Salmon and 4 ni«n %vrn- wounded on this day. At 
•• o"cloi'k next inorninj,' a patrol uf 7 tiernians entered 
Hi,, hue. hut lleti on henij; attaeked. One man, mor- 
tallv wounded- was left in the hands of the Tentli. 
.June (Ith was the worst day of shell tire winch, conunj,' 
from the C'lierisv direction, took the tnnelies partly 
,n enfila(h'. An aeroplane spotted for tlie (ierman 
t^ until it was driven off by British inaehines. 

\fter this tour the Tenth moved luck hy deforces 
until thev arrived at Bus-les-Artois U>t traininfr and 
ivereatioii. On July I'ith they entrained for BaiUeul 
nud niarehcd to Mont Vidaijrne, on the Belj,'ian 
frontier, where training' continued. 

Tlie Eleventh, still workinj; in the Noreuil sector, 
luul accomplished a «reat (h-al by the middle of June. 
Uaiiwavs h d been repaired and a new communication 
trench 'was cut throu«:li a railway embankment and 
,amoulla"ed. On June 'JCth the work on the secon< 
line of defence was finished and the Pioneers reached 
Domart at the end of tlic month. Tramint;, sports and 
recreation filled the davs until tlie move of th<' division 
to Ypros. The Eleventh entrained at Doullens and, 
on arrivMJ in Flanders on July '-Mst, occupied a camp 
at Proven, C" company startmj: work on railway 
( niist ruction at once. 

After tlie Messines battle tlie Twelfth spent a week 
tn-nuifx assiduouslv in the Berthcn area before movinc 
bv lorry <.n June 'Jlst to camp at Dick.busch. Il-re 


The Durham l'(3rccs in the l-icld 

llic l.iitt:ilion wen- ^lulUd i\rv\ ii!;.'lit mid lar;.'i- pailk-s 
were iiiij»l()yf(l ill l.urviiij,' calilc. live days later tlio 
'I'w.lfth went liack In Kh'tn , Imt wn llir last day <.! tlic 
liK.iitli tlu' wIhjIc id tin- liii-adr luaicliMl wp iii pMiiiini,' 
laiti towards tliv iiiic 

On July Mil tln' battalion paraded to sn Ih, Km;,' 
pass jilonfi* the la C'lyttr-I{fnnit,'lH 1st roail. 'I 1m \ v' nt 
nito tin- tri'nclK's n-^n\u mi July IHtli nr:ir i\ltiii 
Ziliclxkc. wluTc (itrinaM (■oiicivt,- sh, afforded 
iHitir protection than liad <\fr I'-en availaMe liefore. 
A raid was done durjii<,' lliis t.inr. I.iiut. WViuddinan 
and '-'nd l.ient. K. (i. I'niinai' wi'li 1<» men Mishm;,' a 
(Jernian "" piil-l'i>\," j'.toimd wlu' !i a I'ox liarra;.'e had 
been J)laeed. Hotli ollieers Avere -.vonndid :;Md there 
was some sliarji ti<.'htinir. Imt :, imii <if the M h Jiit,'ers 
were }>ron;jht hack. "ind Lnid. Fn- man who per- 
s(jna!lv ea)ilur<(i one of thiin. helped Laek a hadly 
wounti' il raid' r ai.d afteiwards went out to seareh for 
;j men r. portal! n issin,!'- rceep, .,! tin- Mililar\- (.'ross. 

The 'I'welllh wen- rehesed on Jniv i;'.th and sjieiit 
the w.H-ks tliat folhiv.d trainm^ lor the attack at 
'.arious places heiniid the lir.e. On Jnl\ Siith the 
hallalinn arrived at Si. Omer !■>■ train and n.nchtd to 
hillels a1 Hscjueriles. 

Th<- Thirteenth were lo.attd at Mont d..s (tt^ ;dter 
the Messines offensive. 'I'h< \- also ^aw ih.- Kin-: near 
l{enin!rhflsl mikI on J!il>- f,th the> took o\er trenches 
near Kh-iii Zilleheke. 

At r_M."i A.M. on the 7th. ■_'m! l.irul. l-'r. denek 
Yonens and li men hit !i.e ri'.dit oi the haMahon front 
to <'ft into touch v\ilh the tmops i.ii that tl.'.i:k. .\ 
slnin?,' party of (ierinuis ( nd< avouied to snrround and 
capture this small patrol, luit ailii a Uf'.K m \\hieh 
•_'nd Licnl . Yonens and one man were wiunded, the 
Dnrhanis r<'<rainfd their own Imes. Soon a fierce 
hardiuetit fell upon the trenches of th. 'i'linle.!,!]! 
and ahout '2.'M) a.m. sonu .'id (i^rmans .ithnipt'd to 
raid tin- ri^ht company. A --hi ll-lanst se.dtiiid one 
Lewis ijnn U'.'un, hut -Jnd Lieut. Yotuns. wjio was re- 
(■eivini; medical ai'l in a dnu-oni . lushed forth without 
shirt or jacket and rallied the men. .\ hoinh was 


Ir lltf ^1(.< tM»-l II I I I ^ «ll I \-^ \ 

I M h I liirlMin I ulit Int. ml rt 

Trench Warfare, June and July, 1917 

thiiiwu a 

niuii;;st t 

h, ,ii, !)Uf Ik- hmWd it .mt of th 

trfiuh. Allot lu-r cainc aiul this a 

.,1 111 his hands. \voiiii(Un<! hiin so st 

ilso he sfizfd ; luit it 

lir (lied. I'Ik- I.' riiian 

riouslv tliat 

rai(i failed aiK 

i this 




» ollici r was auar 

h(l the Vii'toria Cross. 

Tin- 'rhirtitiith w<i( 


1 hv the Twclftli on 

.July lutli ami iVi'Mtually withdrew 
a-am. On July aoth they m< 

to Mont (its Cats 
ved to billets at 

u !/.( rnes. 



[he Fouilii-nth eaiiK- m 

to tll( 


in fh. 

I.oos sfclor on Jul! 
l.eliind. It 
tnnelies should 

'.ith th( V left their raidin),' pa 


u(i lieeii arran<,'e( 

' that the l.ennan 


red liv dayli^'ht on 

tlie l-.'th 

and the artillery now cut pips m the t 
mortars and maehine-fiuns 
from repairini 

emv wire, treiieh 

llie dama^' 

postponed as a pa 
Cope and 

preventing' the (iermans 

The raid liad to he 

eoiisistiii},' of •2iul Lieut. C. S. 

missing', hut the ofVieer returned 

j"mr 1 tth. haviii-: spent two day- and nif.'hts 


men- was 

alone on 

li.hind the (iernian Im 


mu^llln^ < 

if .June l.')th was mis 


Parties o 


(■crmans wire workin<,' on 

out wire in front. These were 

(',.;{() \.M. a terriliie eommo 

their pi>ra|)et and putting 

t!ie line, where 
diimmv "" rai 

not disturbed, but at 
tion was heard further down 
the imh Hri-iade were earryiii},' out a 
1. Then the protective barrajje came 

down and the Durham-. advanee( 

1. -Jiid Lieut. \V. H. 


leadiiifz the centre i 

Uothtield tile men on the 

larty anil 'Jnd Lieut. A. 
ft. Ninetv seconds later 

•Jiul 1. 
tlie n;.'! 


t. A. M. L 


led forward the party on 

1 11 

It-red the (;trman tr»ne!ie 

On tiie riirht the junction o 

f Nash All 

.ithout trouble. 
■ with the front 

line was captured and Serj,'t. W. Simi)son led a rusli 
-,i,;.4, ,.i.,tntv,! ;t barricade and accounted for all the 

wliieli caj)turc(l 

.K'f.-nd.Ts. A block was es 

ip Nasli Ai 



Ised. 11 i.ermans 

tablished ai)out 100 yards 

iind nine duK->)Uts were either burned 

counter-attack was easily 

)f the l.'iiird RcK't. being 

A feci 

killed ai'.d :, taken. The raid.-rs in the centre and on 
tlie left met and worl<ed to tlie ri},'ht together, killing 


l lie Duriiani lorccs in the Meld 

'.* itl tlic (.iiiiu) aiiiJ (•ii;;.\iiii,' (itlais Iroiii llifir (hljj-outs. 
Ahout ■_*() (•(■iiuaiis ran away over tlu' t()|), hut ranif 
under tlir lire ui rillc ^^rcna'iitrs ami siiij)crs Ifft on the 
parapvt for I Ins |)ur[)osc. 

'1 he raiders. !i;iif of whom had only joined the 
Fourteenth a month lufore. nturnid after spendinjj 
lifteen inuiules in tli<' lierman trendies whieli were 
found to he wi'ie and ratlier shallow. Casualties were 
only 1' killed and (i woumled. C'ajit. J. P. Motlitt, wlm 
or;,'amsed the affair, and I'lid Limit. A. Holhfield were 
awarded the Military I'ross ; .Strf,'t. Simpson and Pte. 
T. Thompson r(eeived the Distinjriiished t'omiuet 
Medal; and the Mililaiy Niedal was won l>y Lanec- 
C'orpl. W. M'lore. 

The (.erman <,'u?ii,ers now opened a ventjefiil hom- 
hardmeiit and hy the time the Fourteenth withdrew 
to division;d reserve on June I'.ttli, 'Jiid Lieuts. E. A. 
Cash, and i'. L. Thuinpson and 11 others liad heen 
killed and I'nd Lieut. W. H. Priiee and 47 men 

Karly in .,';.iy wh- n the Fourtetnth were in the line 
a<,'aiii they raided the (ii rmaiis at the same plaee. At 
(I A.M. on the '.Uh the l»;tli Hriirade ohli^'ed with a smoke 
sen en and "dummy"* hoinhardment while three 
|); rties of 10 m( n went ovi r. The few Germans who 
w<re seen fled at onee and after several duij-outs had 
heen liomhed the raiders withdrew. They reaehed 
their ov.ii trenches safely, hut the (ierman homViard- 
nieiil came down and caused S casualties hefure they 
could ^et under cover. On this occasion '2nd Lieut. 
E. (i. U'ylie won the Military Cross and Seri,'t. J. G. 
.'\damson and Corpl. {,. Hardinj,' the Military MedaL 

The Foiirteentli were relieved the same lught and 
(hd much work on the trenihes until they departed hy 
hns for Caueoiirt- west ol the old l{oman road to 
.\rras - on .Iiilv 1 ttli. 

ti' ■ iff 


Af[( r an uneventful tour in tlie line at the })e<.'iiiiiin«,' 
of Jiir.e. the Fifteentli moved to hivouacs on the llenin- 
Croisiiles roa(i for n week's rork on the trenches. They 
then moNt'd hy easy stn>:es to Bienvillers-an-Bois. 
Nine days wen' spent here and on June .'JOth the 


Trench Wartarc. June a' .. :ul>, IV17 

l>attiili(jii took over, iii su t wtatlur, tlir ol.l iJiinl- iiliiirtr 
I, UK' wliuli run Mnith fnun thr Stiisi'i- n\( i, Uiiiiit-n- 
\>nTg Sii|)|)ort Ikiiij,' still m the iiainl 'if tin- (i<rinaws. 
•Jiid Lifut. (i. H. Kfiiip was woundtil (lunii;,' this 
tuur winch passed without sp>.(iiil iiui(Uut. A w< i k 
,it Moyciuu'villc. with A and li (■(-lupanus (uiMii)yiii;,' 
posts "furMifi- forward, was followed i>y a tour in tlu' 
hnr north of the Sensei' l)efore returniii;,' ti. Moye!,»- •. d'n' 

The Eifiliteenth took ovrr reserve treiieius iiMilh .^1 
Arras on June '.tth and pro\ ided workin;,' par(n-~ till 
they moved into tlie front line at (iavrelle six days 
later. This front was now nnieh inoii' peaceful and 
the onlv incident of ikjIc occurred on the e\fMn<; tif 
the •JSth, wiu'ii the iiatfalion put out dununy harra;.rs 
iMid sent up ilarcs to distract alteiitiMU from the attack 
(arned out hy the lUth Hri^'ade norlli of tlu- wir^d- 
null. (iennan retaliation oiil> cans, d H Duriiam 

Relieved on July ;ird, tlu' Ki^lilet nth went hack to 
Roclincourt to work on the railway. Th.n the ."Usl 
Division rommcneed to relieve the Canadians in the 
Vimy sector and on the 11th the Diirhams moved to 
Mont St. Eloy for a week of trainin<,' and recreation. 
On coniiu},' forward to Thelus tiiey found that the old 
eaves and quarries, if cold and damp, affordeil -.'ooil 
cover from the (u-rman shell fire. Working parties were 
now supplied nightly till the liattalion took over the 
front line on the low ground in front of Mericoiirt. 
This was on the evening of July •J'.tth. 

The Nineteenth moved up to hrifade r. seive 
positions in the (;auche Wood sector on June loth 
and occupied the front line later. On the ni^-ht of 
.June "jard thcv assisted to dig and wire a trench m 
a.lvance of the" left of the line south-east of (Jotmelieu. 
This was accomplished v, it hunt enemy interferenee. 
The end of the month was spent at Heudieoiirt and 
then the battalion moved hack to I>ongavesnt s. ()n 
Julv mh they relieved cavalry in support positions 
north-east of Hargicourt, where the nights were sjient 


The Durham l-Orccs in the I'icld 

illKf,'"'^4 •■""' \''l>ili^ ''"■ ili'lii llll' . i'hfSf tlvll<ln-> \'.ryr 
('(•(■iii.if(i li\ till- Xiii'liMitii a \'.iik iat' f. 

Afti r (liirk nii .luiv I'.Mli tin- ciKniv (»|.t iicd a 
liia\v iimrtar and arlillrrv iiif v\itii smoke iiinl tian 
alti inpttii lu rush a |'..,t lirl.l \,\ tl.r liatlaliiiii, A 
Mink' 11 icail ulft-n-d I 111 (icrniatis a j,'ii:,,l iiui- of appru icli 
aii<l a luisk liu'iil I iisiii 1 liifuff tlu-y wrrc driven oii. 
Iiawiii; l.( liiiid IIkiii ;nan\' litis. Iiavorn-ls and i-onil's. 
a Hani^al.^r tMijirilc ai.d - ol tlu'ir nuinlKi- \%!im iiad 
l„ . II knl.d. rile X.ii.;. . nil) 'JC casnalli.s nm •' ly 
li,iiii til' (.(iini.ardni. nt and I'lr. (,. I!. 15. !l u.m th-- 
\lllllal\- >'. dal f..r Ins (..allal.Mv . 

'I'lir liiittalioM was i<li(\«d -pn .iii!> •j;ird ami 
witlnln \, to \!/' cnurt-l. \\'. 

'I'lh '|\>., lit \ -s,r..iid !i Mian.'-il a! Mla/^ilc till 
.llllir lith and iIkII ni(i\(d forvsaid a;,Min. A alid H 
cnnipan!! ii!i\id at \|iii> i.n .Iiiiif lath iind ('•iii- 
nunci d t.i di;,' two 111 \ ciiiuinunicat loll trriicli(s m tlir 
Zillilirk' s.ii.ii. Tills was iiij,'lil \Mirk. as flu- l.irnian 
I ilisi r^ at Inn lialluulis (>\i| 'dnki d the scclir. 

On .1 '.'(itli rnriii\ s!ii II liif canylit two plalitons 

lillmi.' s.ii,d-lia;:s III li:r .«[., n ;,nil caiiscil many 
casualties and liy the iid oj the mouth the 'I'waiity- 
Srci.nd had li'-t lapt. .1. 1'. I.. (.luidrll. I'llil Ij.nt. ('. 
.latah and Jiid Lhiil, 1!. \. Ih d;,'suii kdl<'<l and n«arl\ 
.".o others kilhil and wi'iiiid. d. A and C fompani<-s ui v 
now lo( alc'd w I >! it t!r \ prrs-foinincs cimal at 
Swan ( hall an. a daii;,'irons lo(ality. Nino ctiMiHllic's 
occni (d hill 1.11 .Inly "Jnd. 

'I'hf I Holts ol III" Pioiifcis Will 1 iiii l!^ ( oiu'i'iitratt d 
n|ion thf n pair of loininnnications whidi snff<rtd 
constant daiuau'* from the derman (ire; lait t' com|)aiiy 
Will- cnipliAcd ii)'on a im w hyiit railwax' which was 
to rnn south oj lltll Fire lorncr. on the Mcnin IJoad. 
toiward to the line. On .Inly Tfli ('apt. (■. 1*. Ilaincs 
was Wounded and liu'ic were !<• other casualties. 
.\iiuut this time tainc a welcome pMiiforeenieiil of .'<(» 
men. most of whom had served with the 1 7th DnrhaJii 
I.i^'lif Infantry. On .Inly t:Uh (.' comjtany wittwlrew 
to a caiiij) ai>out cijrht milis nortli-wcst t)f PopcriUKlie 
for a course of lij:lit riilwav eonstruption. Two days 

'I'rciuh Warfare, June and Jul\. 1917 

at<r .1 I'l! r;iL;f <>f iiiustjird jjas shells stopjxd all th 
vurk of {he liiittaliiiii .uiii little e<iul<l he done mi tli 

two foliiiwiiii.' (Inys, 


il''ll cuslialties were few 



Lieuts. W. Sliemff ati'l t'. Foshrooke were killed oil 
.Inly r.ith. There was a \try vmleiit liombardiiienf 
nf >ras and hij.'h fxplosiv( on Jnlv '2*_'nd. dnrinir whn h 
n coinpaiu |)nshed the linh! railway forward 1.")0 yards 
iiMT diilicnll <.;roMnil. They had !'.• "passed eases, iii- 
eludi'if! 'Jnd I.ient. Husrf)e. anil U) other men wire 
.neapacitiited for a (hiy. 

On .Inly "J'tli the 'I'wrnl y-Nreuiid e. .nei lit rati d at 
W'lnnipoi.' {'aHi|) for a rnneh-needed rist. thoinjh a 
lilafoDIi had to ;,'(! llj) every i.i.dlt to keep tn nehis and 

li,'ht railway in repair. 



.,■,-, ,;||,,i I,,., til,. ,,l Vr..'s |H-;,nii-, \Mlli t!u- talf of tin- 
■|\s, iitp til. Ill'- list Division l.riiit: (.11 tiic ri;,'ht of th.' 
Hiitivli liiK wli. II t!i« attiick ojuiud on .luly .Mist. l'.»17. 
l',,l,,iM ! N,.ilir-. haMahoii had sp. iit tlic first thrtf 
u.-.ks of tiif 111 .nth ;it Mont (h . Cats, ulicrc ovrr '2:.() 
ni.n win' al.^oihr.i fiMin dralts. Trainin<,' for tlir attack 
,.,,,, !i,i,,,.,l ;,ft,r !i,o\in^ to K-nora Camp. n«iu- 
\V, slMiitr.. and th- \\'< arsi.hi ^ rami uito tlu' Unf on 
.I,,lv With I'm ir I'ft on tla- '/wart. 1. 1 n-Kh in 
Zillflu'k.- ru.ul. Ihis position wa^ a hltlc forward of 
(h.- yround w ■!, I.v ih. Tw.lflli at the l-atth- of 

A- no |irtpaiati..ns had l'i«n made In rr it was as 

%v. 11 that tlir ,.rirnsi\r Was p, ,st pont.l, It ^'avc tlllK' 

for the l»iirh;.n;- I., 'h'.l lli-ir trtnclus and 

to form diiiii 

itllr ston s. {. coiiipanx- orcupna 

forward posN m, tin slnp.v, ,,f Fi!sili<r \Vo..d. with I) 
compaiiv m supii'Tl not far h.hmd. ^v^y 'JCth was a 
fairly qtiiit (hiv and r -I tlir liattaUon only ^ 
casuaiti;-. On th. i.aarMss >:im<' news of :i finili< r 
posiponrnunl Hll .InK .■(Ist. .o iiit.r-coinpany -.rufs 

w.T irri.d <.ut ami (apt. A. riimphr. y, D. >.().. was 

pill in •■(.mmnnd of th. had h-.p front. Dnniirr tlie 
lin-ht 11 (.isuallas w.if snsta;nrd ami nr\l da\- ranu- 
11 stradv l.oinh.H !m. nt of Fn^ditr Wood. A company 
lost '.'ml Li«'iit. A. l:. Willis a' d :. men kilh d and :W or tzass.d I., lore thcv . oiild he withdrawn, 
Ifiiving I.<>wis ^riiii posts I.. tlic hnc .Tuly LMMh 
was sp(Mit J.v Cant. rnmphr«y and •.'nd I.iciits. 
Sh.plii-vdson and Waitun in ufuimo't rin- tlw .issi nihly 
ana for \ho rnMiinj: battle. At ' 'jlit- while layinp 
,,iit ^.t'lii;: to mark thf positions for the tapi-luycrs. 


The Third Battle of ^ pres 

they txc!iann:.-(l shots uitli an . tn my patn.!. The 
(icrinaii fin' of hiuli t\[il,)si\c and ;;as sla II n,\.r 
Mackcncd duriiii,' tli<-sf day^ and licfMtr il,,- /, rn hour 
rasiialti.s m the Twciili.tli liad lis.-n i,, al.ont l(»(t 
kilKd, wmuidcd and ^assnh WIk n I) .'.ini'any In ;r,iii 
til nuivc ii|) to thr assr?ul)Iv position fn i; \hv rVar two 
^hiils pdchfd riL-ht into tiir 1. adiih/ platoon as they 
passed hattahon iitadi| at llill <!() and If, men 
wiTT kdlcd and wouiidtd. 

At M..-0 \.M. ,,,1 Jnl\ :',lst th. l.lli'l.Ts of tlir Twtli- 

'""' sound, 'd th.' cliar!,'.' and thr \V. ar-idns u, nt 
forward to thr attack. (' and I) coiniiain.s l.-d the wav 
aiid. HI the face of considi ral.h- shtll and nia(hinc-<,'uii 
tire, thi- lirst (icrnian f)osition uas takrn. 'I'hr Durhai-is 
}» on down hill and arnxrd on the lni> of the 
iifxt otijti!i\<'. On each llank tli.-n tan from front 
to rear a luir of coiicntc "■ pdl-iMi\, s." ni whidi 
smprrs. homliirs and niachuK -i:nnn( rs of,"iard a 
stuhliorn rt sistaniT. Xcar th. road on th.- 1. ft I hr 
(Jcrmaiis were soon routed out. all l>, mr tithi r killtwi 
or cipturcd. On thr ri^'ht. wh.rf the 'I'w.Titatli liad 
had Iicavier losses, the "" riioppm.,' up " operations were 
not so successful and n;aiiy <.f tl-' eru-my still lield 
on. 'I'he Wearsiders st.arteil to diu ui an! soon 
aft- rwjirds the adjut mf. (apt. I'". \Va\-man. M.C.. was 
killed liv a shell which slightly wounded tli.' conuna!>d- 
iiiir otiict-r. dermans now ponied oiit of a j'roiip of 
•• pilhl.o\es ■■ l>et\McM the front and siiiMxirt lines on 
tlie ritrlit. This inferriiiited the (hL'L'ini.' hut they were 
r. pulsed, partly \.\ th<' tire of a \'i( kers .n-n onerated 
l'\ Colonel North m p( rson. 

.\ fiirtlier attcrnjit to "■ niop up" the lemainii)*,' 
coiicrt'tc stroiitrholds uas organisi'd. Iml owiup to 
sliortfiiTc of men and homlis prov i d oidv |)arti(dlv 

Miccessful. Mess(ii,'-s liad to he seiit to the rear l)V 
pi'icoiis, as few runners sur\ived the lieaw (iennan 
h:irra<'e. n])i] one turd hope a napi.'st for reinforcements. 
It I" "an to rain ,as tl'c afternoon wore on. Ahoiit 
four o'clock the (;ermans niassefi for a 'ii^' coun'er- 
atlack and 'Irn] I.icut. .^hcphr-rdson was srtil to hiirrv 
t'»> the two companirs asked for to sfreimthfp the Hne. 
The enein\ iniantry cnnic on and were clirrkf^<l by 



The Durham l-orccs in. the I-ield 

thr 'r\\(Iitl«tli whose rnpiii Uvi- llilllctrd li.avv lossfs; 
hut on llir ri^'lit uf tlir \\V;,!,i.l. r> ill.- attMck was iiion- 

successful and icachc.i 111.' (.cllil.llis uliu still liclii tllc 
•• nill-lMiXcs •• th. ir. 'I'lir 'I'w, ntl.tll forme. 1 a def.lisive 

flank to meet Mii^ (ianu'er. Only l.attalioii h.-uhiuarters. 
|-, ,11,.,, ,,f 15\ and a few maclinie-;ii«ns we.-e 
avadidile. I^it the (vriniaii advance was stayed. 
Colonel N-rth was mm'a ■-■> i.a.ily wn-mded l.y a shell 
that he had to l.a\e th.- hue an.l Cajit. Kull.ianies. 
>rC.. who iiad in .t come mI'. assumed eomiiiand. '1 Ins 
..lliirf had I'cen incapacitated \>\ co 'ssmn from a 
sh, llduirst earh. in th. mMrtuiiL'. I'nt mirried to the 
front as soon as he was suUicientK- reco\-ercd to do so. 
('apt. rumphrex-, with two eompaii" s ,f iMhs. 
Miiin aflerw.irds arri\eti upon the scene and the l.iil:sh 
..nils opined in respmis.- to the mcssa'.'es ..f the Tweii- 
t,, th. K\er\- axailahle man loiiied in an advance 
which restored th.' hue coinpl. t. 1\. .\ft. r s.,m,- sharp 
tiiriitin;,' all th.' •' i)i!l-l.o\t s "" wer.- .'leare.! an.! a 
,iniet;.Mi -If. I*..! with th.' hattalion on th.' ri;.'ht. Th.- 
wliole t^rouiiil V, IS sidl s, inhed hv" hoslih- sh. II and 
ma.'liiiie-j.'mi lire wliile the 'rwentnth c.ntinu.d to 
.-..nsuhdah' th.-ir positions. 'I'he w, ith.r ltcw,. 
.iiiriiii' th.' m^rht ami at .iusk on .Vu^'Ust l>t th.' er:emy 
launeiic.l another e, ,u!it.r-al i ,ick. It v.,is smash, .i 
,,,ni|>l< l.v th.' rapi.l lire ..f th. 
pi'i.mptK' siippoit.'.i ti\ th.' Hiitish artid. r\. 

Tl,.' w. r.' i.h.'X. I thai ni-l.l an.l spent 
th.' n. At .lav r.'stinj: m th.- tunnels at ih. Bluff. 'I'h.'n. 
thr.nii.'h ilr.'iicliiiiL; ram. Ihev m-v. .1 to_ liivoiia.'s icai 
I'll/, nw, !1. I hateau. hey. mil the Ypres-Kemi.i.l maii. 

L.iss.s 111 !h,' ranks t.i t:il. I'apt. M. 
Ilaii.l, uh.. ha.i pu-h.'d lu'yond th- ..hj.'ct i\ .■ with s..m.' 
(,f his coini.aiiN- am' ha. I s. iit tia.k m.isl 
r. ports, kille.l. .•ni.l I.i. uts. \V. K. Walt.m .-uui 
T. M. Kl.tch. r. M.C. ami •Jml Lieuts. K. W. liritton 
mil .1. \. Hallantvne wire also nmonp the fallen. 

Col.)nel North, liy reason of his rcsohit.^ Icidcrship. 
acquired n to his Distnmuishr.i Srrviiv Order. 
T.ieiit. T. M. Fletcher was wounded befor.^ the 7.ero 
lioiir, Viut returned with n l)nndfieed head to lead his 
comp.iin until lie was l<ill. d : •.'mi T,ieut. .T. (i. W. Pn-.y 

The Third Bairle ot ^'prcs 

!> ji!;iii (i Ills t'allcii C()iii|);iiiy coiiiiiiaiHli r, lionilitd out 
l.i riiiaii siiijxrs li'nn tlirir lairs and liid l'ixi'I work 
l.-jtli ill ('(iiisoliila'! Ill aiid ill nsistiii^ cniiiitcr-aftacks ; 
•_'ii(l I.hnt. Kilwiii Sniitli pirfoninii similar stTvicc ami 
hiiiisrll sli w many (.criuaiis ; -jmi Lieut. L. W. 
>hi-|)li'T(ls(in iii<t (.i:!y diil \ain,ii)lc rccDmiaissaucf work 
licforr till' iMttli-. Iiiit -iiirird tin- rriiiforciiii; tinops 
forward tliroiii;li a hi-axy liari.iL'''- 'I'iicsc foui' olliccrs 
i(cii\cd till' MililarN" Cross aiid tl:i- simuc drcoratioii 
was v.oii l.y Capt. H. i". \\ ;ls.;i. il.A.M.C. wlio dis- 
playrd the utmost conlciniit of daii.M r as 1m- dri ssrd 
till- woiuidfd iindrr i> avy tir--. .Str'^'t. A. Houston of 
S'!nd<riaiid rcct i\t d tlu' I)istiii<,'iiisli( il (. oiiduct Mt-dal 
lor lioiuliin^ out a ins! of smprrs afi' r i'ciii^ the sole 
survnor of two atttuipts to do ■■o. Nr-I day lu- was 

p'oimii'iit 111 '.'■L'.niisin:,' tlio d( l>iii 1 tin' raptiiml 

I'li'Uiid. The ;,'allaiit rv of ."sirjd. 1?. Scott; l.aiicc- 
( orpls. T. llaiiiiaii an'd .). l{ams(Kii : IMis. K. H,ll. 
W. Hiirk.. M. Darr.ll. 1.'. Dixoii. 1!. Kllison, K. 
Howard. .}. Kirkiip. \V. Mrars. .J. K. '1 iioiiipsou and 
T. Vi iinans; and l>ii<ilir U. Mordc \- was rrwar(l(<l with 
fhr Military M<da|. 

Tlic 'i'\\( lit n til spin! soiiii- da\s at l-'dzcnw aiic 
('liAt<'an. \',1'. !(■ Major K. i . Siiiitli ol the 1st Durliain 
l-itrlit Infanlrv assuiiitd comniand on Aui'Ust ttli. 

Tlu- i.attali..; 

p' i\'. 

sTiak; si in tin- i!i\isio!i. w< rt' 

ri'(tr:,'anis(d in two coiniianii s. cai'li of thni' platoons. 
!I(s'ny lii,'litinti on tlu' divisional front hroindit tlicin 
iiilo r<s(i\r poitioiis soiitli-wist of llic (atcriiillar on 
.\Mi;ust cth. t.iit ..n ill'' f-'th tli.' W.a' vid. rs Irft l.y 
lorry for the >!itt ri n area and to^.k o\cr lints iit 
i'"ont;!in<' Tloi"''<. Hitr drifts v-n- rrctiM-d and 
t ;■, lining'- was \'arad hy iiispict ions, sjiorls and foolliall. 

'i'lh' 'I'fll'li W.Tr the III \t lo elili r llie i..ittle. Tlll'V 

arrived at Zdli hike Hund on Au::usl 'jnili and on tlic 

iolloN-. Illir da>" tlie oilieeis l i i onimit n 1 1 the lirii'ade line 

whii-li la\ astiide till' Ml iiin ro;id, wist of Inverness 
Copse. \t "i \.M. (Ill Au;,'list •J'.'ed the hallailoii caMli- 
forward (lirnujih a liomliardinetil o| ijas sliell'. to oeeiipy 
sui)p(trt positions for tlie atlaek. M\ tlie tnei a hi>.tile 
I'OT.,-, ill SaneltiaiA Wood ua-. pa <d easMaitns 

M 1T7 


The Durham l-"orcc.s in the 1-icld 

;iliva(l\ to f,(l. At ."> a.m. A loinpany were 
HI thc'wi"" "" Stirling' C'nstlr ruli^r. s,,iith()[ the M.iiiii 
,,,.,, I . I' idmiiaiiy in supji^rt iiriiclKS in Sand iiary 
\\(.()(1; ami C anil D cnnipanits m tlic tunm'K iiiKicr 
(lie ro.i'l. Wliiii till- altarkuit.' hat I :i 1 1. ills :ulvai!r<(l two 
iioui-s lat. r. Ilic 'IVnth ,.c( nnird the oln Hnlisii froiil 
li!i,-. Hut "lie cii-iiliatiN- had In (-!!■, w the SonuTSrts 
on llu- riji!*. ami fniin a di fdisixc Hank facir.j,' s(jiitli. 

I 'J 

cn.1 I- MM 5 






1m Mill - ^rii'linL..' a iHiHilMiiir N'rlum aiiil sumic riflc- 
^M<iiaii;' Is ii|i .I.isiHf Liinc to nictt and csinrt a tank. 
•|'ii,- pi'i's'.r diii n.'t k.Tj) 111',- aiipointnu lit . Lut this 
I'aitv p-is!u-(l on and (•■i|>tiiri(l a (iciinan inachiiu-^'un 
and its di tarliint'id as u-li. 

McninvliiK- tin- r<sl nf lln- (•..mpany had ])nshcd 
forward on flic ri<,'lit and islalilisiud llninstUts in tlie 
vicimtv of Div l-aki's. \\v\\- the cornpany cotninaiKicr 
was kill*'! after or^rnnisiiij,' a suceessful uttack upon a 


The Third Battle of ^pres 

iiuichine-giin, wTiich was tak«.-!i, tn^ietluT with .") 
(iiTiiKUis. Tlif liiidiim jjlatouii inaiia.ufd to rt-acli 
Ilcrfnthayc Chafcau aiid tin- jjlatuon I'oinniand'r and 
his snr\ivini; iiuii acc'iittd tlu- siirrciidrr <if tic 
^.'arrison. Thrn' wen.- ."0 piisMiurs t<> linii^' haik, tuit 
lew, if all), 'if til!' parly Mn\i\fd flw tcrrilic slitH lire 
( iicoiiiii' M-d on Mif wa\'. \\ I'rit ifinaiiKd of tliis roin- 
jiaiiy (if thi' Tenth wilhdit w (hiring' ;hc inornini,' to a 
iio.sition in Ja-^pcr Avmnc 

Thi" Soinosft L.I., wli!> !rd thr liriu'ad.e alt:''.'k upon 
the ri^rht, had ]>assfd tlimnvli Invfrncss Copse mil 
v-iil.i ha\c taken Ja|) Trench d' the hft hiittaiion had 
iKi^ Im III laid nji at tluir first nliiecti\c. To ( onform 
to th.- line (1:1 tlu u' 1( ft Ih'' Soinerscis now !:.'i'l to fall 
hack to a position in llie copse, astride the Mi inn Hoad. 
At .i.M. they ;'.sk( 1 for reinfo'ci'inents. Two 
plaioon> from mir of ihe re>( rve coinjaiiics of the T( nth 
went f(»rward and dn;,' a {)o-.t north of the cnj>si-, where 
they Were in touch with tlie {.'o'-nwails who wen lyinf» 
in a cLaiii of '>hell-}-n)!t s in front of the treiu'h they 
had taken. At ele\cn o'clock nioi'c reiiifoici'incnts 
wt re rtf|Mired a!id a company of tlie Tenth were sent 
forward to tlu' western edi.rc i)[ Inverness C<»pse. In 
re>-potisc to lat( r afijieals more (f the Tcntli were pnt 
in. till. Iiy cveniii'.'. the whole liattalion ha-i ^;()ne 
into the ('(rjisf [() r' nifo'-(c the line. 

The nieht was comparatively (jiiict, hut at t.Iin 
oi. Ill'' movnini: of Anirnst '2.">;d Uritish tanks arrived 
I'pwii Ihe sceiit' and at once hecame a tar!!i t for the 
(ierman j.'nns. One taid;. wlii; h had ( vidititly lost its 
liearinjjs. travtlhd alo'i,' the northern outskirts of the 
copse and fired upon the post there, WoUIidill!,' '2 m-n. 
Afterwards it was put out of action, he iij,' hit twice hy 
(ierman shi IK. No 'iidnnd wa'- <.'aincd on this day atui 
at nii'ht the hostile sla II (ire was much heavier, wliile 
Miir own tiimners put down a heavy hirrai.'c. In the 
small hours of the n.'xt moriniiL', when the (ii rnian 
lioinhardineiit vvas worse than ever, the Cornishmen on 
the Ii ft sent up the S.O.S. sij.'nal anrl rcfiortcd that the 
t lii my liad hnikcn thirou'Th. All at Clap.ham .Tunction, 
the hcadiinartcrs of the Tenth, turned out aia' ".'nd 
I. lent. I.odp' was killed hy a inacliUK -L'un hullet as lie 

' t 

a ,. 


The Durham I*'orces in the Field 

|r-(i his iiirn forward tu \Uv n<>rth-\vcst coriur of the 
copse. Tlir (.trinaiis (ann finvsaid in groups all aloiif; 
the liiii- Willi partirs litarini.' llaiiic llirowcrs and lii,'lit 
ma<liini'-j,'nns. 'I'iiat lli' attack was not delivered with 
irrcatcr \Ml;4lit is to the ciedit of the Hntish artillery. 
Fach so the line noith of the cups- had to he with- 
drawn, the post occ'ipied l.> the 'I'rnth since the 
niornin!; of tin' ■_'"_'iid Iiciiil; the last to retire. Pte. 
Wardi ri was ciptiind here and uas kept m a shell-hole 

eliise to the I'liM^ii line. 'i'hece \,. le aliolli 20 (lerilialis 

l)iesent and 'lie piis(,;ier was ^M\en water and ci^'ar- 
ettes. DuriiiL' tile (lav one (ienuaii asked to he taken 
,i\<r to the I5ritish as a prisoner and another, who 
o\( rheard, a^ked if lie nii'.'ht fi<n.'-. 'I'hus tli.'re rejoined 
the Tenth at dusk Ttc. \Va:den. in (.erman (iiuipnient, 
carryiiii; a (ierinan rilii' and aeeonipanied hy '2 
stalwart Ha'.ariaiis. or.e of whom wore the [|-oii Cross, 

Tlif iilhc r men Ironi this j)ost had ioiiud tlu-ir com- 
paii\ uhieh held oil iliside tie' copse north of the road. 
Here (.'apt. .lerwood ])iit up a stout d. fence, dcsjiitc 
withdrawals upon the ilanks, re])UisinL' the (icrnian 
attacks hv ritle-<.'rcnade. Lewis t^nn aii(' ritie tire. .\t 
;j.;i() I'.M. he h ill to withdraw to ijie extreme north-wtsf 
corner owiici to heavy casualties from our own imuis. 

•_'nd laeut. Dennison, leaiimj' his own |)laloon and 
some straL'L'lcrs collected on the west cdL'i' of the copse, 
had hehl a defctisive Hark on {'apt. .lerwood's hft 
and rt tu\(i in ('■ Pjimction with that otlicev ;iflt r 'JV 
of his ;i() men liad hecii killed hy . 'ir own artillery. 
Some irilhmin v.ho had reinfo-e<d him suffer. -I to an 
e I j 1 1 a 1 e \ t r 1 1 1 . 

'I'he ri'jhl <.r the line la hi fast m the lici-hl-ourhood 
of the I)r>- Lakes. Two 1 latoon^ dro\<' off an attaa'k 
from the soutli and afterwards hehu d to r< t'stahlisli- 
the centre of the line. -Jnd l,i<ut. Harold S'orcy, who 
was the leader heit , e<int ; 'in, ,! ui command after heiii},' 
\\oimde(l and s.nt hack vahiahle reports. 

In the earlv morniiii: of the '-'1th a tiomhini.' attack 
v,;e, liiiiet.d i!po!i ouf defensive flaiik near the junction 
uith Ih.e IJiitish ori'juial front line on lh<' ri-ht. Seryt. 
\V. Holland, lound in a shell-hole \Mth a Lewis ^un 
which had jammed, was made prisoner. Tlie (iermans 

The Third Battle of Yprcs 

ulsc collected an ollicer of the Mucliine (iiin Corps and 
11 privHt<' of tlie Tenth, [jut were driven off hy a N'lckers 
f,'un firinw from Stirhny Castle and the prisoners 

Losses, especially in otlieeis, had lieen very heavy, 
and hy iu<,'htfall the whole line was withdrawn to Jasper 
Av.nue and Jasper Lane, the only part of Inverness 
Copse which remained m Uritish hands heiiig the north- 
west corner. '1 he lierce artillery harrayc rendered it 
impossible for the Ciermans to advance and occupy the 
copse, which the defenders would never have 
reluKjuished had they not been shelled (;ut hv our own 

Early on Aujnist 'J.'^th the Tentli were relieved and 
moved back to Zillebeke Ihind, departmj,' by bus for 
Devonshire Camp, near Ouderdom, the same (hiy. 
Losses amounted to 1 I otlicers and y.j,") others out of 
a battalion streiijjth of 'iO and «!0S at the bet,'inning of 
the battle. Ca]>t. J. IL Jerwood and "Jiui Lieuts. 
J. S. A. Deiinison and IL Storey each received the 
Military Cross, which was also conferred upon Capt. 
P. C;rant and .'nd Lieut. K. Green, wlio removed his 
respiratijr and rc(>ri,Mnised his company in the midst of 
the 1,'as shcllin^r on the way up to the line. Thouj^di 
j^assed he did excellent work tliroUf,diout the action. 
Another rreipieiit of this decoration was Capt. II. II. 
Davies, tlescribed !)y his colonel as •"one of our best 
ollicers."" When his company reinforced the line lie 
found the platoons weri' widely scatt( red, liut under 
heavy lire he visited and ( !icoura<'ed them all. He 

evemiifx of th 



was badly wounded on tl;e 
Was never seen aj/aiii. 

C.-S.-M. Donnelly, D.C.M.. that irrepressible war- 
rior from IJenwell, also bore a i)romment part in the 
li,<,dit, showin;,' his usual tine example and abilitv as a 
leader of men. He nceixcd a bar to his medal." The 
awards of the .Military Medai included Scrtrts. \V. 
Holland and J. McNay ; Corpls. B. Koberts and J. \V. 
Hiiie; Lance-Corpl. J. Coxon ; Ptes. liuriinson. J. 
Caffrey, E. Carick. L. Dick. T. Hepworth, F. Hewitt, 
G. Kirb:, . A. Murray. A. Robson, Wa^eett, T. N. 
Walton and D. WiKun; Pte. J. J. nioomlield (artaclied 




The Durhani Forces in the Field 

t.j iMnl MHchiuf (.uu Co.) mul Ptt-. E. A. (.t.i(k-s 
(iittaclicd to Sijnuil ('<!.. 1{.E.). 



'rwciitiftli (■(iiitiiiutil l)iittk' trHiniiif,' at 
■, nihr Au-ii>t -'Hii and on ScijtetnbtT lUh 
h(<,'an to maicli I'ark to tl'.c hattK- line. Five days 
laUr the Wcai-Mdcrs airivid and next nKjniinj; the 
(,t!i.i liiiL'adrs of till- list DiMsion delivered an attack 
npoii 111. (.crnian poMtions Mjuth of the Menin Road, 
(as! ol J<()diiiin Copse and Cloiunel Copse. This formed 
}>jiit ot tlie thini <,Meat advanee and resulted in heavy 
liL'htni^' alon^' nioie than eight miles of front. Zero 
liour was at .' a.m. on September 'JUth, hut it was 
not till iitarly ten o"eloek in the mornin},' that the 
Twcnti.tii were moved into the old IJritish front line 
near Hodiniu Co[»se. Just hefoie noon I) eomi)any 
\\( re drtaehtd lo link up on the rif.'ht with the .'Utth 
Division who had not yet sueeeeded in taking the 
second ohjective. kiKAvn as the '" IJlue "" At 
mid-day I oloml .Smith was instructed to tind out the 
situation in his immediate front, where all was not 
jroiiiLT well. The Wearsiders were eventually told to 
slrengllun and eoiisolidate the " lilue " Line and 
ahonl :i i'.\i. thev crossed the Hasseville Hrck. On 
i.aciiiii,' tiu- •• liiuc ■■ Line they hegan to dig. although 
the tioops on the right did not appear tcj he t ast of 
tlie stream. Thr " (.rn n " Line, linal objective of the 
division, was on ttie other side o{ the Tower Hamlets 
ridge, wiiH-li now confronted the battalion. An attack 
was ordt red for the evening but there was no time to 
make the necessary preparations, the different units 
being much scattered. At C, P.M. D company, having 
completed their mission, rejoined the battalion. Fight- 
ing patrols were sent out at .lusk to link uj) tiie l-_"_'nd 
Hngade on the left with the Middlesex, who were 
sujiposed to ha\e rcaelictl the *' (ircen " Line on the 
rigiit. Tills advance did not clear up the situation, 
bit resulted in the I'aplure of '2 t.crman oflicers and 
(i men. 

The hostile shelling, very heavy during the day, 
slackened somewhat at night, but on the right flank 
of the bait.iiio'i i;. ri>iun snipers were busy. The Twen- 


If 1 




H* J 




_, V,^-l 

f '■' 










•^ J c: 

: i; 



The IJurhani Forces in the Kick! 

Iiftli liad iilriudy lost inaiiy iiliictrs. 'Jiid Litut, A. l . 
C'liailtdii \S!is killid ; •Jiid I,i(Uts. J. C'othit, t'. S. 
C'iiiiiuiij,'li(im, A. H. darm r and A. (.. luidin \<,( rc 
Wounded; and "-'nd Lhiit. l\. l{ii->-i-ll had Ircin sftii 
back sick. 

Af sc\cii III! Ilu iiioriiiii;,' (jf tlic "Jlst caiiic orders 
for an attack on llu cintie of the '" drci ii " Lhm'. the 
Twentieth to Ik lli. Irll hattahoii. When, at '.»..s a.m., 
Ilie W'earsiders \s(nl lorwai'd the hariaj,'c {)ro\((l a 
failure ;ind tlie (ieniian niachine-yuns and sinp: is were 
jiracticaliy nntoiu In d. The attack was pusia d for 
aliout ■_'(»(! \ards at a iiea\ y cost of kdied and wounded; 
tiieii tlic 'I wentii til fiui,' ill. C'apt. Arnold Piuiiphrey. 
1).S.().. had 1m (U shut throu<,'li the head as he led a 
rush ii|)on a (.cnnan inacliine-j,'un and the diatli of 
this i,'allant ollicci' was a <,'rca' loss to the hattalion. 
•J id Lieut. \. II. W. C'artwriifht was also killed on tliis 
(lay and '.'nd I-uiif. T. C. lianihoroii!,'!) niortall>- 
Wounded. .\mon;^ the wounded were ('a|its. H. 
Soiithw.H and K. .Smith, M.C, '.'nd Lieiils. E. P. 
Smith, W. .S. I'rudhoe. l\ L. Dohinson, II. \V. 
Hanipt<jn and .\. .S. Davison. 

Aliout :i I'.M. the (icrmaiis advanced o\(T the Tower 
Hamlets rid!,'e, hut were driven hack liy Lt v. is oun and 
rille lire which inllictcd heavy losses upon tin in. This 
e!iem\- ( oimti i-at tack was attempted without artillery 
support. .\ii hour later a hostile harra^'c came down 
on the forward slope of the riduc luhind Hasseville 
lU-ck and then a lio\ harratre was put on the line 
held hy the 'I'wcntlcMi. I'ndir co\fr of this came 
iuiother countcr-altack af aliout T.K) r.M., hut it was 
repulsed by artillery, I,ewis },'un and lillc hrc 

Se])tcmlicr •_''_'nd was ;i (juicter <l,iy, the enriiiy 
C'()ntentin<,' himself with putting down a l>arra<;c west 
of the .stream in the afternoon. At ni^xht the Wear- 
vsiders were rclie\<d and reached Micnuic C'am]^ tiy 
ci{;ht on the morniiif,' of the ".'ard. The total losses in 
the ranks, which amounted to ;}().'J, were much the 
heaviest in t!ic liritjadc. 

Hcsides Capt. Pun^iihrey, another Twentieth otlicer 
of <,'reat disti!icti(»n fell during this action in the person 
of Major (irahani McNicholl. D.S.O. Il<' was killed 




- 1 1 


» il 

The Third Battle ol Ypres 

^\Iulf coiiimaiiiliiit" the -JHtli l{oval Fusilurs (,f tlu TJlth 

On 2(if!i t!ir -J.-Jni Division atliuk.d 
i;nnR<iiat.iy iiurth of tli.' Hst. Tlif Chtli Hrnraiic, ..n 
tlK' nulit. had hist to advancr tlirouj;h tiir'su np^ 
'"Uii.i Dnnil.aiton Lakes an. I tak<' the " Uvd - i mr 
••'I'out KM) yards of and rou;,'hly j.aralld lo 
HasscMilf lU.k; then !o uo on across thi- str.ani to 
'ti'' ■• niur'- :,-,() vards alicad on hi-ii.r u'runnd : 
'"'d hnally. to captun the •• ( "• Uiiv situal.d 
on Ml./ foruanl slope of (|. plitraii astride th, Meinn 
road. 'Ihe two nearer ol.jeetu.s were allotted to t';.- 
lii-iher l.attahons and tlie Thirteenth wep- to cwiw 
tiirouuh an.l take the '• (.reet, •• Lme. Cn.ier tlie 
'■■"■'niand of (apt. I). II. Clarke. M.C. th(\ assen.hlMl 
at ilie at Ohservatorv Kid^r,. ,„ ,.;,,;, ,,,„| ,].,,.i^. 
ness on Hi. iiiuht .,f the litth. Kv, rv..i.e was uet 
Ihnaiirh. hut tii.iv were few casualties an. I l.efoi. He 
/< ro the ram ccase.l an.l fh,. skv .1. ar .1 \ 

j^roun.i mist th.n served t.. c.nceal t h." mo-.em.nt .'.I 
the t ro.)ps. 

At :,.tO A.M. til., lea.hii!: hattahori .,f Kii ,ili,rs ad- 

'•"'"■'' '" "'-• ■dtack under an . xe, ll.^nt harra- 

{xisliiii.: ,,n .piiekly so that \Ur ru,inv sh.ll (jr.. h !! 

I'chin.i th.' support an.l carrMii!,' paMies. If uas haif- 

past s.'v.ii wh.n the Thirt.'.nth inov.,! h.rward I,, i h. 

•• lihi.' • Ian. . h;,d r.|,ort. d that tii,- L'n.un.l 

near tly lakes and HasseMh".. M-ek .■ousist.-.I of sh.-jl- 

lH.l.s,il,.d with uater an.l unpassahh. swamps. 

so half ih,' hattahon went n.un.i ..v.r th.- hudicr L-ronnd 

t.J the iH.rlh an.l half, with a .■ompain ..f Hie Tw. iilh 

attached us.d th.- nst Division an"a t.. th.^ soulli. 

Ih.- Ihir eenlh r.a.'he.l th,. - M|u.. - !,„u- at half-past 

•■'- " ^""' ;" ""• .'I'P'-iot.'l h..ur a.h.n.c...l sl.a'hiv 

an. m (...rf,.,t ord. r upon the ••(.r..n" Ian... Th; 

Hnfish artillery serv,,l th.n. w.ll. Th. n- were (.errnan 

niachin.-j,uinners still m a.-tioii m th.- ,-,-Ilars „f sonic 

<.r th.. houses on th, M.nui road, hut manv cn.Tct,. 

d(i-^,.uts w..rc foiin.l full of (ierinan .l.a.l. " Th..s, of 

tiK- enemy who continue.! to resist were all kille.i or 

captured after s.Miie ficn-e htshinii;; those who {\v,\ as 


The Uurhani l-oices in ihc I'icld 

tin- rin II if ihr Tiiirtct lit li aj)pi(iQcliC(i llieni had to run 
the j^aimtlet of J^cwis <i(iii, riJk' .'ind ^in 11 lire. Their 
lAvti inachini'-ijiiiis svtif also turncl lijimi tlaiii. 

Sii. allliDii^'li (ii--astcr hcfill tin- '.niiks in this puiiion 
i,f thr liriil. liif riinlfciith took the '• (ircen " Lint- 
soon iil'i-r 11 \.M. and, uiidrr cA-er <i! l!u- prot'-'ctivc 
liariii;.'.-, Ihi' woik of i i.ii"oli(hilioii I'oninitiiccd. The 
• lattiihiin wtrc in loti<'!i witii th.c Diiko of Wfliinf^toirs 
\ir'^t. Oh t!if li'lt, iiii' an ollic( i'"s patro! could not 
dr-fu'.t'f any trojp-, oi the tlst iJr.isicii on tin' 
" (Irccii '" I.iiir 'o tilt- sontii. On tins Ihmk a coiDpaiiy 
of ihi Ill'i N'.l-'. liilpi'd to make thr line stiiiii, all 
di':Liii.L; 111 uiili a will nndcr tin- hi<' of soiiu- ratiar 
1 loiiliji -iiiiir (iCMiian snipi-rs. \t ;i r.M. cMiuf th. lirst 
coiiiitti- itlark, aiMMit KM) (;trinai:s advancing m small 
pailics upi^i tlu- 1' ft coiiiiiany. They wi if dispcrst d 
|p\' 1.1 \v IS i_'ii,i and ii!l'- till . ['. fVLiiinj,' tlir Tluitr, nth 
had a strong coiit :iiiioUs tr,n(!i. Carryii-^.' parti s had 
hriMi;;lil up amninnition. hoinhs and wire, whili' 
captiiiiil mafiiiru'-jfuiis an<l tithcrs snUfd iroin a i\iu- 
lii t lank wiTf addtd Im the drfrnrc. Thi' hat!ali..:> lost ;i noiid oliucr in C'apt. I!. (.'. HiK'kcll. M.C. 
kilKd III tin ;id\ancr. laciit. H. .F. I,. Faikcr and '2nd 

1.1. His. i;. \V. (.ill. ii. I{. Wh.a! 

Iry Hi 

d (,. L. Onhard 

wcrr Wounded on 'his ilay and Imssi ■; m the ranks 
amounted to "JitT. 

Till' Itntish a'ltll.ry put di>v.ii a harra^e in the 
early mornin;; id tli< -.'Ist and at s a.m. came another 
and stioii'.'iT counter-at lai k a;,'a.nst the left of tlie 
line. The (urmans wen' repulsed hy rdle and l,e»vis 
j,'un. li a\ iiiL' one othetT and .*' men in the hands of tlu- 
'I'hii til nth. Tun more attempts wire soon made dy 
the eiieinv . I'lie of which, dt jivered up the Metiin road, 
was severely pnnislitd l>y a phifoo?! | nshed out north 
uf the road to take the altackei>. in enlitaiie. 

After an hour's hoinhanhnent the tnem\ ad\ani<d 
up the valley from the (hn-etiou of (ihehivelf at ;i r.M.. 
onlv to lie (hspersed l»v the rilles and Lewis t,'uns of 
the ii.nipnny on the riylit. At fmir o'ehiek a heavy 
t-'neiiiy l>onihur<Jini'nt lutran and oontinucd fur tvo 
hours. (Jcrmans were then se-rn roncetitrHtiP!.' snulh 
of tlie Menin ru.Td lu-nr (.hriuvelt. but the rockets ',{ 


The Thud Battle ol \ pic^ 

ilie Thirtet-iitli l/iviuylit a tiincl\ ivspuiisc liotu llie 
f/uns. 'I'lic iJiiti^li l)uria}:.' chiik- down aini (li'~|)rrscd 
tile « iitliiy hvforc lie was well on the iih.vf. 'I'liero 
wire im cotnili r-atta( ks duriiii.' tlic iiijrht. The 
Tllirtceiitll, V.lin liiid sustained .'I' nn>rf lasilaliU'S, 
were kept liiisv ri ji iinni.' the dai laye dmie to their 

Ivtrly ne\i ninnun;,' tnH.j)> ..1 tlie 7(»th lJri;;adf 
btgnn to take over the hni. , Init hattalion liead(ju!u ters 
nnd two platunns of \i eompany were not leh'Mni till 
(iusk of tilt- •J'Jiid. 1 he ni;,dit was spent III the Torr 
I'op dug-outs on Ohservatory Hid<;e and the Tlurt( eitth 
withdrew to eani{> at Diikeluiseh next day. 

tapl. K. (iia>. .M.C, had led man'.- attacks Ujxm 
stroiiy points diirin<j the ad\aiiee. He killed iiiany 
C.ernuiiis and was rtspo '.sihle for the eoiisohdat ion and 
defence of the •'(.re.u*" Line a<,'aii. t the cfninter- 
a! tacks of the eiimiy, ^o his Dist inmii-hed Service 
Order was well earned, '."nd Lieut. \V. J. Airis cotn- 
nianded his platoon with ^rn at skill and (oiira;:e dnnn^' 
tlie (lernian eounter-at lacks ; •Jrid Lieiit. d. (,'. \Vii::ht 
ta'oU','ht uj> l\M> platoons iiiidi r hea\\' tire ami ioMnid 
the defensi\.- llank to the south, afterwards nniaiiiinL' 
in eonunand. thout:h wouiidt d, duriii;: a eouiit< r- 
attack; ".'nd Litul. F. L. ('. Douglas .Smith had h d tin 
platoon which enhlad.rd the (ierieioi eoiiiiter-altaek on 
the Memn roail ; Li.-ut. 1{. S. l- . .Mitchell earriid out 
liis (iutii-s as int'lliyence oilleer undi r continuous and 
heavy fire and afterw.irds replai ed li:c (omjiany eon;- 
luander who fill in the advance; Luiit. .L P. Ciirroll 
was in c'liarije of lirii'adc si;;nals and ki pi the line m 
repair under heavy shell lire. althou;.'h he was hlown 
iij) on one ore.Tsion ; -'nd Lieut. \V. T. Caldwell was 
also prominent for 'kilful and Lalhuit h adership. All 
these otFirers were awarded the Military Cross. Three 
serffcants were awarded the Distiiifruished Conduit 
Med :1 : Sirii!. T? . Milliards for i:o(>d work upon the 
e\j' i- d tliiik. lioth in consolidi'tini: and repulsiiijr 
counter-attacks; Strtrt. H. Coui 11 for sinular service, 
though wounded; nnd Lai'er-Serijt . (;. W. Jackson, 
who rommnnded an advanced post durinfj several 
counter-attacks lOirj enpt^ired a drnian otliccr. Mmta 



Ihc Durham Forces in the Field 

Militni\ Mfdul-, \v<.r«' won, aii(i Cirpl. T. Bellerby, 
M.M., icci i\"f(i a to Ins (icconitioii. 

Maj'ir ]■]. ISorri.u. fdriiicr aiijutaiit of thf Ituttalioii 
^.lAcd witii tin loth Duk^' of Wtlliiigton's ll(-t,'t. 
1)11 ScplfnilHT 'JdSli. ]h was twice uduiuiKi, hut led 

)VV 'Jd'll. Hf UaS t \< 1. V X.M.l.WVW, ■,... 11 .. 

(til I n '" l.iiif (HI tlic lift of tlir 

1)11 ScpliTll 

tlir adv.iUCr tn liic ■'(tiirn'" l.ilir (HI tllr lift < if till 

Thirtrriii li .111(1 auardcd tlic I)ist iiiuiiisii(.-d St-rvK • 
Ord. r. 

Alt'T tlic l-.all!' the l(i!li)\vi!i;i l-ttir was n ct-ivcd 
l.y liic (■(itiiinai.diinr oHiccr of tin- Tliirl< < iitli from tl >■ 
().('. I.'ititii Unmade IM'.A. (;i;5rd DivisKm). wliose gui s 
l/.id Ikiii ill acliuii liclmid till' Dnrliaiiis ■ 

Tlif Twelfth u« re itscrvc iMttalinn m flu- attack, 
ImiI tlifv supplied farryiu;,' j)arlu's tu the (jtlar units. 
A and M rnn.j)anics reaciied I'dit Tup on tin- ni;,'lit id 
flic \X{\\ and carried up stores an! ainn.unitii n ti> 
I'le forward duiiiii> mi the following; il:i\ . 

Wlicii the 11th N.F. moved forward to the attack 
at zero Mil till -.'oth. I) con)paii\ nf the 'I'wi Iftli followed 
closely and hcianic invoh'd in the ti;:litin;| in 
Duniharlou Woe d, wfu'c (ienuniis m '• [all-l.o\es *' 
offered a lierce resistance. One such jilacc was over- 
looked, hy the attackers and Scr(,'t. H. ("ruddas o 

Diihnijton hfl the eairyin;,' I'arty of \\liieli he was in 
..» 1 1 .. ..]'.... » .. ." I ., . II.. >i 

• Forward Observing Olllcers 

M.ittery Coiiitnainlir. 


The Third Battle ot \ pres 

tlu-v were nioveil forward to tlif " Hni "' Line aiul 
later ti) the '■ Hluc "' Liiu', ulirrr tiny \uir dii llif 
n^lit of H coinpaiiy of tlu' 10th N.F. At 1 a.m. iu \t 
iMoriMii:,' D coinijaiiy were witluirawn, l)ut ( ii tlic ir.^'lit 
tif tin- '_'"_'ii(l thfv pnividid carrying' parties until 
ielie\e(l on tin afternoon of Sejitenilier 'Jttli. 

A and B I'onipaines followed the KHli N.l'. n; the 
attack on the " Ulue "' Line and entieneli(il a little 
lorwiird of Jasper Trencii at s \.m., siippoitinir the 
I'u^diers, ( )n tlie e\cnin;,' of tin -Jlst these eoiiipinies 
Were to iui\e lieeii witiidrawn, hut owuiji to th.e (■( riiiaii 
• Miinterattacks A ''oinpany wia'e sent forward to n in- 

loli'e the troops jU the nel;_'h ! lOM) llood oi the ••Hllii'"* 

lane ahout ~ ..U) p.m. '|'\so hoiirs iali r Miis eorni-any 
iituriied to .lasper 'I'rench and hoti; n:o\ed l^aek to 
'I'orr To|i next inorinn<,'. On the two followniu' days 
.\ and li companies worked as earrieis unti! ieli'\ed 
at 7 I'.M. on .*^eptenil)er 1' M h . 

(' conifjaliw willloiit then- I.ewis jjUUs, lollu'.Mii I he 
Thirteiiith lai th" '.'illh and duniped then- JoaiU ,it 
th'- " {ir- • n " lane soon after tin olijeetne was 
captured. Tho (' ionrne\ s from the "' dret ii '" lane to 
toe forward dumj's and i ack a'^am wtie made that 
day and two naae on ."septendicr ".Mst. after uhicli 
the eonipan\' retmiu-d to 'I'orr I'oii. Then' !.ew:s t;uns 
had he(ii siTit for a, 10 \..M. i.n the day oi ihe attack 
and lanie forward to siipji' rt the 'I'hn t( entli. .\t 
ni:.dit the ^uns u-re put ni to str-n'/theti the fi-oit ami 
riylit Hank of the ""(rreen " lane and one v\as kiiockiii 
out li\ a shell. At It r.M. the detachments returned to 
'I'orr Top. The whole of C comjianN' occupied rt ser\c 
|)o>it;ons (lurin_' Sejit, ud ■ r •.'•Jtid. '_*.".r'I .nid 'Jl-th. till 
troops of tlie ineoiinii'; di\ision took o\er the line. 

]\y carrying' furward material an<i ammnnitictii 
under liea\ y tire the Twelfth had rendered <»reat assist- 
ance in lioldini,' the lapMired ;,'round and opportiinity 
for the displa\ of L'alhnitry and initiative had not l»ccn 
wanting. -Mid l-ieut. \Vm. l)odd, commandi!!!,' (' 
i'i>inpany, directed tiic carrying to the front line and 
was with his Lewis ;,nins wli'.n tlwv assisted to repel 
a rounter-attuck : 'Jnd Lieiit. J. Voltjc had done food 
Work witli t'l earrvui;.' parties; I'nd Lieut. W. TL 


The Durham lorccs in the I'icld 

iiarris lind taken Ins cu'iipany forward uiiUi-i a h' avy 
l,;,,r,i;_rc \vli( II a ('(.iiiittr-ifttjck thrialiiii-u and. t'i(iuj:h 
woMiidtd. rnnamrd \v:!li ir.- i.nri till llir daii^tr v.a'- 
past. 'I'lu'sc (i!iiiT!> rf(Ti\id !i.>- Military Cross and 
C.-S.-M. v'. .Milli 1 '<[ Sjii i!n\ ni iif, wiio dn;,' out sinjilr- 
liancird several nifi i>nrn(i ui a (lii<r-out liy a slul!. 
rtci'iviil the Distiu.miislu d Conduct Mc-da!. '11;<- 
Militnrv M^-dal won \<y Sergts. J. Chispcr, .1. 
PanidcV, J. IVarsi.n an.i J. Watson; t'orj)ls. ii. D.fiy 
ai'ii \V." Litllcwood; I.ancc-C'orpls. J. (.'arfcr and S. l\. 
Kintr; and Ptos. F. K. Hurf,'iss, T. Flctdur, i'. (.ray. 
A. (iroufli, II. (;. Harrison, E. Jones, W. Lcwins, .J. 
Moore, (i. NelM'H, .1. N'tv.!an(!s, I?, Xixon. 11. 
Oulliwaite, W. Slokor. I'. C. \Vils>!i and .f. 


Tlie losses in I'l-- laiiks ^f tiie Twelfth anujiinled 

to lilt. Insides Lieut. A. 'i'. Hunt and '2nd Lieuls. J. 

Maitland. (". K. S. Thillii's. C. O. Ch.skT, A. Boyd- 

.^mith. W. n. Hn-ris, .). i{. Ktherinf^ton. (J. Dal/i' 1 

. ' '•',•. ;{. 11,11. M.r.. wlio were all wounded. 

liii lu '-i ;.n'rat attack was eurried out on Octo- 
licr U\\. v.hcn the I'lst Division were in the line east of 
Polygon Wond. 'I'hc I'lftienlh, one of the hatlalions 
i.f !lie r.lth Uri^Mid. s. lectcd for the assau.ll, drew their 
h.attl" stores at' Hidi,'e Wood im OetolxT 'Jud. \Vh( n 
tlie liiiuadc ifink over ilie line that ini'i;i il ■• Durliaii: 
were led astray by lluir <;uide.^, liut nianamd to di;,' 
in hv I.;?0 A.M. on Octolier ^^rd, south-east of {;leneor';e 
Wood. 'flu (e rnian heavies systeMial ieally scarcli. d 
the whnle area from the front line haek to lloocc .wiA 
tiie Fifteenth suff( red so seventy diM-ing the day t!ii! 
they Wire replac ( d in the attack li\ a !-a1talion of the 
K. 6. Y.I/. I. So inMn\ lueii ha.ii licen killed and 
wounded that the smvivms were reorganised in twn 

'ilie l>ri-.'ade attaclied \n wind and rain at <> a.:'- 
nu Oetoher llh. with their right on the IIoo<re-Peutcl 
road. Three lunul'-ed yards ahead was Jnist Farm 
ami then the Polyj^onlieke .slreaju had to he crossed 
lufore Keutel was n-aeheil. Joist Farm was only 

,.;,..•;., I .,fi ,,■ e,,,.. .,. fi-Tlitiiiir .■■■] •'■•■ .If....... r- ..- 


1 he ihird Battle of ^■prcs 

tiiUladcd (roni the r.i:;ii. aiul liK-ri-foro imt tasy to 
cross. But this was doiif aii'l llic tlinr' Yorkshiri,' 
li;itt:ili(iiis tliri: liicklii! tiif •" |)!!l-li.)Xt.s "' on Ihr 
ii-Miir L'loiiiid hivoiici. To till- vouih the "th I)ivi*>i(in 
'i.i.l id'iiul it iiiort ihthciil! to i^tt fui\v,irw aiul ■iml 
I.K'il. .1. Scilii^'- ick. with A H coinii.iriy of tlir 
i'lfti-cnth. s; III up iiiHii r Ik aN y iirc io (iii; in on tlic 
.Imi-! Farm hnr. all<T<(l hi> (hsjvisit ions. Thr cMnipan>' 
- i ■•Mishiil th'iiisflvis soutli o[ .I'iist Farm, facin;.; 

.'ith and soutli-rast ah.iiL' the horlh cdi.'c of Cameron 
(\i\<it. Tills was aci'omphsla-d hv '2 I'.M. and thr 
Fast Yorkshires iirolon'^cd tlic hue fiirv.a.!:!. 

'l"!if British irinis !i:;d ah'rady lirolaii up onr countrr- 

.11 u'k and a more serioUs advance no\v threatened 
;:.>i]i tlie sonth.-east. Tlie (iertnans. comini,' on with 
ijirat (htrrmination, csta!)li .in d mae!iine-!Tims in 
I'eiderhoek C'lateau. ai:d entcrni ('ana ron Covert in 
liri.'e niinih( rs. Hut 3<']:\\ Sedi.nviek's i<'en us' d their 
ntlis and Lewis j^nins witii ^'reat effect and heid the 
' neniy at l>ay. At nine in the evoninir touch was 

■htained ou th'' ridit with troops of the .'tli Divisinn 
iiid soon altsrv.ards Coloriel Fahcy-Heyts eanie for- 
ward with t!ie rest of tiie Fifteenth and ioiiied A B 

ipm|)n!i>\ Karl\' on the moriiiiii: of Oct-ilicr .")tli the 
I oinmandin!,' otrieer or'^'aiused an attack ni)on a " pill- 
h.)\.'" conta.ininir three iuaeliiia'-.','uns. mi ''ana-nn 
< . -.1 ;t. hut the (iernians surren(hnd t.i lli. atteekinL,' 
; irt\- uikUt I.iciit. C. .S. Ilerhert. Hostile shell fire 
v^as lieavv all day, aiuJ the Crnnans advanced ai'am 
I'i the eveninir. In another rounter-attaek at 11 p.m. 
Ciimtl Fa!\<'y-I5cvts .as kilhd a.iid the .idiutant 

>!. M. IJ. P 

was woinidcd, Fi' ut. Sedi.nvirk 

. sume I eoiuniatei of tlie liattalion aial J.icut.C. S. 
ihrliert took up the adjutant's duties. IJntli these 
' iiirers reeeived tlie Military Cross and Colonel Falvcy- 
li( vts the l^istintruishcrl Service Order. 

(hi till inorniiiLr of tlie attack "Jiid Fieet. W . 

I\'.cddcll, Willi •_•(» tiMii of th.c Fiftertilh. had h. , n 

■ nt up with animunitinn to the furthest limit of tiie 

!\auce. Tlay l'oI tin re after nefrotiatincr » heavy 

' TfULre and stn\'t d near the western outskirts of 

I'eutel until the liri"aile \ure i(iie\(d. pro\in..- df i'r«Mt 


The Durham Forces in the I'ield 

asMNtiiiici to the Knst Vorkshirrnifii m npcllinj,' 
.■oiiiitrr-att.uks. liiMi Li. lit. ■I'utiidtll was ^i\iii the- 
Militarv (.inss, wliicii was also rccrivnl li\- I'liii l^Hnt. 
.1. (.. Haiiir ami l.y Capt. J. W. Wattii. ws, 1{.A..M_.(. .. 
lo;- liis (!(\ot((l work anioii^- the woumlcii. S( I'^t. E. .). 
l,!o\(! was awardi.l a liar to his Military .Mr.ial. a 
(li-coralioii coiiicrrrii lor llitir L';>llaiitry on Sirj^'ts. .1. '1'. 
r.oolli, .(. flopr aiiil A. (.. HoWsoii ; Corjil. 1". Hall; 
l/aiici-C'ornU. W . Moi-i'iand ami W. Nortln-y; I'tis. 
V' . IJaim-s ami .1. .spoors. 

I'll, I'lfli'iith ucrt- r(lu\<(l when tin- line was 
i« ii'ljustt i| iluniij^ iIh' iii},'lit ami n-aclK d (ln;,'-oiits at 
/illchiki' on till' imiriiiii>,' of tlu' (Uli, aftrr sustaining,' 
.1 ciistialtifs (in IIh- v.ny. Tlir lotal lossi s ol the hat- 
liilion amountt'd to "JO ollici rs aiu! 11(1 in. n. winch 
inclmi. s the third coinnMndinj: oilinr of thr lilt.iiith 
killed or ni.irlalU- wmni'lrd in adion. 

tHAI'TEH 11 

I'd hold lli.j line whdf each fn sli attack was m prc- 
pa'-atifjn- or wait.. I nj)..ii tlu' wiathcr pro\cd hardly 
less of an or.h al than to advance; so tliat the 
.■^ ivricnccs of the lialla'ions while thus niaintainin.,' 
i'M :ri.l ..M'.'Mnd ;'l>o )>. loii'i to the story ..f the 

On (). 'toiler KMh the TenMi ni.ive.l np in i'lLdiimLr 

()"iier from I'.edf.ird House, wlii'h was near the ^'|)r. s- 

's' T'loi mad. Tli'ir way 1..! o\.r a ilneklioard track 

resiTVf p.'Mlioii in Sam'tnaiy Wood. H. re th. y 

r.Vid ill sliell-holes. hits .>f trench and wretched 

s!i If.-rs, f»ro\idin'i earrv ini: and workini: parties. 

nary \\'o...l .in.l the foi\\ar.l mute w. re shelli'd 

.i '\ and nii'lit. On the l.")th the Tenth took ov.r a 

porfi.)n o\ t|ic front, l" nu.' np in lile alon<,' the duek- 

linar*! track. A c.(inpi:n\'. in the rear, ha.l IS casualties 

from slii'li tire liefore Sl.iiini,' (astle rui'^'.' uas passed; 

oMuTuiM- the relief was aecomplislied without nnu'h 


The 'I'hird Battle of \'prcs 

The liiii- faced south-east lictweeii the streams 
culled Hcutelheke and P()lyj,'(iiiheke and the rijjht was 
en i.{)eii j,'r.)niid. The left passed thr()U<,'h Cameron 

One company were m reserve m Cameron House 
nn tlie rifzlit of the line, and •-'()(» yards further west 
was hattalion hcadipiarti rs, (stalilished in a •" pill- 
li(i\.'" Here there were jx-tri'l (ins to sit on, Imt all 
^Icjit on the lioor whicli was nften coxcred in water 
and was never really dry. The enemy shelled the 
[■"sition.s steadily, thouu'li tlicre was <,'eneraliv a (juieter 
-[■ill from dawn till m^hi o'clock in the mormnj,'. 
I'niderhoek t'hateau, opposite the lirij/ade on the rij,'ht 
<if the hattalion, afforde.l tin- enemy a \iew of tlie 
uhnle of the sretor held liy the Tenth'. T!;.' front line 
and sujiport trenches Wi re more or !< ss continuous, out 
the two eurnpaiiies on the n_'ht in the open wire 
isolated fm.ii the rest of tiie hattalion during: the day. 
! here wir<-. of course, no conununicat ion trenches. 
Orders had hi-cn !.'iven to push jiosls forward on the 
riuht and left, hut the ^Tound was a morass and little 
could he done. HoWev.r. two new firsts Were estah- 
lished, which served to link up the hattalion line and 
pio\ide touch with th. troops on the left across the 

i{.lie\cd on the hsth, the Tenth crot out safely hv 
;lie (.leiieorse Wood track and the Meiiin road ;ind 
marched hack to cam}) at l{idi?e Wood. The last se\fn 
day> had cost the hattalion •_>(! killed, '_• oil'ic. rs md 
7.' otiiers woundi'd and 7 missiriL'. licsides these. tM 
mui. inelnditiLT '•• yas-.^d and :. wi'h tren,'h f(,ot, were 
evacuate<| sick. The wi atlier had heen fair for the 
most part. 

\ few days were now devoted to rest ai'd. cleanini.' 
■:p, hut !> visit was received from i im luy homhinir 
p^ines. On Octoher -Mst ranie anotli. r nuue forward" 
'■^'' Tenth luiiH' one of the f\.,, hatt.dions left hv the 
hi/ade to work on tracks and li._'ht railwivs in the 
vicinitv of Hmt Cross Horids and Saiicfuarv Wood. 
With the weather vt ry rold and wet, life at Kruisstraet- 
ho.!-. in a waterloir-ed hivouac camp which w;.s sh, I'eci 
now and then, i)roM d the reverse of pleasant. The 


TIr- Durham I-orccs in the I'icld 

tiu'iiiy piaiH's were persistent m ni<:lil l"-iiiliiiif.' aiid 
all ranks wen- v»ry fjlad when tin liallaiKm 1< It liy 
l)iis on Oetolicr iJOtii for the n-sl i'.i. a anmiHl lUrtlnn. 
Here, and at billets near St. Oiiar, a f'lll nmiitli was 

The ■I'welltii spent flin<' ilays at a camp near 
Westoutre on eoininf,' out of thr Mi nin Hoail action. 
The liatfaiion moved up "ii Sept, mljcr I'Mli to 
Hi(|i;e Wood eamp as a reserve to iIk <itiirr i>ri;^ades 
of the di\ision still holding tli.' Imk . \\'orkiiij,' and 
earrvinu' parties of •_'(>() nnn per ila> weie sup{)lied till 
Octoliir 1st. whcTi the Tw.lfth dipartid hy hiis to 

Melcrell. Tellls a( Thle.i -I ,! lek Were Peached oil tilt" 

;'.rd and tianuiii.' was carvit d mi in tiie ram: luit two 
(la\^ lat' i- the liattalioii ii M\cd to Dickel lux'h. where 
tiny li\e(| ill t!;e mud wiili little protectK.ii from the 
w.atlier. WdrkniL' parties had \" lie sujiplied for hury- 
iiif,' catile. The hatlalioti tu^ik ii\er the line tast of 
l'ol\L.'nn \\,.(„l nil tile lll^llt of Oeliiher IJitli aiid fouiid 
tiieniseiM-. jllst lie\(ili<i tin- -,i,-lle 'd |||c tii/htltlj,' in 

uliieli the Filtii nth liad iie.ii i !iL'ai;t d at the lict,'innm<,' 
1,1 tiir niDiitii. Tile niiid ami the jmstile sln'llin<,' made 
llic n h(d' diilieiilt and there was no n spite dunnj.' the 
lliree da\s tlie hattalion In Id the line. The (.erinan 
aero|ila.lie-- were \er\' actl\e and "tl one oeeasiuii a 
j^rrmip id nitietern. ll\iii;.' Inu. iiiaeiiinc-<,'iiniied the 
trenches ,.f the Tv.i'lltli. On tin' iMiimi.' of tin- ICth 
the Durhaiiis were relic\cd and wtliidnu (n rest and 
reor<.'anisc. Losses diiriii;: the imir amoiinted to ".to, 
i,f ul, .111 a tiiird v.i n- killed, and (apt. ('. Powcl-Sniitli 
ami -lid l.ieiit. \\ . U. ( hapmaii uerc anioiitr the 
wounded. On the cXenill^ id till I'.Mll the Twelfth 
came i:p a;;ain. Sla llin<_' interfered witli the rein f. 
lull on the follouiiiL; da\-. when a patrnl fnund an enemy 
Miaeliine-L'ini and ln-oinjlil il in. the (.(rinaii gunners 
paid most attention lo tiie hack areas, (.erman aero- 
planes Hew low <-very iiij;ht. tirmi; \'er\ litdits which 
revealed every nioV'-nient on oiir fnrward tra<ks. On 
the eveiiinfi; of Oetoher "ilst yuuhs wi re s. nt to Hoo^c 
Crater and eondueled the l-'dteenth In ihi rmni line. 
l?<'lieved before dawn, the Twelttii. with i asnaltn s nnich 


'I'hc Third Battlr of Yprcs 

h^flitt r tli.iii IIm'sc III III. |i|.\nMis t'.iir. \\illi(li.\s t. 
Z7llrl..l;. l{iinil. 


'I'lif i\])( 1 1. net , (.1 till- 'l"liMt'-i lit ii v.iir .iimliir \i< 
those of the Turlllli. <);i SiptciiilM r -JTth Maiuv 
I.Mii^ril. 11 had i<ft t!i<' liatlahoii. aii<l (a|.t. 1). II. 
Clarkr, D.S.O., M.C, ai:aiii assuintd cuiuinaiiil. \'.\ 
takiiij,' ()\rf the hill- mar Hcutrl mi thi' .■\riiiiii: of 
Ortolur Ktlh, •-'nd Luiil. A. (.. >rMiuni ami 'M dthns 
V.I re Wiiumlcd ami .'i iiifii wvyr inissiii;.'. The rrliif 
was iKit ciiiiiph'tc till fi;.'lit n'ciock tile lii'xt im iiiiili;,' 
an<l >.\\i- liatlahoii wire slulh d Ihioiiuliout tlic da\ and 

the next IllLfllt. H>' the Imif the '1 lllft ciilt ll Were r<- 

hi\cii on the i;ith and withdrawn lo tin- luind at 
/iliilK'kc. casualti's wfi-r nuTfascd li\' "Jiid Liiul. ('. 
Hands and .'. oth( r-> killed and -'nd Linit. .1. t'. 
W itluTspooii and 11 \\oundi'd. l\ and 1) conipanns lucn h'ft luhind in a sii|)|iori |ioMtioii. 'I'lic nst 
of tlu hattalion niovt d l>ack to Dicki tiiisch m \t day. 
On tlu- HJth lluri' was a j,'ri'at [insi ntation hy Ihr 
di\isi(>nal coininandcr of homnirs won diirin<,' the 
I'landri's tii^litin^'. Ptr. A. Coiistantinr had hn-n 
.iwanh'd a liai to his Military Medal, while the rilihor 
oi that deeoridion was cri\rii to .Scr^'ts. H. Hniiis, W . 
I'owell. .1. IJodsoii. l". .saltinarsh. W. .Sl.d^'e and K. 
Wilknison : C'orpls. .J. .\n<lerson. 'I'. ( assiiielli. (. \V. 
.lefferson, T. II. Patterson, W . 'I'liompson and N. 
\\ alt<in : Laiiee-C orpls. ,1. Hownian, .1. O. Dean, .1. 
MeKenna and .1. Ho\ ; I'tes. I-". |{\rne. T. I Krnthuaite. 
.i. Donnan. .1. .1. H'enders,,n. K.IIod-is. .1. I,. Holt. 
W . How., r, W . Howl. II. (.. KenipsSr. .\. Lneas. 1). 
I'.ilierson, ( . S. Kowell, H. >haw, .1. .Sinmi, V.. (. 
.Smith, \V. \\'ihsl.r and .1. T. Woodruff. Th.- hatlahon 
feimiled at {Railway DuLT-onts oii ()cto!i.r ITlli. 

'I'll.- Thirt.'enth look om r the IimhI line a^eun 
IJi'ilil on the .■veiii'L; "f the l.slli. 'i"he Usual thr.. 
il.iys of ei asi'less shelhii;.' followeil. .\l dawii and .lu~k 
the l,e\\ is ^UIls ell_'aL.'i d till' illelliy aeroplalli^ llyiiii,' 

low ()\-.r the ticnches ami snipers on l>oth sides wer.' 
a(ti\e. On th( alt.rmion of Oetol.<r '-Mst a party of 
ill.' .■n.niv was seen near .Jiid;,M's Copv, ind dispcrst-cl 
' ■■ I.I WIS i^nn and iitle tire. Th. sae , :\.iiine the 


\ ; 


Ihc Durham I'Orccs in the I'lekl 

Tlnn.,„ti, iK,n.!.,l nv. r ' -. luh. s to a l.ittalu.n of the 
■>l<^ l), an.l .•.<.,.■ hark to MkUrkr 1 un-l. 11k 

'.,-,„; ,„.„t. .1. 1'. fatroll. M.C. ^vou...i.•.l an.) 

Th,. iMft.rntl. iKul l.a,l l.ttlr rr.pit'; ^nc' the tiK'h - 
,„„ , ,... |,..,n,nu>,' of O.tolHT. Aft.r two .ays a 
KM ,..l,.n, th- battalion na.i. M ^ ,mvs "v bus on 

;,„.,,.; ntl,. Th.n ran,., liv.. .lays -''^1<- I'"- '■ . 
,,„ raiUvavs. follow..! bv a wl.olf -lay s ,rst On tli. 

'n . IM t,,nth arnv.-.i at Zm.b.k. Hu.ui, nu.v.nj: 
F V . , t., tak.- ..V. r th.- front Inu.. Tins was a.v..Tn- 


Twi-inii bv 111'- 'lawn of th.' 'J-.'ntl. 
'^^' \' bntju.w 

,..,„„. ,, ,„,, „mrninu' follow.-.l by slmuvrs n, thr aft.i- 
:;;:„;' -nw-bu.. ran, •ou.l.lynovtl,-. as, fron. h- m,.- 
of It.ut.'l .vnHt.ry an-i (..nnans w. n- ranU -• 
,lnrn.L' tb- .lav-tun.. Th-n- . .sa.t ,..,s, ions ...n 
;1;;S, .o lo..-.. as ,h,y ,.nsb,.,l ,.0... f..rwar.l at 

"'^-';^;,,,1,„. „f ,!... lra,.ks to tlu- f>ont !m.' an.l of onr 
,,,,;'rv ...Tsmons bar.lly .-..r .■.as..!. Th.' nuns ha.i 
,;,„vr,-t.!l .n.,st ..f th.. .■onntrv n>to a ";•"-; ^";;.; 
,. .,„ ,,„i ,„ k..-n to tlu^ .hi.^ nnl. ss h nv.i 

. !; iLh.A .Mn.PP-'! '»">"■ "'■"^">' "f ""■ ^■'■'■'""" 
t)!iius at ni"ht was ulwavs a ^nva!;o> a.a'.' 
' .1,. v., l^.lnnn, h..avy lu.stiU. sluUn.. m tla- .arl> 
„,,„,„,„. „f,h,,thw,.nt ba..k to a sap- 
or ■n.':;.t,..n, Fann an,l Uaphan, Jnn.^t.m 
',,,1 a f.w .la>s lat.T -z-.t son>. u-^^ m n^s.-n.- 
,,i.Ora.tlu...k. Hnr .-n th.- ;MHh th,' Im ta.on 


mar Ki 

v.Tr a' /.ll.brk.- Hnn.l a-aui an.l to,.k ov.T thr hn. 

, h,: ..xt,vnu- l.ft of th.- .h.v.s.onal fr.u.t n.xt .vonui.', 

Vl tracks ,.n tl,.- wav „,, w.-r- sh.lh. with nnMarc 

.,as, ni;-..l Nvith salvo.>s of hi-h .-xnh.s.vr. an. 


(liMnn; tlif 

thf (irst days oi 

rift. Tilth lost ."0 nun. 

'I'Im' wath.-r imy)rovr-l 
Nov.n.b.r. On th.- -'n.l (..rnian tr.n.^h mortars 
opom-.i an.i th.- .n.-my .nnnu-rs an.l aunu-n ^v''^'' P'';- 
tieularlv a.-hv.. ... th.- lolh^m.: .lav. At about 


'J'hc 'I'ltird Batik- (»i 'i prrs 

10 i'.M. two iHTiiiaii patmis appioacluti jjots of tli.- 
I'lftct-nth. TIu ( li.i.iy was al!-)\w(| to cune (piitc il(.sc ; 
tliin Lewis ouiis and rilics op. uni aiui he dispnsrd. 

It was .lltlicillt l(, Oft out .Mioss llir IiiikI, 1,111 til.' 

«''>rpsc (;f a stT^rtaiil-iiiujor of lli.- :,tii i{, s.-rxr Infantrv 
l{i-;.'t. uas hroiijrlil ill. 

On Novtiiilicr ttli tlmr . n.iipa!.'!. s r.tii.ii<-.i to 
ZilKln-ki- Hiin-i and H (•.,iMj)anv r.Tiiaiii.d in nstrv- »o 
l!if nlicvm;: Iiattaiion. On'tl,,. ,,t|i th.- Fift.nilli 
'.vithditw lo Scot'iish Wood. Tiic last lour ui tin- line 
had cost o\cr dO casualtiis. Mi.hnlin^' one oMiccr hit 
H! an atf.'iii})! to nsni.' a uo .nd-d n.aii Ivin.. m a 
slull-holr. Pt.'. A. Hr.^adw.ll of H,a<lloid. u ho went 
nut at once anil l.roiii'ht m I hr oiUct uud. r the tire of 
several (.ennan snipers, \vas awanled Dist ii..'iiished 

Conduct .Medal. 

• ' ■ 

On Oetoher ITlh tiie :ir,th Divi^-ion t..ok the 

extreim- hit of th.' Hn'.sli front, next to th.' i..neli. 
ihe Nineteenth arrived at Provm hv tram on the l»;tli 
;:nd eanie into the lii;e wlu re if erossVil the hi;,rh -,'rouiid 
norlh-east of Kockiiil on th-- i.i-ht of Oetiriier'' IsHi. 
'J'he weatiier was vile and lorv.ard .d battalion head- 
(juarters no duekhoards pr(,vidrd a wav across the 
mud. .V.tillrry was aelive on l„.lh snl.'-s and th.'-e 
was iiiiieli ^'as shelhiii: to he endnr.-d til! the I'lst, v.heii 
tile Xinetienlh w.-re relieved i;nd withdrew to .■■imp 
at Klverdnii,'lie. 

Th.-re was a e..!iil.ii!ed att^iek hv t!i.^ Fn neh, the 
.■i."dh J)ivisi,„, ;,n,i a hni,'a<le ..f the ;ntli ..n Octo- 
ber •.'•Jnd. win n some ^rro'in.l was ^'ained on the 
southern e.ii:,' of ]{,,uthuls| Th,. XuKt.-ciit h 
were not involved. I,i;t t,,ok ..\.r Ihe left of the 
<livisional line on the ni;:lil .,f the -jard. Many men 
were killed and wounded durimr th.- r.ii.f aii.l' 
was a hea\.v hostile l).)niliardmenf next mornin;,' wh. n 
the enemy was s« .n m.-issinj,' for a counter-attack 
opposite the juneti.)!! of the Nmet.'enth and th.e French. 
At (i A.M. tlic (Jerman in'antry sent up red lights and 
tlien a.Ivance.l un.ier a '.airan... Jiut the .\iiien>t.nth 
were readv with Lewis inni and rifl,' and lost I. ss than 
•Jii neii, \-.hih^ the (aiiuans couhl m^k.' no h. adway 



TIk- I )hih;ini iorccs in tlic l-'icki 

.iikI uillidr. w. IfMviii^' m -! ' n ,l.,..l upnn l!u- yn.iiiid. 
On tlir iii^'lil of OctoliiT -'Ttli 111.- NiiutcMth wrif n- 
li.v«(l iiMii emu- l.y train from |{.Hsiii}rlic to l'i<.\.n. 
(.'asuiilliis ainoinit.-il to 2liO, of ulmii, lialf wt-rt- sick. 
Alter clt-atiitif.' up an. I r<liliin<!. the hattal'mn moved 
1.) lulls al Dyke- lanif »»m tlu- ;$(>tli. and la. iil .-L'oi. 
\\ . !?. (irtiiiw. II, who had Ik-i-h ff«ssf«l on the •-Mltli. 
h.canir In.) ill to «-ontinii<- ni roininaiid any l.)nu<r. 
II.' over to Major S. Hulfani oi. tli.- last day 
of tin- nioul'i. 

On NoM-rnli.r -'nd tin Nmrt.-ntli nio\.(l up to a 
supp.-rt position. W and X conipaiius Ixinfi al 
KiM-kint .ind thr rest o! tia- ha'talion hack at Wi.i. n- 
diift. --'nd la.uf. (.. M. Allan was w..inid<<l on this 
da> . At nijrht u lu-avy ^'as sht-ll hotnhanini. iil took 
li.avv toll .if the hattalion. Tin- conirnandnij: r'lictr. 
Cai.ts. J. \V. Hvall. ( . U. I'.arson an.l II. (.. Hif«'. 
h'.A.MA. ; and -'iiii I.ienls. U.C.J. Allan, t. K. Hrown, 
H. \. Kduar. I'. l'u<,'h and \. Wharton wen- all (.'asscd. 
Tlif shfllini,' was n ixat.d ..n the followinj; nitjht whin 
the adjutant, (apt. I!. ^! . Mid.lli Ion. with la|)t. W . T. 
Oliver and .'iwl I. a ill. (.. K. iMior. was a.'l-d t. the 
list of victims. 'Alien the ImttHlioii wt-n* ' "n 

Noveinher Mh there had Ixen I-'.' easnaliir- in ihe 
ranks, diielly from the same cause. The Nineteiiilh 
witlnlrcw to Proven, win nee thre. more suhalhrns wen- 
sent to ho.pital. The of HI incluilin}.' 
eomman.Ini': ollii. r. adjutant ami t company coin- 
mamlers all wiihin a few days whin the hatfaln'ii 
wcP- not lijjiitinj;. -v ' ' • " Im'''!..... tl,. t,.,, >. ,,i,,l,:il.!v 

Major V K. (.. ..KrM.n Iron. Ha LMh 11.1..!. to-k 
(dinman.l on .Noxeinlur sih. All energies were now 
dirccti-d to improviiij: the camp, protective mml walls 
belli.,' Iiuilf round the tents. On the 1 tth came anotlar 
iuoxv fo the line and four ilays later the Ninete.iith 
look ovfj- the Iffi portion of tin front hetwcen lh< 
stream culled Lckkerhoteri.eek and the roeleappelh - 
WestrooselM'ke roa.l. The lim- was h.ld by posU in 
*• pill-h«)X( s " or the rums of farm buihlint."-. 

.\t .*.l.'. A.M. on the nairmnj.' of the llMli a slioim 
fierioaii patrol, led by an othcer, approaehi.l Ih- ' i-ill- 



liird Hurt!'.' of Vpics 

1 1 i' 'ii I i ' 'II ■ 

1 11 


(i,).\ (HI I iir li^lil 'M ill' i '.1 V ' .1 1 i' 'li li'iii'. 1 Ki ■viiii>, 

Ptf. Piiikiuy, cliallciijjfd ami Ihrii t'Mhan^'iil shots 
wifli tlif i-m-iny. Om- (W-rinan ffl! -U-iul ami tht- nst 
uithdnw umlcr a l)ri>k fin-, but a little lati r tlu- same 
|)atn)l tiiid at,'aiii. approacliiiit; tin- •• pili-liox " fiuin 
thf rear. I'iiikmv clialk-li^'fd aj:aiu ami the (itriiian 
oliicrr iv|)li.(l 111 Kiij^lisli : ••Oh, it's all ri_'ht '. " l>ut 
he was now near t'noii;;h inr Ins <:tp \<> l"tniy liini. 
Tlu- mail of Durham shot tiu' olliftr (IcikI ami thf rest 
of Ihf f,'arrisoii i-asily liispt rscd the i-mmy. I,at( r iii 
thr (lay this advent iiroiis patrol tame to an iiiitimely 
end oil the left of the line, where !•_' of them uere 
killed and «i captnird. They prov«(i to he men n\ th. 
MiCth He«t. 

Later un tlu- same moniiii;^ Z e(ini|>aii\ . m the 
eeiitrt', disptrscd a patrol of >M (iermans liy riili' ^md 
Lewis yiin fire. They all fell, hut some wt re pn suin- 
altly nnhiirt. thouj,'!! the iiitervenin{r ground was a 
swamp and tiur nun could not reach ihcni. In the 
afternoon \V companv ca|)tured .i prisoners, lar^'cly 
through the action of Corpl. C'oylc who also secured 
another man he had niortally w(;unded. 

Hostile shelling' was heavy on the hillouiiit: da\ 
when the liattalii»n were relicve«L hut the casualties 
durinj: this tour only amounted to Ki. 

No troops contrihuled mor- than the Fioin-crs to 
Ihe hard-Won successes in Fla;iders dnriiij,' the summer 
and autumn of l'.»17. Their work in pr« paiat mn for the 
offensive had heen strenuous and ha<l cost man\ 
easualtics; hut, as the ailvaiicc proyicssed and the 
wcutlur jrot worse, it was only l>y unceasmtr lahour nn 
roads and tracks that the awful ground could he m;ide 
passable h)r stretcher-hearers, pai-k anmia!>>. carrMni: 
parties. li-jhtiuK troops. JimlKTs and ;mii 

The Twelltv-Seeond Were eiii.«a!,'ed <'li IIm •.[„iiiiil' 
day of battle. Wliih I lit Mh DiMsioii took Ihllewaard.' 
rnlY'c oil .Inly :(1st and pushed on to the outskirts of 
Westlioek. the battalion follow»<l, carrymj,' hirw.trd 
roads ami tracks on the vtry heels of the advance. 
V j'ompany liad been attached lo the Tth Canadian 
i;,;i.i ,> ('. M^t >iii 1 1..1I C'lnipaiiv <nd wi-rr vvnrkui!; uti 



I lie ! )iirli;iin i-')i (.-{'s in t iic l- iciii 

;i li|,'lil r.iiUs,, iiJiiiiui^" i<i:\'..iiii In ;i jxjiiil injiiii of 
Zill. Ixkc l.ak.-. Oil tin- niuht of July MOtli th- rest of 
!l;i' I'loii' crs cariK' tip to Swan Chateau, uiitli (,' \'j)re,s 
and \\( <t of tlie Ypi'es-Cointnes eaiial. A coiimany's 
task was to |iiisli lorwiird a 1 1 ai k fiuin tin- Zillilnkf 
road towards W'rsdunk. wiiilc 15 eoiiipany uorked oil a 
parallel traik .')((() yards furtli'r south. 1) eoiiii)aiiy 
had lo inaki' and repair a road, whii h was to run from 
Chateau Wooci to Zoiiiiihi ke. vin W'lsihoek. as Ihr 
ad\aiice [>roijr<'ssi'd. 

Maviui,' i,'i\in fiic iiifantiy time to clear Ihr enemy 
fitiiii his forward positions. A eompanx'. undi-r Cajit. 
W. II. I'erkiiis. moved off ai 7.1") a.m. on July ."Jlst 
and eomt'ieiieed work at S.U) a.m.. sajipers marking: out 
the track a little way aiiead. Slow hut steady pro;_'ress 
v'-as made ill the morning over dithcult ".'round. I''or 
the lirst two hours liii,di exjthisive slitdls hurst m the 
vuimty, hut not mar eiioiii/h to interrupt the work 
and Very few men ware hit. In the afternoon the eiiief 
trouhic niaeliine-j,'un hre which <fra/ed the rid;:e 
north of Heliewaarch' Lake. The track now approaehtd 
Idiot I{cser\e 'l'i< Hell, v'.h' re the ^.toiiikI Was very had. 
Iiiit hy ('( I'.M. the Way was made for held jjnns up to 
hilt not over Jaeoh Tr«'neh. ne.-ir the er« sf of Helh waarde 
n<lt:e. .\fter spendiii;,' an hour on iniprox < mcnts tiie 
eoinpan>' rested at Idiot Sn[tport Trenfh. wh<re rain 
hejjan to fall. I5y midniLrlit e\er\one was wet throu^'Ii. 
The Pioneers assemhhd in the ram at si\ o'clock the 
la \t mornint,' and hcL'an to work forward towards 
Zie! House, makinj; such general impiov ( menls as ware 
possiliK . The track was now a perfect (|ua!.'mire owinj,' 
to hea\y pedestrian and mule trallic all throu^di the 
niu'lit and early niorniti;,'- It \^.is h,ilf-|)ast ten wlien 
the lonji and weary march liack to Pioni i r C'anii), near 
Dirkeliuseli. was t'otnnienei d. In his reixut on the 
work carried out the company commander remarks that 
till re was " much seo]»e for patience .ami coolness," 
and 'Jnd la. lit. Hruee. C.-S.-M. White and Cor|>l. 
I-eemini: are particularly lommeiided. 

At s.;iO A.M. Capt. A. II. Hohson. M,C,. arrived 
with ]\ company ;it a pouit m the old Hritish front 

trench just iiort'n of Zoiia\e \V I ami wmk was 







1 he I)iirh;nii lortcs In tlic l-icid 

cotlillli liii 'I 1 III :i i 1 .11 K ,iiM i^^ .S( I M :iii s i .ami. lit ii \ y 
liosfil Hiii^i made tin- work ditlicult lion, tlif start 

and < . IJolts.)!) was hit in tlif l«'ft wrist l)y a sIkII 
splint';. Wlun lu' hit tlic (oni;)any. l'ik! I.iciit. L. S. 
VVood assunu'd command till I'nd Litiil. I,. \\ . Andnws 
arrived. Wain cann- on at half-past tour au<l wlun 
the <'om[)any shi-ltiTed for tin- nij.'lit in tin- oM dt rinaii 
trcnchi's, tind Lieut. Wood and I'J im n had hecii 
wound' d. Tliii f othtrs. not so hadly Int. n niainrd 
on did\. Al t.l."> .\.M. on .VufUst 1st work was n- 
surncd ui ram which lu-vcr crasccl and the track slowly 
lcnj.'thcncd round the south of C'liatt-au Wood and 
then finuards to llic ti\'H- of the Wcstliix'k road, i'lurf 
was not so much slulliiii: and Ihc allotted task was 
done ill three hours. M I'mip-uiv -oiivin.' m Pimiei r 
Camp hefore inid-da\ . 

'I'lie ad\enlures of I) eoinpaiiy ui re IIk most t xcil- 
uij,'. .Major T. (i. Daxidson"-- men were confronted 
with a licHvy harra^'c astride the Meiiin road wtsi of 
llooj,'*' and an ( tfoif was therefoie made to {,'et round 
oil the left. .\t II A.M. the company .arrived on the 
West edj.'«' ol Melh V. aarde Lake. From tiiateau Wood 
<-ame inachine-;:mi and rille tin-, vhowinj,' that small 
posts of {;ermans still Ik Id oul tin re, hut work com- 
nii need on the road. .\t '2 I'.M. the (ierman lire from 
the front wounded sc\eral men, so a Lewis j.nm section 
came into action. Soon afterwards Major D.t'.idson 
and an oIliiMr of the sajipers reconiioil red towards 
Wc.thoek iidj,'e and saw (iennaiis ad\ancin^. No other 
IJiitish troops wore in the vicinity, so tlie company 
withdrew to .lames Trench. In the wonls of the coin- 
fiaiiy commander: " W ( (ould not carry llu work any 
further till the ridjre was delimtely occupird 1\ nur 
forces." Li these circumstances I) company leturned, 
picked up rations and water at tlu ]\nv (toss l{oads 
dump and <\<idiiall\ ii,ieli(d .swan (h.'slcau al 
T.l.'> I'.M. 

On .\u;^usl '-'nd tin three companus moved to 
Halifax ('am|i on the \'lamertini,'he-( )uderdoni lo.ul. 
Here the men uere issue<| with new elothiii': which 
was liadlv needi d and the C'orjis commander |iaid IIk 
I'li'iiei is a \i-it. IdiiHratulaf lolls mi flu- \M>ik d'lin 

TIk 'I'hml hatlk' <>l ^ prc^ 

vvrrr iiirivil In. Ill I !iv (. • •! Ill 1 laii. Id- i 1 i-C i 1 i' I A n.^v 
was in;H|. tn 1 Jdliiiiiiwii l ani|) on tlir ."itli. 

I'lir I'liliuwiiij' auanis ni tli.- Militarx' Mttlal \'<v 
..ailaiitr\- ilunii;: .Iuim- aii.i .lul\ urre now L;a/rtt. d ; 
S.Tj.'tv .1. 11. H..U(lls ainl H. NraMv; (.u!|.l. A. P. 
IlniTt.'snii ; LaiK'i-ldrpl. .1. A. l{iM\Mi; and Ttr. A. 

Tilr Mil l)l\:siun hail llln\i<l cut Hi till llln. Ii'il 

tluTf was stiii plfiitv Ml wi.rk tor tli.- rioiuiTs. On 
Ainjiist Tth a liitarlnui ni ..I •_' nllicns ami aO nun W' n 
sfiit III 1,1. ck '.• nil till- ii.niim- ranal. witli ordrrs i . 
I'ltar lip the ijriMind Inrward t'l lla old Hiilisli Inir. 
On tins <\a\ 1) r.iinpany -tarlid t.. i nlarm- tlic arconi- 
, at Swan Clialian. \. Iiilc (•()iupan\- c.-m- 
niaiidi is 11 i-iiiiiii'ilV' d till- ground on wlucli work ua^ 
In 1„ d,,nr uli. 11 111! Mil Division caiiir iiark fur tin 
lir\t advaiirr. 

|-",nrni\ 1. 1. lulling plain'-, liad lurnini' \ • r\ atlinti\' 
'., tin caiiips aioii;,' III'' Oiait-rdoin road, liut no casual- 
li,s Will siiiT'iid li\ tin- ■I'ucnty-Sicnnd. On 
Aujjiist Kith thi- liattaiiou iiinv d to l.noiiacs at HrlMian 
riiatcaii. on t h- toad t.. K lUisstraat . and :.t ni^'ht 
A ioinpan\ wmt t.. work on a donlilc diicklioard tra<k 
suiitli of iitlltwaardr l.akr and up o\ir 
iidiTf. li cotni'anv iminovcil I h. park trark towards 
Zii-1 Hulls, and h coiiipanv "s i inTijKs wri. dirrcti'd 
iipun aiiothi ; donlilc dncklioani track sliM rurlli-r 1.. 
till- nortii. •Jnd Lieut. 0"l)i il coniniandid a dctaiii- 
iiicnt. witii tliric l.cuis ^niis, wliicli w.i^ r st.dilishcd on 
/liirlukt' nd^c li.r .mti-aircraft vnrk. 

()ll Mil inth Ihc .s.tll DlXlslull atlaiK'.l xmIh ilnil 

It nil I lie raiiv i> and tlicir rijilit on Wrstlioi-k. llu- 
idv.mcc Ik niL' iiortli-i iist tnwards '/onnclnkc. Tin" 
cuininiinicat lolls mi wimli !l;c I'lonccrs were nou wi,rk- 
nii; at niL'lit were tlm- .d the utmost ini|)orlan«;-, more 
[jarticniarlv as (lie wcatlicr was so had. Mnt then was 
yet ariotlicr t.isk lor the Twentv S.ccdid. On llir (ia\- 
Ix'fore the .itt.ick til men iroi.i .\ coni|ian> . under -Jiid 
Licnt. .\iianison, .ind tin same nuTnticr from M com 
paiiv. under '-Mid l,ieii». Ilovcti. went to tlic diimi) at 
Uirr Cross Hoads wlierc each 111,111 e<]uip|)i d Ininsclf 
\mi!i a lii^lit portal. le hiid^'i. At i.t'i ni'\t ninrn- 





riic 1 )iirl:nni lorco in ilK' i' icUl 

lil',-. uhni the a.lvaliir t,r;...ll. tlltSf luui of til<' iWfnty- 

Sfroti.l wnil idwaiii too as far as tlu^ liaiUK-lK ok 
stixaiH. aiui m ti>f facr of h. avy liiv tlu- hn.l-c-s wtTf 

placid 111 Jios 

111, II I,, I liic attackiiij,' infantry to cross. 

On tlHir \va\- luck the l.ri.l^in;: l):i'-f!' s assisted the 
wuniHlcil an'.i cscortci priM-ncis. tlair ouii losses 
amountin;' lo oiu man kiiUii, 1') ui.nndcd aisd -^'. " (.'lural (.ro.-.'an. ciMnandin-i the --'JJrd 
nnjzad", afl.i\vai(i> wroti^ to ColMiitl M-.r-an as 

" "'l -hwul.l like t(i ll.aiik ail rank. <.l >"iir l.allalion wlio 
.„ np.iated will, the ii'rd Hrii-a.le ..ii Au^;a^t Id in en»Mim 
llie llanntheek. Tlu- l.ri'l-in- i.arties wlio went over witli 
the leadinn wave did tiuMr work in a most ettuient :mi( 
soldiorlv manner, with the ulniosl coolness an.l disrejiani ot 
tire ihe l.ridjies verv in ilerially contrilnileil to our success, 
an.i valuable 'informalion in re^^ard to the ^iluatn.n was 
l.nmtiht hack ')y hri.ipin^ parties on eonipletion ol tiieir 

.\11 time conil)anKs \v< re kusy on the ni<;!it »d !lic I'udnnir "II ^viili tiic track passing smith (d 
Hrlltwaardc "Lake and then L'oinrj northwards alont: 
thr w.>t sKJr (d the ridnc on ;is way to the new front 
line, 'i'lie hoanis wen carried n{) and tin n tixed in 
Mositioii on tr.stles and Uns work eoMtinned vmtil the 
•jlst. It was possddc to work ihirin;,' ihiylitiht m 
sniail i)aitie.s nnder the cover afforded liy Westhoek 
ridi:e and few easnailies were sustained. 

"a ino\e was mad. to rest m the vicinity of Caestre 
(.n .Vumist '-'-Mil. aftir (' eompanv had rejoined tlic 
h;«t talion. 

rii( work id tile Kieveiith diirin.i.' the (ail\ oa\s of 
111.' Vprts hattU' was soinewlnit simihir to that of tlie 
d'wt iity-Secon I. (' i-onipan\ he;;an work in tlie Ypr»s 
area on .Inlv •-'Ist. wluii a dart was made on railway 
coiistrnetioii. On .lidy Jll-t the reniaimler id tlie l-at- 
talion came np hv lij.dit railway to the Vst r canal at a 
point about a mile north of Yjires. They W( re to push 
forward roads towanls the battle front, winch, as a 
r<-s\dt of the dav's advance, was now well be\ond 
the I'llckem ridL'c and within l.iMHi yards (d Lanj;<'- 
inai.k. \'>\\ heaw rain di!i\' I llu' work and the 


The Third Battle ol Vprcs 

three stayc-1 out all n,,l.t hav.nj: rernvrd 

l.,l,.k..n. r..l,.' was seatvlud contiimnusly '>/ .^' [" j 
..HUHT., Init HMl t.ll -J i>.M. «'.> Aui-ust 1st .1.. . 

„ th.''. -vrrvon.' luui^' vny w.t an.i lir.. 
,t ;■->". -.V iuHl just ..onM.l.t.-.l 10(. yards o 
l.uht la.hvay trark-l.oavy work undrr p-rsi^tnu 

'^'^Tl'r;.vkr.,n,n.u.d.:!lAu^ UluulunA H and 
,,..::,,,„..slKulaaav^>p_.M.t f.^ u. 
, , ,,;, „ „,;rrhu.- nuUs .iaily t. au.l from 
'r ..sks at wh.;!. th.v sp-nt s>x lumrs. ( .'ompauv 
; . rMl \v>th tin. l.,-ht raUway. Tlu- •....!. D.v.sH.n 
..ok ..v.r tlK- front of the .Uh and tvv,, .•o.npani.s o 
,h, Kl. v.nth wrr. ahU- to ^-o .lu-outs ui tl,. . an. I 
'„k varat..) hv ti>r Wrlsh piourcrs, Nvork Wujo ron- 
;;;;:.;ith.. roads, .ra..ks.UHlra.hvayswm 

,_,..,,,,, ,,,f.„., ,1,, n.xt atlark upon >- "»' j J^^ , 

;,nd a f<w incu hviun wounded. , ,, ■ , i- 

\ , r. ^.M. on August l.'.th th. -Oth D.v.sion took 
,„rt n.'tlu. mw advan..- and I^^";;;;;"-;;^ 
\ H and I) ••onipanirs r.n.anH-.i at th. (anal lank 
in,! ■-. o-.lo,.k. uh.n th,y ^v.•nt furwan to ,naU a 
u , for wlH.Ud trailir a.Toss th. Pdrk.n. nd,. . 



a-raui and H and coin- 
Karm on thr roail to 
■ M.'d and '-Mid la.nt. 

uiVthr follo^vin^' day of strenuous wcjrk 
^„,U,, iH.nv fir., tin. KUv.nth had Capt^ J. laylor 
ZLdrA and :U othrr rasualt >.;s. On Au,n,st Ihth 
thf Welsh !)ionc( rs cam.- 
pan'u's moved to 1/eip/ii 
Klverdinjzlu . Tins ramp wa. she 
(iardner wound-d. C .ompany were left '''""'* 

n„n...e work on the raUway, hut .he rest of 

,,„„,„„„ ,..ft Klverdm.he »>v train on An.-M 1^ 

,„,i went haek t.. the v.euuty of Proven. Fo, n nrly 

w.<.k the three eompa.nes .lid not tourh spa. e or 

^u'k Dr.U was th.. or.ler of the day, thou-rh a lar.e 

Wan-, raft .hta.'hment ..f L.'wis K"ns ha. to he 

n hed The .n.! of the .nonth saw all the men 

;M, .l.Hu. plat.n.n trau.u.,', wlule the n.struetmn 

,.f sp.riahsts was also earrie.l .m. C eon.panv wer. 



'liu' I )iirh;in'i I'orccs in the I-~icld 

still ill work <tii till' raiiu.iv uitii \.i\ (iccmmi'Ii.)! (I;i\s 
iif rist . 

Dmiiii; the tii-'^t week III .Sipttpil.r p;uti<'. ut re 
providid for work on tin' I'lhkt iii r.iii'l. tiT t!i. ]{.K. 
(lumps aiul for lnnyiiiL' tahlr-. 

Tlif Klc\<iilli took over Inuii tin Wi Kli pioii'Trs 
;iu;ijii ,it \\\i (!ii>,'-onts nil the (Mii;il tiatik I'll Sr|>- 
triiilii'r '.till, -.'nil i>icut. 1'. Atl;i> with si\ I,< uis ^.'ui:-- 
jjoiiifl forward at once for aiit i-airciafl work. '1 lie 
•_'Olli Division wen- now rtliivui^' tii<- .'>>tii ami tla 
three ediiipanies (1( A'otcd a (lay to iniproN iiiLT their nwii 
accotntnodalion. On ^. |.t, miii r fjth ( euiniiany 
moved l)ack to i<^l alter their v.nrk on I he railway. 
Next day iiearh all tin- im n axailal-le were liii-\ 
carrying; material to tiie forward ihinips m pniiaialmn 
for the ne.\l attack. 'I'lns \\.<vk. toLiether witli the 
wiring' of a trcnc'ii in the hnwaKi ana mar Sehn ihooin. 
Went forward until IIk day i.f fla- adsjnee, 
Seplemliir "JOth. 

On tiu' eve of the attack I lie wcatlur, which had 
heeii fair since the fiej^iiminj.' oi iIk Hiuiith. turmil tn 
ram. The Hlcvcnlli sii|)plied a detaeiiimnt oi '.(t m- ri 
and six Lewis <,'ims, under "-'iid i.ieii!. Atlay. In take 
o\cr all anti-aircraft work furuaid d lie, nld front line 
wilt n fill division iiad ei[.l!!tid Iheii ohjeetiNes. In 
• he evening' A com|)an\ came up N, the m \v Ironl and. 
Iiy workin.u all uijrhf, eompleled hmr stroiu: points 
south-east (if the Sl.aden railway, tiiei.hy iiiakiu^' the 
left Hank secure. 1) e<i!iipiii\ \Mr( hd astray h\ their 
;:ui(l( s and oniv arrived ui time lo eoni()|ete one strom: 

point. More ni<,'hl work Inllnwcd. all the eomiMllles 

i.einj: enLraL'cd upon the repair "I the I'laiK hadinj,' 
forward to^'cmai ek. H<ie the tanks dilailed to 
clear a trench still Ih id l>\ tin en. my In eaiiie hdu^cd 
.and ,dl efforts to di;,' them ( ut tailed. The whole ana 
was hea\il> shelled day and hii,'ht and Ma- einund 
forward of the Pileki in riil;,'e was walerloi.'ii<(l. ruder 
these dltticultles ttie rioueers persevered Ulltll, at 'J A.M. 
on Septcmhcr 'JUli. a storm of t;as-shi IK luade work 
impossiMc. On the followmsj nii,'ht the l'Je\entii uere 
wanli'd for di<_"rin.i: and wirimr m the front line aiicl 
this eontiiiutd till relief of the division on Septeni- 

The Third Hattk- of '^'prcs 

li. r •_'> 

li. A <li!ckl><iar(i t!;iik IH'Iii I,;iii<.'tiiiarck \>> 'In 

lim- \va> ;UM> ciiiiiilrtnl. in '-| 

it- ,.f tile til 


TllC <'II(1 of tllc IllciUtll l>roUl,'!lt tu ;i cln^r tllr tnlir of 

Elfvt'Uth ill tills jKivl of till- I'lnnt. DurniL' >'p- 

tril tM ill) . ml 

i\ici- if till' wnrkiii',' 


ti iiiIht casTiiiltus in tin- r:iii' ainmiii 



i.i\ f l>t in rdnsiiirralil 

parties liml imt l.tiii iiaiullitl with such skill ai 


(apt. \V. (.. i. 

Star, wliu s.) siicct sstniK 

(livcrtrd A (cinipaii\- in tlir coii-.t rnct nni «>[ tin- s 


points (11 
ni'MitK' task 

[itrniliiT •-'iitli and in thiir snliscfpicnt 

s, was awaiil' il 






iiinlcd ijiirini: the niont !i iiidiK 

led -.'lid I,l(llts. \'. K 

T(»vIsoii. i;. Flfininj:. .J. H. Branch and H. Morti 


\i (;r.> 1 1 • » N> 'N I'.MB' i<- 1'"" 

•r„, T.iitl. u. n- al Mui,! Vi.1;.i^m- lill .\ii::,:^t (Uh. 
riicii tli.v niarciuHl iii ha'i w.allu r lo lull.t- 
Carstr.'. wli. > ■ ••mopping' iii> "" pia. ticf was a ftatuiv 
of the traniii.j,'. Kvrntually liir l.attahoii naciif.l 
Dickcl.iiscli ati.l moved up t . Zilichrkr Huh.i .>ii 
AiiirM>t •-'•■111 "11 Mirir way t<> I'att'.r. 

Coiniii},' 'iowii from Uir line tlic Tuith sp< lit a few 
.lavs at Drvoiishirv (.tiini.. whin- tiralts w, r. r.cnv. .1 
hrfoiv the .l.parturt' <.f ttu' hatlaliun to the 1^ rth.n 
tnuHin«,' ami at tlu> cn.l ..f An-n,t. Tli.' w.atlu r was 
v.TV wrt. A m-w l>ni.'a<li.r paui a LH'at c.mplmit lit 
t„ ih<- Tnitli at tliis time. Hi' saul th.y '• show,-,! a 
marked siipcrioritv over the rcmaiiMi.T of tiu- hri<,'adr 
.M-..UI) as n;.'anls iiiarclim;.'. march di^-U'l" - t'.iicrally 
and i(]uipmi nt." 

Tlic liattalion spent iimst of S. i.tiiidur trainuii,' at places near H.ull( Jil. On tiie -JOtli \Wy wcid 
info tn-ttclies on the !..v. -mund east nf Mcssuies. near 
(;apaard, wlicre hostile shell tire mver eease<l an<i the 
cncmv aircraft were very hold. On Septemhi r •.".•t!i 
tlie Durliams withdrew to Korle|'yi). south of Neuvc 
K.'lise, haviu" sustained -10 casualties inchnltm: '.'nd 
Li^eut.P. Hraidf..r<l, M.f., killed. Trainiiit.' and work- 
in" parties kept thetn hnsv until Oetoh.T (5lh. Then. 
nft^er a few days near Westoutre ai'.d hi (lytte. the 
Tenth returned "to ihe hattU-lield of Ypres. 

Th. rwelfth moved to Serques on August Tth and 
fo'.:n.l that traininsi facilities were not so pood th, re. 
H.h.ars-ds for the attack continued till Aumist 'J.-.tli. 
wluii the battalion came u]> to Cornwall Camp, near 
Ond.rdoin. (^'i Amnist -J'.tth the O.C.. :?rd Canadian 


Trench Warfare. Ali^. Nov., 1917 

L'iisualt\ C iianiii^ Matioii, •~< lit the I'ollou ;iij,' imssii;;f : 
wish to liriii^' to your attintioii llic ^'allaiit cotKimt 
of IMr. C. Wooiluaiii Ml j,MViiij,' iilood to a |)ali(iit in 
tills hospital oil .Jul> I'.'. I'.tlT."' 

\o\v the liattalioii iiiM\((| ii|i to huts im ai' Duki- 
liiisih. \'.hiii(r thr liattic line \\as r>'iomioii ird ami a 
\isil was paiil to iiiodil tniKii's. Hut on Stpttiiilicr .'ith 
till- 'rucllth Wire liack at Nooidpt i uc. wis! of tassel. 

riaimiij,' luTf CMiniJrisrci an attaik on a strong' 
point, liniiii,' lip oil tapis and lms drill. Tlie iiio\r 
towards thr linr coniiiu iin d on .Scjitt inln-r IKli 
and on thf ni^'lit of llir IMh A and H coinpanits 

iirivtd III the vu'iiiit\ of Olistrvatorv l{idj,H\ cast of 


(In Oct.. Ill I '.'Isl till 'rurifth said jrood-hyr to thr 
lidtl ifj;n)Uiid of \prts. Ni \t day lais. s took th"- 
Kattaiion westward to ^t . Mai t in-aii-I.acrt . Lcyond St. 
(hmr. wliii'f tliiA pnpand fm' the ioiiiiii\ to Italw 
\ru riothllli,' uas tittrd. drafts of XolUli: soldiers were 
,tlis(irlied, ami many inspections eiilniiiiated m a visit 
from the (. onini.iiider-in-('liief. who saw tin t'.sth 
I{ri;.'ade on Oetolier ."ilst. Aiiout this tune the award 
of the Military to I.aiiee-Corjil. H. Wilson and 
IMis. 1{. DaL'lish. A. .1. Kdwanis ami .1. .Nnowiial! was 
announced. Hoiite marches, niusketr\' and other 
trainini; kept tlie huriianis husy and al! men unfit for 
liard campai^nini,' weic sent away. On Noxeinlur .">lh 
Major .1. M. I-on;.''!' li succit'ded J.ieiit .-('o|. 'I'yndall 
111 tlic coniniaiid of the hattalion. 

The Thirteeiitli. wlio nio\ed from W i/crnes to 
Mi'ulh' early in Aui,'Ust, I'oiitinued traniiiiL; until tliey 
came forward to camp at Keninj.'hcKt on the "J.'ith, 
After a few days in a mud(l\' camp at Dickehuscii they 
•Milt hack to Noordpccnc. On Scptciniier 11th, Capt. 
( . T. W. Sawerht'ck. M.t'., scrvini; on the staff, was 
killed t)y a slicU. The battalion, now commanded liy 
(apt. D. H. Clarke. M.C. reached Dickeinisch aL'am 
Mt) t!ie Kith and three days later advanced fo |{ai|wiiy 
DiiL'-outs. At nij:ht tlicy occujucd assi nilily positions 
for the attack "h the morrow. 



Tlic Durhnm I-orccs in the ^-ield 

Wlh'ii tlh- Twclfili nH.\r,l liii.'k !•> St. Martiii-au- 

l,;„-|t. thr ■|'!r:rl'TI;!ll tnnk ll|i tli-ir .••■TltTS III ill.- 

udjiicciil \i!l;ii.'c . t 'r.itni^liciu :iiiil ;iK'> iircpariii for 
the jduriK \- 111 •■..!! luikmiwii dcst matioii." 

T!ir Fourt. M:tli tr;ii!H'<i iM faucouvt until Au-,'ust 
•:-.'ri(l, nh'Vin^ Canadian lr.».ps in siippurt in the 
I.dos scclnr on tilt fMlloNvnr; ('vcnin<:. Alu^nt a wci'k 
l.rfoiv tlif CuldHial^ had taki ii lii-.t(>ric llill Tit 
and tlir Durlianis mxui iMiind ll;. tiisrlv.s in tlu- new 
fmnt liiir winch (■unsi^t^■d of a chain of slicll-li'.ics ex- 
posed to a continuous hoiiiiiardnicnt . i^os^^i's dunnf,' 
this tour aniouiiNd to •_'nd Lieut. H. V. W and and U 
killed and H! \voun(le(l. Work on the defmees and a 
Week of trMnin-: in diM'-ional n serve a! Nocux-les- 
Mines ii,ter\ened In loic till- I'ourl cent ii came up a;.'ain. 
Tlie Hntisli line was now in hettei sliape ;ind. tliouHJi 
the (icrniaiis wire as a;,'iiressive as i\er. the Durhanis 
had oiiK' T casualt les. 

On the niL'lit of S. ptenitH r -Jlst a new front was 
taktn ovi r. west of the l,ens-la Hassi'c road. Here 
two unsuccessful enemy attempts were made to rush an 
advanced |)ost. known as the Hnckstacks. wlmh was 
held tiv (' coni|paii\-. 

AltlioUf:h was no ri st l.\ day or niLdit from 
shell. Innc!! nioitar and maehii'e-;,'Uii tire, the [''our- 
♦(ciith uired the whole fro, it diuin!; tiiis tour. I.ovs, s 
amounted to .'i kill. I and 10 wounied ami C'.apt. .1. 
I'otts, D.S.O., was eas--ed. 'I'll. 1 itlalion took over 
trenches ajrain on OctoKtr 1st .ind two ni^jlits later H 
coiiipanv rei>ulsed another raid I«y ril'.c, l.oiiilis and 
|,c\\is i;un lire. On the f,,ll,,uniir day a heavy liarni!,'e 
came down aloii;.- the whole hattalion front aii'l three 
I-arties of (icrm.iiis advaiicid. A post of the h ft com- 
pan\- was eompht. ly ricmoh'-lied l.y a liea\y mortar 
sh- 11. e\er\one th( T.' li ill',' killed or wounded, (.ermans 
iiish^.l in liiid secured a pris,,nei-. rctreatiiii' hefon tiiey 
eoiild lie I nL'a^'cd. Casiialtits duriui,' this tour were 
t killed and ."il wounded. Two d.ivs in support followed 
and o!! OciMlur Tth the l''..urteentti wdhdnw to rc'iervf. framiiiL' m iu-'piration for fiirth,'- attacks on 
Lens was mterriipttd \>\ 1 id w. jllirr. ( tn the evt niiij: 


Trench Warfare. Au^.— No\ .. 1^17 

ni () 


ciuht r 

a tiiavv 
•I ati.l 

I'.tth. wlicii till' Durhams were iii tin- line 
arra"c of mortar sliills, atrial (lart'<. 

lii;rli t\\ 


caused inauv casiianios 

..ikI prt'Cfilrd an i r,t iity attack upon a jMist. The 
li(riiians were licatcii off l>y Lewis jjuu and ritlc lire 
a!!>l ii\ the prornptnes'; of tlie Humiers in rcsponiliiij,' 
to the S.O.S. sii'tial. One conipany t s( ajx^i heavy loss 

l<v uoini,' forward from the r trenchts 

front, hut, cvt-n so, Lieu 

L. ( 

lodwm am 

to shell-liolcs in 
1 -.'nd Lieut. 

.f. W 

I oim<_' wcr<' woi 

Hided am! :\ neii killed and 

•md' d hefore relief on Oetol-er 'Jlltl 

■|"iie hall; 

hon had now seen 

the last of tlic Len- 

I ?■• Mchl s. 


( a ell nil,' 


it XoellX-l 


ines on 

Oetoh-r '.Mst. ti 

lev Well 

t northwards hv lai! to Fontcs. 


■|'r liniiii,' was done here and afterwards at Air' .uies. 
re attack practice with tiMiks over a tla<,'i,'cd coursi' 
d the Iraiiiini; of [;aek transport still left time for 
foothall ami cross-country runs. On Novemlicr l.'ith 
Ihe I-'ourteenth marched to I'reveid and entrained for 
I'cronne. liilKts wire at llaut .\!lain< s. where the 
transport lejouied the haltalion, and a further move 
was made at once \o Eiiuanconrt which was not 
naehed till t -.M. on 

)cin<' so ciiri'Ms 

]*CoV( riilier 17th owin_' to the roads 

ted with th" tralhc of troops, tanks and 

iiess and s< cree\- lo deliver 


i;uiis now ino\in!,' in darki 

the Mow ui)on the (.'anihrai froi 


,">.;i(» r.M. on 

the 17th the I'ourleeiiMi 

■ft for Fins and we!it inlt) 

nts at Hois Dessart. iioitli-e 

.f tl 

le xilla'.'e 

Will II the Fifleeiith came into trenches ai.'ain on 
.Xuir'ist 1st the line had heeii read)iisfcd ai'<i the 
huttalioii now held t!ie fniiehes south of the .seiisee 
river on tlie extreme left of the di\isional front. The 
wcatli«T was wet. .Vlioiit lialf an hour before •' stand 
to** on the moriiiii'; of Aiu-usl .'ird the enemy put 
down a harra;.'!' and Idew up a concrete lilockhoiisi-, 
ilestrovintr the ;:mi tin re and drivmj» out the 
I'arrison. AhoUt inu (iermaiis made for Uie evacuated 
trnifli lait wtr< ilriMii off hy Lewis i/iiii aid rille lire 
from tin riL'ht, whilst '.'nd Lieut. H. S. Smylli-riL'otl - 

who was afterwards awiii 


Mil. I 

II rv 






■ f 1 

lom'i' rs alio reoc(ai]tie( 

I th> 

11 j 

The Durham Forces in the Field 

sin. lit: , At •_' I'.M. oil th.- ^;iinr -lay •-'ii.l Li.ut. T. 
I,.,W(rv and :i uMirr-, w. nt (.ut ii.l hv^M; to cut thr 
(.. riiKui wire. T'lH V wcic lircl on and the othcrr aiui 
a s.i-.'.ant wnr th- fonn.-r afttTWi-nls l.nnt; 
kill.(i'l.v a l.uin!.. y\.>- !:• xt l-'"r <.f th.' Kiftr.rith %va-> 
,,n thr rstivni.- n-lil ni th. diMsiuna! Ihh'. I|..I•t!l-^^cst 
of Huil.ccurt. an. I thm Ihr Lattahmi witlidnw tu the 
rest an, I. n achiii:,' ^lumcdurt lulnnd th.- Arras- 
I)..nlhns n>ad <>ii An^'usi -J.^th. 

N..U cam.' a nniv.- n.-rlhuanls t.. |.aiii«'ijiatf in tii.' 
strut:!.''. ■ at Vpv.s. (>!i S.jtt. Kltli th.' l.a'tah.m 
rntram.'.l at \nl.i-nv h.r Cass-l an-l .A.iitnally 
na.lwd lulLts :il St. S\ 1\ , st n -t upp'! . H- c- ami at 
'Mm u^lionck. n.-'f Ca.stiv. practi.f f.T tin- atta.'k was 
.■ .n <lrv. h.^t w.atlM-r. On S.'pl.rntMT -.'.stli 
the l-'ift.'. iiti) iiiairh.ii m liLditiPL' .>rd«r t<. a fanip on 
111.- !{. nin.ih.lstda ( lytif n.a.l. aii.l sp.ut th.' hist t\v.. 
,|a\. ,,f Ih. riMMilh in sdidyin!: a r.'li.f ni.xl.l of thf 
uh'i.itn.s lo I" tak.ii in tla' .'.nuin'j op.'i'at i..ns. On 
(),''t..!.i'V 1st 111.' I'lfl-.'iitli in.A.-il t.i Hi.Il'.' \\'...h1. 

Arrived in Scottish ^^'ood on \o\iinli.r r.tli the 
Kift..nth soon ni..vcd to D.iniinion Caiiip at i )ndenloiii 
and SIX da\s lat.r start. d ..n tli. soiitnwards. 
On NoveiMii.r •-".'n.l Hra\ . n. ar Mont SI. K!oy. vas 
i.a.'h. <i. I'Mt after a \v.i'k"s trainini; lur.' th.' .loiirney 
was c,!ntinii..l hy rail fn in .\.ul.i':nN . liuinours of a 
II ..\.' lo Ita!\- had proM'd nnfoiiiidcd. 

In iiTM.'lus M.ric.ant at tli.' lu'L'inniinr "f 
AiiL'.t'^t III.' Knjhtecitth lia.l a .|ni.'t . iieiny opp.)<itc 
thiiii. so mucii necissarv work c.nihl l..' .loiic. Patmls 
wire activi' anion.: the loin: I'ra'^s ami shcll-lioh's of 
•• No Man's Land." as a (•erinaii withilrawal was 
ant icipat. li. 

.\fter t.ii .lays a! W innil>''!: Caiitp. Mont St. Kloy, 
th.' Fa'dit. I iitli ma. if a. .juamtaiii'e witli tlic .\i hevillc .>i til. fn. :,t. On An.'nst -'<>' 1 "tl men wi-n' 
siip|.li..l I.' assst III til. inst illation ..f the projcetors 
f,,,- a L"' .t .iiscti'iru'c .if ..:as on tlii> (i. riiiairs m Kresnox- 
ami .\.'h. \ille. I', taliatioii. apart fr..iii "n ratlur L'ood 
display of tin 'w.'rk'-,"' wjts frei.l.-. Th. Diiriiains n>'\t 

Trcrich Warfare. Ali^. No\.. 1*>17 

iidsscd (ivrr ami (pci-upud thr ti. ;;rl,. -. lurtlicr iHiitli 
at MiTiiH.urt a;,'aiii. On An^'ust ;i(itli. wluii [\w cuiiiiv 
attrinpti'd to raid Uu- W.^t VurkNlilr( >. tin- Eiiilittt nth 
Inst -Jnd Lhiil. Kiith. killed, ami ;« i.i< n wounded. 

Oil Septeiiiher Hh a (.eriiaii aeroplane was liroiiL-ht 
d.iun just l.eliind the I?ntis!i line. The occupants were 
killed and C'.-S.-M. Currev was wounded while in 
, Larue of tiie hiirvini,' part\. .\t inidni^'ht Ih' t iiemy 
d-liiLred the \iniy ai<'a with iut:li exjilosive. slirai)nel 
an<l mustard yas. The usual precautions protected tin- 
Kii.'htcentli from hea\y casualties, thou-ih a hit 
lUMin a Lewis nun post afterwards eoinpelled the 
ivacuation of s men suHeriii),' from t,'as poisoiiini;. the 
ili.cts of whi; h were not felt till the follow ill},' after- 
noon. A rom|iany tii th. Ith Canadian Mounted Hitles, 
whose dui,'-outs iiad no proper protection, were prac- 
tically all cisuiilties. The shcllini: continued inter- 
mittently all day on SepteinlKr ,".tli and in the evening' 
the Ull C'.M.H. relieved the Kl;,'ilt eentll who passed 
into divisional rcs(r\f at liray. A comprehensive 
training; scheme was carried out and after an U.A.F. 
lecture several ollieers and nun w. re taken for a lli<,'ht, 
uhicli is recorded as hein^' " vcr\- interesting', useful 
iiid enjoyaf)lo."' 

The Ei<,'hteenth relie\cd tlu' l.'Sth East Vorks in 
-upport m the Arleu\ sretor on .Scpti m!)er I'.Hh. The 
m.iiith ended witli a tour m the fioid line and during: 
tliese d;iys liic (.>rman tiench mo^t.•^^■^ and low-llyiiii,' 
:iei('planes eaii'ed niiieh annoyanc<-. Helieved on 
ttctolier 1st the Ei-htcenth Withdrew to !•;< urie. lielimd 
HMclmcourt, lar^x' woikiii;: parties In ini; in demand for 
the elalnirati' defiiisiw wdiks in process of crc.itioii. 
When in support ai,'ain ui the Aririix sector 
\Vil!er\al. there came a hurrn'ane liomliardincnt of 
uas and hi;.'li explosuc oil the ■ arl\' moriiiii},' of 
Oitoliir Itilli, hut losses wt-re li>;ht. * fter anothir 
lour in till front line durin:,' which artillery acti\ity 
continued, the Ei<,'lit( c!il h wi 'c relieved on ()(to- 
li'T '2M\\ and went hy tram to Eeoivres. near Mont St. 
K!o\ . The wi'ather was vt i \ IkkI. l>ut miieji nst ful 
traiiuni; ""*' <ione here. 

On Novetnher 0th the En,'htecnth took o\er a 


I'iu- Dull, am I ovcc^ iti ibc I'ifld 

ix.rlion (li liu- ••U.d' Lui. ii.ur A.ltux. '1 Ins \va> 
the sujiport pusitiDii ami lai-;:<- i)artif.s wnr hu^y on 
thr (li'ts. Till ilivisioM ha'l now taken u\.r lli<- 
whole Corps fiont and ula :i llie front line was uecu- 
pu(i tiie hattiilu.n had to .ait and hold a liiu- of 
posts, the nit. rviiMii.-: tniiehes hein;,' filled with v ire 
and left t.) i h<- siir\ey of pair.. Is l.y ni^dit. After a turn 
in sn|)l).,rt the KiL-hii eiit li eani: ii]' a-isni hefor.- the 
. tid of the month. 'I'h.' return ol the divisional pnnieers. 
who for nearly six rnoiiths liu.l lieeii detaineil rail- 
\sa\ w.,rk near Vpus. now relie\-ed I'ne infaniry .>! 
some of the ar.iu.iiis w.ik which had fallen iip.>n thein. 

On Aiiyust Nt the Nineteenth niov. .1 to cellars and 
t.-nt-. at Lenunre and l{onsso>-. r.serx. p.)sitions in th> 
IVirdca^/c s.ctor soutli-west .d Kp.h\. U. re th.' 
divi^i.tiial lin.'. s.UOO yards in leiit,'th. laced the llindeii- 
l.urj,' I.ini' lint Ih.' enemy lul.i va-i'.us forwar.l positions 
on coiumaiiiliiii,' ^'roimd wliio. lover.d his main 
defeiisiNc sysiini. On. of thes. was on tlu- simr con- 
taining the ruins of (dUeinont I'arm. th.- British and 
(;.rman hues hem:,' close t,^i:etlur on th.- Hat top of the 


Tlie Xiiieleenth hail an nncveiit fill t.air .'11 the left 
of the hn.' an. I came int.i the trenches alt.r tlie 
ISth II. I,. I. ha.l eapiured the ruins of the farm, 
{i.rniaii ^hell tire was h> av\ lait the tour |iass.Ml 
without incident of importance, the H.L.I. takm;,' over 
on An:,riisl -JMh. Leaving.' W company to hold fat 
I'.ist. fnrlh. r to tin- si.nth, Ih.' Ninet.erdh ntirc.l t . 
c. liars in Lempne. Next morniiiL' came the nev 
that the (.erinans had coiintcr-attack.d in the small 
hours, recaptured the farm and sciired a footini; 
ni the Hritish front line at the salient call, li lUuiit 
Nos. . 

Two ho.vil/er batteries honiiiarde.l the position-. 
:dl .lay and in tlic eveinn^' tl'" Xiiieteenth advanc.d 
to turn the enemy oul. The three c.impanus all weak 
m numhiis went straiL'ht across country and f.irmcd 
up f.>r the fissauit m th.' c.immumeat ion trenches, 
wh. r. a Stokes shell fell hy nrcident auioiij,' X com- 
pany. Kv(r\.>ne ^ot clear before it (\i<l(.drd. The 


Trencli Warfare. Aii^.— No\., 1^M7 


(jdil tliiit wlun tlif attack 
\ tiir Duihunis wtTf upiiu tin- Cennaiis 

(TV liairafri' was so ;; 


was latiiuiu'c 

l.( ft)n- thf latter had iiiRTfjcd fn<iu ( 

All. UilU' tin- 

from the west siiif i>f the rums caiist'd sonif casualties 

and siillic of the .J;i;:crs fc)Ui,'ht dcs- 



jii r.ilcly at Hliiiit Xosc wht 


(! of tluni wcrt killed 

it 111 ten inmn 


. For 


liattidiou since i 

tcs til.' Hritisii line was estal)lishe(i. 

neludiiij,' t'apt. 

i Ixtii with 

t. (i. W. 

I n 

[1(1 ,")() casilaltus. 

Ill excellent otlicer 


ts f. 

riiiat loll. 

lo lia< 


1 Lien 

Hi irv was also anion'' the fal 

( hir hea\ \' inaehine 

if anununiiioi: were reeoverec 

ill was captured and two Lewis ^;iins, three 
Min-^ and a (]uantity 

Iroiii the eneni\ 

The (ii'rnians now put down a 

liarratre and attaeke<l 

111 afterwards with lu.inhs from their trenches on 






re rei'ulsed and when, 


s.;i() P.M., the\ a|)proaehed over the ground from tin 

iith-east tire was (,ps iied and they ilispersei 


Nineteenth rei!iaine( 

1 in the trenelies all ni;,'lit with the 

ILL. I. and were relieved next inornint:. 

Hefore the end of the inonlli the Durhanis did 


tour III the line and the total losses during 

Aiii,'ust ainoiiiitid to ItMt, ineliidinj,' '-Mu 

I I 


t. (; 

Ihown. wounded on the -JTMi. Septeinlier proved 
uneventful. A week was spent in divisional reserve 
1 the liattalioii did two tours in tla' liirdeay seeti^r, the (;ernians on the crest of the rid^e c nuiiMnded 
a stu.all Hritisii work on the reverse slojie. Drafts 
rjO <'o(.d nun f.-oiii the Twenty- 


received meluiled 


1. K 

irlv 111 

()( toiler the M.'th Division handed 

the line pnparatory to L'oinK northward into the 
\'pres battle. 

The Nineti'cnth h ft I'eronne l>y tram for Arras on 
()( lolur tith ami spent a wet k at Mont< iie court. Here 

draft of 'JKI men a 

rrived from the Kleventh. On 

()-ti,lier nth the lialtalion eiitraiiu'd at Auliijjny for 


■ i|Ul 


H('(i and nachi 

d 1' 

ro\ til 

two da\-. later. 

1 coniiii!' oi 

It .:f lull tie oil Sejit-nihcr '-'.Mrd the 

\\elitl<th Welt des 


d f. 

naiiy luw experiences. 

Thev moved in huses to Teteyhein. near Dniikenjue 




The Durham I'orccs in the ImcIcI 

OH the Kitli, ami next day rclnvni Hk 'J Ttli Lan- 
cashire IumIkts in tlif vicunty of Zuydcuotc. The -tlsl 
Division well' how nlicvm^' the f-'ml m tlie Nieuport 
Hams sector iA the Helyian Front and the Wearsiders 
were mtroihieid to sand dunes, sea l)atliin;,' and 
battalion (hill on the sea shore. The weather was wet 
wlieii the liattalion went into the line on Oetolnr tjth 
for a tour duriiit,' which hostile sh( II lire was con- 
tiiiiioiis lint casualties were few. I.ati r i'. the month 
came training' at liray Dunes and on No\ein!)er Itli 
the Twentieth returned to tlie Tetetrhein area. 
Preparations now conmu need for a lon^' jouiiu'V to 
another front. 

The award of the Dist m^'uisheil t'ondiict Medal to 
.Seri^'t . T. IJohmson should now he recorded. As trans- 
port seri.'eaiit he had done excellent service in l)rinf.'iii<,' 
up rations under luavy lire duriUf,' the li^htiiif,' east 
of Vpres. On many occasions his cool judgment had 
saveij casualties to his nun and animals. 

On Au;,Mist •_'(ith the Twt nty-Second moved up to 
Nieppe, an. I three (la\s later ,\ and C companies coin- 
meiiecd repairing two rommunication trenches leadin<^ 
to tile front line south of Warneton and west of the 
river Lys. 'I'liis work was taken over from the New 
Zealand pioneers. There had heeii two advances m 
this sector since June tlth and although little jjround 
had lieeii gained there was much work to do. D com- 
pany were employed on tramways forward of Ploei;- 
stetrt wood, and H company repaired roaiis. In dry 
Weather, and with little int«rf<'rence liy the enemy, 
t,'reat [iro^^ress was made althoncrh drainajie operations 
had to await the arri\al of thij.'li mim hoots, '.'nd Lieut. 
11. S. l?ruce was woumled on Septi mher I'Jtli and on 
till' followiiitr day four (Jerman .leroijlanes dropped 
hoinlis on Niep))e and caused many c.isualties to liotli 
troo|)s and civilians. •Jnd Lieuts. .1. Williams and 
P. T. Marston w( if wounded, the latter d\ iiit,' Ihe same 
t veiiniL'. A draft of '.MO nun from the U.K. wm^ rc- 
<eivfd i,\\ Septf'mher "Jl'-t au'l hroui,'hf the battalion 
slreimdli up to oxer 1,'.'(M). but the Twenty-Second had 
to s!||)ply reinfori'emeiits to the uifaiifrx : a draft nf 


rrciich U'arfarc, Auu,. Nov.. 1917 

rjo iiiin was (iiNpatchfd t.i the Niiit trtnth ami '.tO 
uiiit to join tin- T'ourttcntli. 

I'Atiy tlfort was luiw made to ^'ft t!u- forward coin- 
luuiiu'atioii trt'iu'lus tiuishcd hcfon' tlic wuittT st-t in. 
infantry parties U'lulini,' tlifir assistance. Six Lewis 
i:uiis were p/iaccd in position liy the Twi-nty-Set'ond to 
(ii[)c witii tiif .iKiny aircraft, now a source of {jreat 
iiunoyance. Rain came on October Ktli and untinislied 
trenches suffered aeeordinjzly. Later in the rnontli. 
although tlie t>nuny artillery hecanie niueli more acti\<'. 
1 duckhoard track was coniphted from tlie Phieysteert- 
M. ssines road aU)n<,' the valley of the Douve river and 
other such tracks were put in hand. Advantage was 
taken of the Novemher early morninj,' mists to work 
(ill the support line. On Novemher l.'Uh the Twenty- 
Second iianded over to the jjioneers of the :Jrd .\us- 
tralian Division, and went liack to rest in the IJailleul 
area. Ftnir days later th<' hattalion coniinenced to move 
tiiwards Vpres, arrivinji there on Xovemlier litth. 
Headquarters and two companies inhahited cellars 
i:ndcr the station, whih- two companies went further 
forward to sandl)a<;tred shelters at St. Jean. Till the 
end of the month lialf the battalion worked in two 
double diickboard tracks, about 2(M) yards apart, run- 
ninir north-east towards Passehcndaelc ; another com- 
pany was ( iiiployed on a cor luroy road runnin^r forward 
liv (iravenstafc! from Kansas C'njss IJoads which 
lay about a mile east of Fortuin. In spite of 
heavy shell (ire and the awful condition of the 
^.Tound tJof)d pro^'rcss was macfe and the Lewis f,'uns 
did effective work in keeping; tlie laruian aero])lanes •' 
a distance. 




Tiili iiATlLli Ol CAMliKAI, 1917 

F()i,i.()\viN(; the third halllo of VptN s caiiu' liic }if,'liliiiy 
licfoic l'uinl)riii uiiitii (■(iimnciK'tii \sitli a siuu'tssful 
■ attack cii N'ovciiihtr •JOlh. In this triumph 
<if Ihr tanks llif Kh-viiith and thi- i-'oiirtfcntli cacli 
phiy< (i a part and tach battalion wtTf inxolvid in 
the suls((iiui)t (Jfnnan coiinltr-attack and thi- liittt-r 
tijLihtnif: liy which a serious disaster was eventually 
aNcrted. On the opening,' day of battle the 'JOth were 
on the itninediale ri;,'ht of the tith IJivision and the 
expiriencis ol the Eleventh will therefore be recorded 

I'lie •jnth DiNision came soutti from Vpns iiy trani 
to Hapauine at the be^'innin;: of October, and on arri\al 
the Klevenih inarched south-eastward to H;'.rastre. On 
the (ith of the month they took over the pioneer cunip 
of th<- loth Division who were relieved in the line l)y 
the '.'(Ith south-east of Viilers-Plouicl!. There was 
pleiiiy of work to do on trainv.ays and communication 
trenches. l)ut the Eleventh now had to sciul ■_'(>() <,'otMl 
men to the infantry, the ranks bein^' nplenished by 
otlurs of lower medical category who were yet deemed 
li; for ilie arduous work of a pioneer battalion. 

Xovcmtier was devoted to n pair of the roads for- 
ward from Ciouzeaucourt in pref)aration for the attack. 
Sixty tanks were allotted to the d vision ami it was 
essential that there slioiild be uood j.'oin^' for these 
monsters when the advance bcfjan. On<' cotnpaiiy 
sf)ent scAcral days in the construction of a model of 
the country omt which the di\ ision were to nio\e 
and this model [)la\-ed an inifiortant part in the pre- 
liminary trainin;,' of the infantry. On November I'.ttli 
all ])re|)arations entrusted to the El(\en*h were com- 
plete. Three days ])rior to the (itfeiisive Eewis tuns 
of the battalion had been placed in position at Fins, 

•J IS 

The Baltic of Cambrai. i"i7 

llnulicourf and otlur places iRhind Ihr Im-' to assist 
m prcvt-ntiii},' the apiMuacli of i luiny ai roplaius. 

A ami H coinpaiiits wnv called upon tx'forc tht- 
/. ro hour on Novtiiilur 'JOth. i lu' roa.l from ViIUts- 
riouich to Marcoiiiji crossid tiu' rompk'tc HuuKiibur-,' 
,1. Uiisivr svstcin and. althou;,'h tlic leading' tanks 
I :;iru(l faj/yots of l.rusliwood to l.ridi,"- tin- titiu'hcs. 
I litre was {^rcat nciil for pion- ir assistance to make 
he ^'roiind ixissilil' for e,.\.ilry ;ind •.'ims. These two 
1 uMipanies were a! work as soon as \\.r tanks and in- 
fantry were thr(ai>,'h the is. im Hindenlmrj,' lane. At 
ti.K) A.M. the rest of the luittalion came uj). ( and 1) 
eompatues (•<)nimencin<,' ccmmunieation treneius for- 
v.anl to the hamlet of la Xaetiiierie. now in the hands 
ol the division. 'Jnd Lien!. 1). KUwood, with <i«,'lit 
i.iwis ;,'uns, tiid anti-aireraft duty at various jjoints 
ni the "eaijtiired Hindenhiirj,' Line. Jt was a day of 
iianl work and few easualties. hut Lieut. W. W. In^hs 
uas killed and -Jlid Lieut. 1). Mae<:re^'or wounded. 

The -JOth JJivision had made an advaiu e of over 
f.'ur miles, and the amount of pioneer work to he done 
m the ea;)lured area was naturally very larne. Tiie 
Kleventh were fully luiployed up to the fateful morn- 
intr of Xovemher .'{dth, when H and 1) companies 
u<re located in the Hindenhur;.' su[)port line ahout 
nue mile south of Hiheeourt. .\ company were in 
-helters in a railway cuttinjr at \'illers-Plonich and 
the headquarters oftlie l)attalion. with C company, 
n inained at Gouzeaucourt . 

On the ni<,'!:t of Xovemher 'J'Jih B comi)any. under 
(apt. .Ice, went out to work ori a new stronj.' point. 
While thev were returning,' v,\s' wards alon<f the low 
Lffound south of ^hlrcoinJ,' in th« early niornmi,' of the 
;>nlli a heavv hostile harra^ft' nf smoke and hij:h ey- 
[ilosive came down. The jxisition m the Hindenliur;,' 
Mipport line was reached without h.ndr.mec. lait at 
■ f. \.M. came reports of |lriti-.h inf.uitry m retreat. 
I apt. .Fee prepared to resist any enemy advance from 
the direction of Marcomi,' and. tlioUi_'h his dispositions 
Were somewhat modified by the ni'arest tiri<,'adier. B 
Kimpaiiy remain.-d in tliis vicinity all day. Fire was 
opened on advancing' (iorman infantry several times 

•J 19 

t I 




< i 


riic Durham lorccs in the I'ickl 

Mini liAv-tlyiii^' ( 111 iii\ a' .n;)lam- \Mif ( iii,'a^'t il. At 
't.'.U) I'.M.. iiavin;: lost 111 ' .tii and woiiinii il, iiicludiiiL' 
(Jiic olliccr, Capf. .Iif iiin\.(i fiirtlaf to llir ri^'lit and 
joiin-d 1) (Miiipaiiv 111 a tnncli nii Welsh Hidj^'c. I) 
coinpam-. uiidir (apt. I't iiilnrloii. had !» i n hire in 
the iiiDriiini,' (hiniii,' tin- (ifriiiaii lii)iiil)ardiiH'iit until 
straf:t.'lcrs itpurtid that Ihr ninny had hmkcn tliroiij,'h. 

I •'; COU'tCAuCOuBv^^^ 



A httic later ea?iie a call lor reinfoicenunts and I) 
i.iiii)aiiy moved fniward till tnucli was ulttained on 
the rij.'ht with a lialtaliim of the Hille Hri^'adi'. When, 
in the nftmiodii. tin- troops on the left took over more 
<,'ii)und D eoni])any return.ed to their oiijimal |)ositions. 
Capf. Sear. M.t'.. had A ennipany workinjj on the 
Villers-Plouicli-Marfoini; road when the (.erniun attack 
eaine. On rilurnniL' to Vill'-rs-Plouieli the division 

•J 20 

The Battle of C:ambrai. 1^17 

1 case 

..ulcrtd tlic company to BordinT llular ii 
(..rriiMiis approaclifd northward from (.ou/.oanrourt , 
'Ircticlus wi-rc (iiiji on tlic rid^'c luidcr somr sIk " 


luai'hinc-i'nn lire imt oiiiv 


men wtrr mi 


tlyinj: coinpaiuis thus rcsijondod to tl>i' lic- 
■ II vicinitv hnt witli- 

ands of [\\c situation m thi-ir o 
it liicominj.' deeply 


Ived. The heaiiciuarters of 

a! lalion 



company in 

(lou/.eaneonrt were 


vrrer test and played a part in one of the 

s| ixeitini,' e|)ls{ 


A tl 

le wlioie 

hattle. (ion/oiu- 

iiirl was w 

ell heinnd the line ami lilK 


witii tlie trans- 





if was the 


iiarters i 

•J'.itli Division aiK 
hed in the villa 

,f th. 
1 soiiif 't-meh howitzers were estah 

hw l.ullet^ fell l»Ut tliey 

In the early inornini,' a 
V. re thouu'lit to I'e from an enemy aeroplane. A report 
(iiat tiie (rermaii- had 1. token the line was not l.elieved 
sh.lU eamc- over without eausmtr undue 



lint aliout niiH' o'clock the truth was known. 

(.unners and transport men iie^'an to i,'et their liorses 

hot haste and all the troops turned 


waijons away in 





le commaii'lmj,' o 


cer o 

f th 


nth. went with Major 

l,|ovd to a knoll south of 


Fins roid. I hey saw 
d <,'rcy on (^uentin Hid^jc, s< 

hodies o 
luth-west of (ionn* 

f infantry in 


harelv a mi 



s were retinnt.' an 

to the north and south IJritisli 
I the (ierman machine->:un tir< 

Lloyd tiien noticed the tops ()f steel 
lirliiH'ts in the valley." but tliesc pro.-cd to l)e (.erman 



M'lr tile enemv was now at 

ross the railwav and closing 

111 u 

poll (■ouzeaucourt 

To defend the vil!ai;c was im- 

hle and the liowitzers had to be al>andono(l ; hut 

defensive position was oc( 

ipied, first alonur a hank 


,1 a road runninfx southward and thcii at th 

iirown ■" Line 100 yards further hack. This was a 
l>art of the British trench sys 

torn and. tliou^rli not 

properly wircfl. w 

is capa''lc of defence if th 

units con 

Id I 

e orijanized 

laent. Freeman was 


ed anklt 
eM\( riiif.' 

^er"1 . 







this w; 


c var'oiiN 
icin" !io ■■ 


1 sp 


voy was ] 

irommeiit Ui 

the witlidrawal which was accomplished by 


I ime 


enemv < 

iitere<l (iouzeaucotirt . 




Thf Durham l-'orccs in the Field 

(.iliiMM lllfillilry .■i(i\:ili' nl Miy sti;!illl> ill prrfccf 
oriirr iird ;is soon ms llir \illa;;c \v.:s tlifirs tlicy opciiid 

tire iKiIII thr llnllscs. Ildstlli- sluliillL' CfUSffl l)Ut 

iiiarliiiir ^'iin^ li.ii ,is-,((l llic il(lcn(!< rs. p;irticnl;irly from 
tlic ri^'lil Ihmk. In tlu' •" IVimv.ii " Line, whcrt- iii«-n 
fidiii ti\r ilirfmiil (li\i'-i')ii^ !iail i,'at lured. i>r(i<T was 
(•V(>1\((! out (if ciiai's. Smith of tli^ Fins road sapprrs 
luid lllc llrlidl ;'tul M:iior Lloyd. Willi (' coiiipaiiy 
i.f ll'r I'',!(\< riHi liiid^'r I. iit. Hiisiicll. ua-. .!'!■>! iiorfh of 
the ronfl. (ol.iiiil Ila\rs li;i\ !i>j,' j.'onc fintii(r to the 
1. ft io r< ' (.iiiinitrf. 'I'iicrc was little aniniuiiitioii and 
iiiarliiiir-;:ii!is Weir l)adl>' needed, liut Capt. Tollit, 
adiutaiil of tile Kleveiitli. prttvidi lit ially di'-covered a 
staff <ar in lli<- I'lns road. He inotore(i hack and 
returned later v.illi ;;uns and .luuniinition liorrowed 
from tlie tanks. 

'1 hf (i( rniaiis s!io\v<'d caution m api>roacliiii;: the 
'■ Hrown ■■ Line. Their seonts ft 11 hack when fired 
on and the shontmi: o( the ii-rey-elad infantry was 
wild. At this time Major IJoyd saw an artillery am- 
iniinilion e ilumn coiniiiL', all unsus|)ectin}:. up the road 
from Tins. [lis warnin^; shouts si'ut them liack in 
;j;;illopin!.r ret, eat. 

As till niorniiiL,' wore on the Ih'itish line <,'revv 
sfronu'cr. On Ihe ri ilit of the saj.jiers the •_'Oth Ilnssars 
appealed and the foremost tro<iptrs. who uere reek- 
less eiiouidi to jump the ireiH'i). fell from their saddles 
under a hail of (ii rniM: nun hine-eiin lailN Is. Hut dis- 
mounted, anil \vitli tiieir Hotehkiss euns. the liussars 
Were a weleotne reinforeemi'iit . 

It was aliout an hour .ifti r mii!-day that the (iuards 
came tliroui:h to nstore the sit";i1:on. They had no 
artillery to lulp them lai! swei t forward, disdainful 
of niacliine-^un lin . and tinned tlie (Jeiinans out of 
(;ouz''aucourt . The troops to the souiii of the Fms 
road joined, in the advance, nrjied forward liy an en- 
thusiastic liiiuadier wlio had come upon the scene, hut 
the I'leveiiih n mained in Ih.- ••p.rown" Luie for the 
rest of tlie da\ and ni'lit. Losses amounted to tit 
killed and woui'.ded. 

Deeeiidu'r Isl Was a day of h.eavy slielliuL,'. princi- 
jiallv from Hritrdi L'uns now in (ierinan hands. The 

The Battle of ("-ambrai. U>17 


iiKtny u;i> still at lacking' aiiti at iii>.'iit A coiiiiiany 
\.., ir ' iiiMMil into tlir siipiiurt liiic 111 fn lit i)f la 
\ac']ii«Tii'. (.' (■(iinpaiiy had <iu\\v forward iii th< morii- 
iiij,' to a position near ViIUts-I'ouu-Ii and wlun daik- 
lu'ss fell Wire criiploycd in convtrtin^' u cunuminici'tiim 
ti-ncii of thi' Uindciihur;,' system into a tirt- trench. 
1! and 1) eonipaiiies earned rations to the fn>iit line 
.il niirht. The Cieriiiaii hoinhardineiit continued all 
IK \t (lav. A company luid no Hritisii troo|)s m front 
..t them' and '.'nd 1/ieut. H. S. I'aikin and his hoinhers 
(trove the (urmans out of 10 yards of trench. T'lie 
l,oiuli supply was then exhausted Imt the trench was 
Im Id until the line was re-ad.iusted and rendered secure. 
i< coin;)any were also put in to close a ^np^ in tlie 
fioiit line but on the mornintj of tiie .'{rd the Eleventh 
( .lueentrated at the •• Brown '" Line and marched to 
hillets at l-'iiis the same ni^'*- . Casualti.s durin>: these 
last three days had anu-unted to i killed and V2 

The Fourteenth had moved to a canij) near Fins 
Mil Xovcnilur 17th and occujiied tiu;- assenihly 
jM.sitioii on the eveiiin;^' of tlie following,' day. Tiie 
I Nth IJriirade were in reserve until the remainder of 
I III' t)th IMvision had coti.pletely l.roken tlie Hindenl.ur^ 
i.iiie north of Heaucam|) and Villers-I'louieh. Then tht 
Isth l{ri<,'ad(' had to pass throiif,'}! the other troops and 
.-tahlislTa (h'feiisive Hank alon«; the ridj^v from Premy 
thapel westward towards Flesfiui.'res, the <:eneral 
direction of the advance luint,' nortli-oast in order to 
make ^ood the erossinu over the Schehlt Canal at 
Mareoin^'. H company of the Fonrtenith were to lead 
Ihe hatt^alion and push on to Mareoinj; in order to 
slren^jthen the British hold on the hrid^'eheads there 
untir"such time as the '-".tth Division came np to jtush 
the advance bevond th<- canal. The task of (' eoiii]>any 
was to d'i<r in on the track leading from I'reiny L'hapel 
t ) MarcoiufT, while the other two companies were held 
m r( serve to meet any counter-attack from the direction 
of Nine W(iod. 

The advance Itorran at '::.20 \.m. on Nov. niher 'JOth 
\'.]]< n alontr ii front of about «! mil 's the Ikdisli infantry 



The Durham horces in the Field 

tnllowii! !lii- tanks forward as tin' liairai,'!' of lH{,'h 
explosive . shrapinl and smoke caiiic do\M!. Ciood prtj- 
;i.'ress was reported from the outset, llioiiuli no deliiiite 
news \\a'- received hy tlir Fourteentli for some time. 
At .^.l.' \.M. till' 1st!: IJriL'iide inovtd np in artillery 
formatioii witli tlie West Vorkslnri men in the \an. 
In then left n ar eani< the '.'nd Durham Li'dit Infantrv; 

\i cifcfci. Iff*.-* 

^^ — - ^ -J..-n '' •••' , 

the Foiirteenlh were in a similar position on the ri^'lit. 
with tl'.eir left on the Heaueatnp-|{ilH'eourt road. 

.Seventy-two tanks were attached to the (Ith Division 
and liefore ten o'clock sdiiie of Iheiii could he sci-n 
trawlint,' np Premy t hapel rnL'c; everyom then 
pushed fi>rward as (inickly as possihie. If was a 
Wonderful e\pericnce for the infantry to {;aiii {,'roiiiid 
so rap'dU and at so small a price. \\\ rrni-daN all 

riie Battle of Cambrai, I'U? 


(■(iiiipaiiios of the Fourteenth liatl it-achcd thi-ir allotted 
jiositiuiis aixi that with a total loss of 7 nun wouiuied. 
Soon B eoiiipany iciKH-trd tiiat troops of the •ilUli 
Division were hepinnnif,' to juiss throu<,'h Mareomg 
atid !)>• a I'.M. the whole battalion were eonsolidatinfj 
the Preiiiy Chapel position. On the left tlie .")lst 
Division were still tij^'htiiif,' for i''les(jnieres. 

Karly next inornmi,' the Il!j,dilanders entered Fles- 
(jiiieres, hut at ll.;i(> A.M. they had not reaehed Can- 
t.,in^' wliieli wa> still held liy the (.erniaiis, though 
it least one tank had lieen in and out again. Some 
(Kitrols of til- (Queen's Hays were held up in front of 
'm \iliajfe. The oiheer eoinniaiiding tiie Fourteenth, 
uiio had been called upon to hll a gap m tlie line in 
Mils direction, sent on 1{ and (.' companies, following 
liiiiiself with A company. In the fae<- of hostile 
niaeliine-guii tire C'antaing w.i. earned l)y the Durhams 
s.Hiii after one o'clock in the afternoon and many 
(.ermans were taken. I''or this ex|>loit Lieut. -C'ol. 
.1. l\. l{oshcr was awarded t!ie Distinguished Service 

Almost at once (iordoiis of the ."ilst Division arrived 
.iiiil the Four leiifli were withdrawn to the I'remy 
( l.,i[)el line. The boldness and promptness with which 
the companies had lieeii launched at the village was 
\M il justitied, casualties hardly amounting to double 
IiiMircs, but a verv gallant and valuable ollieer was 
killed in the jjcrson of C'apt. f. IJ. (.old, D.S.O. 

Fiitil No\eml»er '-'C-th the Foiirt'tiith worked on 
fh' ir portion of the I'remy Chajx't line, putting out 
III i creating a thoroughly strong difeiisive position. 
Fosses during this (leriod wi re again very slight though 
t!ii- ridge was shelled at frecp.eiit intervals. 

Till' lialtalion then moved to cellars in the \illage 
-I Hib.'coiirt. The l^th Brigade had relieved the 
(.uards III the new fioiii line be\ond C'antaing and 
the Fourteenth were now employed c\ery night m 
earryiiu' '■,. material for tin sapfurs. I anlaiiig was 
heavily lei'.ed, but a I't It of wire s fi( I wide was 
put till, along the whole briiia'h' front in two nights. 
On the niMhl of \c»\ ember •_"."th parties of the Four- 
tiiiilh Were I inplnyed m strengthening this. 


The DurlKiiii Inrccs in tlic licld 

\\ lull (111 N(i\uiil>ir .''■oth Ihc I iictiiy dtiilt Ins 
( iilllltcf-lilow the lllii' 111 lldht ul till' KolirffCIitll Ill-Id 
linn. Diiniiy the motiiiii;,' the Diiiliaiiis were sent to 
ot'ciipy ii position in tin' lliiHliiilnirj: !,iii< on IIii,'lilan<l 
l{i(lf,'f, jiist north i;t \illi IS ridiiicli. l';itiols were sent 
out and toiicli was oltaiiK d with the troops on the 
rifilif and m iioiit. In tin- i\ ( iiin^' Coioiitl Koslitr \v;is 
^n\tii two iiattahoiis o| >liii\vood l-'ortstcrs and two 
(■oinpanics of sappers lo m'-msI in holding: tiif position. 
Il was the transport ol tlir liatlalion winch was in 
action oil this (lay; lioni ( lou/caucoiiit a ntircniciit 
had to he made to I'lns. with the loss of -J men 
Wounded. l-'or the whole iiiohth of \o\(iiilF(r the 
casualties of the I'ourit ciitli onl\ amounted to •_'.">. 

'I'lic liattalion remained on Ilii/hland Hidj^e with 
patrols out da\ and iii;:ht until i)ee(inlier •Jnd when, 
under orders of the H'.ih Hn^ade, a unit of the •_".ith 
Division had to he r(h( \(d in (he trenches east of tiic 
canal at .Marc(Uii;:. IIm l-'oui I( ciith niovtd up m the 
darkm ss and had tak( n o\(r the line heforc dawn of 
Dccemlier ;ird. I'Ik riL:iit 11 ink of the hattalioii was 
thrown hack aloii;/ the canal iii loiieli with troops of 
the '_".tth Division to the siiiith; the left |oined witli 
the 1st KiiiLr's .sliropshir( I.uiht Inlanlrv. 

I hei W( re thr(e com|)anies m the line and. tliou^'h 
the two on th( 1< ft found llumscKis in fairlv {.'ood 
tMnelus. A conipan\"s tniiel i tin rijiit \vas only 
- or :i feet d( I p in pla((s ;jnd V(:\- hadly sited. \ 
IK w one \\,!s coniiiK nc( li at once, lait slow proj^Tcss 
\\.t' III the chalky si,||. 'Ih- .■ was no wire at 
all III fi'oid . 

Soon aftii 1(11 o"c!o.k oil the iiiornin;,' of the ;trd 
a fierce hostile lia!(a!.'e came down oil the wlioh Imc 
and (iermin infantrx attaiked the troops south of 
Ihc canal .od also A eoiniiaii. of the Fourteenth. 
.\rtillfiy siifipurl was asked for li\ l( leplhinc and 
ol'taiiKii hut 111! wiftcliid tr(iMh of A (ompanv could 
not wilhstaiiil the (.'rmin a--iull. 'lioUL'h rille 
I'len Kill rs. (Iii((t((i l.y l.aiK ( S' i:_'t. A. Wilson, of 
holdoii ('itili( rv. t.M.k h>a\v toll of the assailants. The 
comp [ii\ t (immander. ('apt. A. M. I.asc. II, s. \f.('.. 
had luin wiMindttl duiiii;' tin homi.ardiiK nl l>ut h. 


The Battle of Can-ihrai. 1<>1 7 


Jtlifi S(ri.'t. Wilson li;:>lii\ inli,cS<| II null .m,! ,|r- 
li\ri,.i ;i (■uiiiittr-attark. 'I'lif y;;llmit (iaii<i was nut- 
miiiilirnd liy li\r to oik. Imt many (.1 riiiaiis wtn- 
ktllril or woiiiiii'il ami tlir rfinau.dcr (Irivrn from tin- 

Thr siyii;,! uii.s h.iil JKiii (lit liy Ihi- l.oml.anl- 
I,.. 11! ami from iiou onward tlitrc was 110 commnmca- 
lioii uith the rear. At half-past eleven aiiotlier larivy 
harrajie came down and ajiain tlic i_'re\- mfantrv 
slri:inied fi>rward to tli. .ittaek. On lli>' left the line 
in M lint there uas disaster njion the ri;,'ht. A eom- 
|:an> were dri\'ii haek, (apt. I.aseelles uas eaptnred 
aiirl till- ,ii(ni\- istahlished a maelime-jTini m fh<- honse 
\>\ lin lock. Till resir\e eoin|iaiiy \>ere thrown m 
(•» 1 ounter-attaek and dro\f the (iermaiis from the 
treneli Mnee nioK . Ill spile of (ieadl\- tire from the 
loek house. 'I'hr indomit alile ('apt. !,aseelles took 
.nhaiitai,'e of the eonfnsion to » ,eape and n |oni his 
' inpan\'. 

Soon after niidda> came aiiotlnr tit ree assault. 
Ihis failed Ixfore the cotnpailies oil the left where 
nianv »;ermaiis dad, on the rnjli! the front tr.neh 
was lost a^ram and now a liarricade was ert'ct .d fo 
pi-oti it this Hank. Imt tin re were no liomhs with winch 
Id defiiid it. The cnctnv .still eaiin' on and the wci^dit 
"f mimhers lH<,'an to till. I'lic .shropshnes on the 
I' f' '"id the left (•iim[)an\- of tin Durhams liad to ync 
j:roiiiid. while from the direction of Masm.'rcs frcsjj 
columns of (Jermaii iiifantr\ could lie seen ad\ancim'. 
Step liy step the eoni|>anies folli^'ht tllill wav hack 
until the siir\i\ors of tlie F'"ourtecnth nmtid in the 
rtservi tr.neh ami turned to do l)attle anew. It was 
clear that the position heyond the canal could he 
In Id m. lon,r,r. Imt for the moment the ciiemv was 
"• II" condition to press Ins ad\anfat.'e and so the 
iJurhanis were ahle to wiilidr.iw unniolrstcd across the 
r .ilwa\ liridyc. 

Ill ■■' sunken load West of the einal Cololii I |{os|m r 
leoitjanised his men and nioxed round lo jciid sujiport 
ti) the troops of till' •_".Hli Divisi.m on tin- iijjil. .\ 
line Was oiriipie.l on a rid','c soiifli-w est of Marcointr 
*"!"■• '"It 111 this <pi iitt r a suens-ru! counter-attack 



'^ I 


The Durham lorccs in the l-ield 

liad prevented tlie ciH-iiiy iiuau,- d(Avn Ihr north sido 
<;f the canal towards the Mar.oin^' crossin-is. 

At four o'clock m the afternoon, supported hy a 
company of Hedfords. the Kourteentli advanced to the 
attack once nion . The canal had h.en hridged on 
this side 1)V means of a har^'e and hcr<> th<' Duriiams 
crossed. th.iv uas herce li<,'hti!!f,' on the railway 
beyond 1»mI th<- old reserve trench was retaken, to- 
^'cthcr v.ilh I prisoners, and many (.\rmans w. re killed. 
Another coiiipaiiv of IJedfords arrived and with Ihi^ 
lull) the Fomteeiilh wer.' atile to push on and cover 
hoth har;,'e ttridf,'e a railway lnnli^e. 'i'he old front 
trenches ^were now .ill of ( who al!emi)tcd 
t,, l.oml. mlo the new p.oMtioii near il.e canal on the 
ri^ht. 'I'here were no lioml>s with which to reply hut 
M.m.hovv the hiH" was h.ld till at l(».i:. I'.M. cam<- 
the order to withdraw attain. This was done and hoth 
lind;,'es w. re hlown up l>y the sappers. Hefore morn- 
in<,' The sur\i\.>rs c.t the Kourtonth r< ached a position 
nrihe IliiKleiiliurL' supp(irt lute, north-east of Hilx'- 
court . 

The hattahoii N\<re almut l.".o strung wiieii takinir 
over trenches on the m-:ht of Deeemher '.'nd. Two- 
thirds of these were killed and wounded and amontr 
the fallen w.iv fapt. J. V. Mothtl. M.C. i-icut. J. H. 
Stcarn, D.S.O.. '.'nd l.ieuts. I). T. Smith. (.. H. Matliic- 
son and U. M. Malcolm, (apt. i . F. H. Sinij)son died 
of his wounds; -Jn.l Limt. ('. K. l',roi;den was wounded 
and missin};; -Jnd l-icut. H. Korhes was missing' and 
is presumed to have hccii killed, (apt. ('. A. \. New- 
some, M.C, C'apt. A. M. l.asc.lles. M.C, luut. A. 
Hothlicld, M.f., '-'nd I<ieuts. J. Foster and A. (.. Hrcwcr 
W( re all wounded. 

Fieut.-C'ol. .1. M. Ho^^her. M.C. added a l-ar 
to his iicwlv-wi.n Distinjiuished .Ser\ h'c Order. I.iciit. 
A. Hothlicld. M.C, also <,'aiucd a l>ar to his decoration. 
lie ha<l walked alon-; the parapet during' tlw encnu 
homhardmciit t(» rcorgamsc his companv and. thouth 
l.adly wounded, remained with tl-m until hi collapsed. 
Fieut. W . 11. Davies. who led i eounter-al lack after 
t.imt; hnritil !>>■ ^hcll lire .>n thr-e occasions, and '-MkI 
l.leuT. K. ('■ \Vvlie. wh<i I'd another sueee'-vfiil eraiiitcr- 



I In- liir < : MM Al\ \ M I \>« 1 I I 1^ \ 
1 1 ..,1. .... I ,1., i..f ...... 

\1 I 

The Battle of Cambrai, 1917 

attack and fouyht his way out with his men after heini,' 
surrouiKU<l, hotli nceived the Mihtary Cross. C.-S.-M. 
.1. N'icholsun, M.M.. of Bishop Auckhmd, lielped to 
l)rin<i: ni a wounded num lyinj; .'jO yards heyond the 
parapet and worked a Lewis t;un during a eounter- 
iittaek after the whoU' team had been killed. He and 
Siri,'t. Wilson reeeivtd the Distin},nnshfd Conduct 
Medal. l.anee-Corpl. J. Wharton. M.M., received a 
har to his deccjration, and the Mili'ary Medal was won 
l.v .Seryt. C. Hirrell. Corpl. i,. MrKane, Lanee-Corpl. 
T". Tallintive, and Ptes. K. Slj.ii.ns. .1. Walker and 
J. W. Turner. 

Capt. Arthur Mooi. l.a-^. elhs. .M.C, commanded at 
the weakest part of the lin< in a trench he could not 
hope to hold. Three tim( ^ wounded and then captured, 
he escapid and was still the inspiration of the defence, 
it was tittiiifr that In sliould nceive the hi<;hest honour 
of all the Victoria Cross. 

Tlie divisiunal commander issued a special " order 
nf the dav," eon<,'ratulatin<,' many units on their prowess 
duriiii,' the hattle. The Fourteenth arc mentioned for 
111. ir e\|)loit at Cantaing, hut th<ir defence of the canal 
( i(.ssin<,'s at Marcoiiiir on Decemher :{rd is recorded as 
llic tiiK'st achievement of all. 







IS 4 


If 3*i 

I ' 

<■ 'i 

li i- 


'I'm. ( (iisMstci 111 liif auhunii nl IIMT tlirtat- 
'■"•■*i •'!'■ ruiiiplcic ()\(rtlirou of till' Il;iliaii Arriiiis 
and, as M.oii as jxissililc. scm ral Fitricii and ti\c Hr;1ish 
divisions ucic dis|(at(lii(l Iroin tlic Wcsl.rii Front to 
restore tiie hat lie line in Italy. In tins force the 'J.-ird 
and Hs( Divisions were ineluded. to the <:eneral satis- 
faction of the Twelfth, Thirteenth and 'I'went utii. Men 
who had endnnd the misery and iiorror of the fi;.'iifinjr 
lieyond \'|(res could not Imt welcome the news of a 
nio\c to a difft rent theatre of war. 

The '.'.'{rd Division moved first, the Twelfth and 
Thirteenth liotli entraining at Ar(]ii. s on Xovcmlier .sth. 
Each liattalion were accommodated in two trams and 
ten days" rations were carried. The route lay throui,'h 
Alilievilli' and Amiens to I'aris and thence south hv 
J !|on and Arlcs to Marseilles a tedious, imcomfort- 
alile journey under ;,doomy skies. On railwavs s,, over- 
hurdened \Mth trallic tiiert' were manv delays, hut un- 
jiromptu ;,'ames of foothall sometimes provided r( lief 
from the cramped conlinement of the trucks. 

.\fter Icavillj,' M.llsellles came a dlffi rt nt e\pt rieliee 
for those forluii.ite enoUL:h to he in the trains that 
passed alon^ the Huiera m the i,'oldeii sunshine of 
Saii<la\. \o\eiiili(r llth. 'I'Ik s, , u, s ar.' desci ihed liv 
an otiicer of the Tuclllh a-- h.llous; •• A short halt 
was made at all the iiioie mi|>Mit,int slations Nice, 
-Monaco, Monti Cailo, Mentoiie and S.m lieiiio. \\ 
each |ilace the station platfoinis wcii eiowdtd with 

people who lia<l lllined out to s,r (he l^ltlsh troops 

pass thiou;:h, C'i;;an ttis. apples, ^rajiis, tlowers. 
pieluif jxistcard-^ and chocolate wire slniwered on 
ollieei's ainl men alike and tin de|i,>ituri "f the tram 
from t a< li slalioii was llu sii^wiil for i nl luiviasl n- .lap- 

ItaK, Nov., 1917 l-ch., 191S 

IHiiix, clk'triiii,' and \va\iiio of i!a;,'s. IihIiiiI it ua'> not 
only m tin- stations tliat tlic tiii )|)s rctri\tii a wi Icoini- ; 
all aloiif,' the line tlu' |)coi)li' clicfivd, wavfd and tlinw 
liiinclits of flowers into tlu carnajits and trucks." 

On roachin.,' NCnt iiui^'lia, the first stoppin},' place 
in Italy, the Twelfth detrained and marched tlirouyh 
llie town with their hand [)layin{;, to the niarufest 
(lelii,rht of the inhabitants who {,'ave the hattalion a 

I roiisui<,' farewell wiien the journey was resumed. 

4 riie route lay ah'n<^ the Italian coast until denoa 

ua^ reached. Then, tiirmn;,' northward, the sunshine 
was left hehind and the journey continued throu^rh flat, 
uet plains covered witli ximyards. while train-loads 
■ I refn;.'ees from the m\ailed areas were encountered 
upon the way. .Sometimes the .VIpiiie snows could he 
St en ;ind once to the south-cast ajifieared the peaks 
of the .Xpemunes. 

One half of the Twelfth detrained and sj)ent a day 
at Ast)la where the men weu hilleted in the theatre 
and received hy the towiisj)co[)le as honoured <,'uests; 
hut in the course of Xovemher Ktth, 1 Uh and l.'ith 
Inith Durham hattalioiis concentrated at (iahhiana, a 
village ahout ten nules from the ancient city of Mantua. 
1 he journey hy rail was now over and tiierc followed 
several days of route marcli'n<,' luid i,'eneral pre[)ara- 
tion for the nKAf forward of the ".'.'{rd Division across 
• he Venetian plain. 

This march commeiici'd on No\cmher Lsth. the 
troops startiufi every morninj^ hefore sup.r;->e. when the 
Iliads Were covered with a film of ice, and halting hy 
the way for dimur if hillets could not he re.ichcd early 
in the afternoon. The hijihways, tree-lined, and often 
hordircd hy streams, were txcelleiit though dusty and 
I rowded with motor transport. Now the remnants of 

the retreatin<' Italian •_'nd .Vrmv were met 



more refugees. The way h d eastward and then north- 
ward from Moiitagnana. leaving tlie Kuganean hills 
upon the right. .Vt Montegalda the Twelfth were for- 
tiniate enough to he hilleted m the heautiful castle 
"^ ( ount (irimani of Venice. It had been expected 
'hit the Hritish would have to entrench in this vicituty 
Mil oecu|)y the line of the naeehiglioiie riv( r, for it 

i' 1 1 


'ihc Diiiliani l-oi^t-s in the iicki 



was (l(/ijli(fiil li !hf Italians ciHiid hold ;he nuniy al 
the I'ia\r iiiilcs-, the Inii^ d. sued Hdods caiue (juickly 
to lulj) tilt dtfciKc. Hut Mir l':a\c uas luld ami the 
inarch oi' tlif -.'.'ird Dixision ((ii.tinurd. 

The Twelfth haltid .'or tliri'r da\s at I^olna ami 
ifachcd the \illaL; ■ ul Jiriii^iiporco, near the old foiiiliid 
town of C'astt lliaiico. on Novcnihtr 'JlHh. After a rest 
at S. (iioii,no-i-Ho-,e() the 'I'hirteeiith arrived at I'iondnno 
on the same dale. Now came an interval of traiiiinj^ 
and recreation, for the liNth Hii^'ftde weii- in reserve 
to tile rest ol the ■_'."?itl l)i\ision who took o er tli' 
line. On Deeemlier "Jiid lioth hattaiions niareheo 
throiii^di .Monte-lielluna tu liiadeiic. under the south- 
western side of thi M<iiitelIo plateau. Here Italian 
troops Were r(lie\'ed and twu whole days six uf in 
el( ailing' iiilh ts. 

On issuiiii,' from the mountains the Piavc ri\t Hows 
round the .Mont( llo on its rij:lit 1m fore continuing: its 
course south-eastward to the sea. The plateau rises 
to a licifxht of ahfiiit (KM) feet, and its lenL'tli frotn ast 
to west is ahoiit eit^ht miles. Tlu' twent\ uiic jiarallcl 
road.> which run from north to south .across the hill 
provided conveui<'nt lints of ai)proaeh to the IronI 
from the reserve positions. 

l{oth Durham hattaiions soon settled to work. 
Katitjcs and hoinhinj.' j)its iiad to he constructed and 
many men were rtapnred to work with the tMiincllers. 
while traininj: was carried on systematically. As pro- 
tection from hostile shell lire slit trenches had to he diii,' 
outside tlic liillets. The ritle raiiijc ci.-nsJriicti d north- 
west of HiathMic was in full view ()f tlie enemy; hut he 
was very far away across the river aiiil hv eamoufla^'- 
iii},' hoth tar<,'ets and lirini: points it was ■" hoped that 
the troops would not he fired at." 

On I)(ceniher Kith tiiere was a fall of snow which 
turned to rain and mist l)eh)rc Christmas. The festival 
was kept hy hoth Twelfth and Thirteenth at IJiadenc, 
thou<_'h the t'.Sth nriyaiie had relieved the Tdtli on the 
I'.ttl; and the two N.F. hattaiions now ludd the line. 
Theit were .s casualties from shell lire in tht Thirttentii 
on Deeendier "-'.'{rd. and IVixinir Day was nieniorahle 
for the visit of iio less than thi"t\-three Austrian aero- 


V "* A 









. £ 





' o - 



»• M 


I lie I )iirliai)i l-orccs in ijic licki 

plillKs ulilch lieu lirkiissly iow iUid (ll.i|)|»C(| liomlis 

iriilisrnmi[i:it.|\ . \iii<- (,f tjus.- w.rt l)r<.u;,'lit down on 

111"' ( nrps fldlit. olli falling' to thr I,t wis J,'11IiIKTS (>{ tllr 

Tutlltii who liiincd tlic l.oilics of (he tlinc occii|)iiiits. 
I his niicl was n portid to he in uwutir for our cffictivf 
Ixiiiihinj,' of an Aiisiiian ha\r train in d 
station sonic fi u days luforc C hiistnias. 

Oil thr cwnin;,' of th-- I'Tth tin Dmlianis nlicv.d 
thi Fusiliers in the front line, tin- 'I liirtf<iith taking,' 
n\(r the ri^'llt l,.\t t.. tlir TOth Hri-,'adr and tlH' Twelfth 
jiom;,' in on lln i.ft n. \t t.. th, Italians. Thi re was a 
iiia\ y fall of siiow tliat nij,'ht. Thr inn-, whicli rxt.Tidrd 
fnmi ( lan.) to IJivascrca, ran aloni: thr ri\rr liaiik. 
1 he rnriiiy oj)|)ositc ucrr inactive, apart from s(,nir 
di'sultory sjiell lire, and all h.ands concentrated upon 
the nnjirovt-nienl of the defences. These consisted of 
front and support treneiu's, with iiiachine-<,'un posts 
aloii;: 'lie (dire ,,f file rix'er Led; a second line of de- 
fence aloiit,' till' toj) of the Montillo; an internicdiate 
niac!iine->,'iin line; and a reserve line. |,ife in the 
ticnches here was (jiiitc a new experience. ('()ni{)anv 
luad(]uarlers were all m iiouscs. the support companies 
were also in houses or farms and tiie reserves lived in 
liillcts. .Strict orders were issued that nun were not 
to sliow themselves in the front trenches; neither wire 
they to dry washing,' on the wire. In th(> words of one 
private. '• It was a i»icnic to Passchendaeh'." 

The ri\er was still risin^r and thoiiirh fords existed 
they eliaiii^cd with the course of the stream which ran 
in many channels and presented a diilicult prohlem to 
|)alrols. At nij,'ht several powerful searclih^'hts, pro- 
vided hy the Italians, cainc into action and fre(|Ucnt 
rcci,nnaissanees were made hy each Durham hattalion. 
Oi. Dcccmlicr ;i()th the Austrian gunners scored a direct 
lilt on the hcadcpiartcrs of the Thirteenth, causing; 
I casualties. \ natrol of the Thirtci-ntli crossed seven 
streams on the last ni^jlit of the year and found no 
s;>;ii of the enemy on the further hank. The Twelfth 
jiatrols had similar experiences. 

The Durhams were rolie\etl on .Taniiarv Mh and 

, Ti. 

liiadenc. as reserve hatt; 

the Thirteenth witlidrt w to Pedcnva, west of 


The Twelfth were in 




. N..\.. 1 


7 Id 

)., IMIS 




iiail ti> stipi 



rkint; pailiis 


tiic froi 

t liiu'. On the 


(Mine al 

!otli>|- li(a\y 




r 1). 

H. (iarkc. 


., of th. 



iidw aw 


1 the Disf iii^'iii--! 

I'd Srrvicf ()r(hr foi' 


S(t'\i(( S 

(iuririi,' tlir third 

hattl. of \'| 

(PCS and the 


;ill(| tlli< 


s('r\ic( <if C, 


Snow, t 

lie (|ilart(Tni: 


..r lllr 1 


ion, ratlKll 


th, Mih 

tai\ Cross. 



laiiis svctit in 

to 1 

hi hue i 

i^Min oil .laniiar\ 

I'Jt h. tin- 111,'ht sector of t ht liri;,M(h' fioiit In ihl: occiijikcI 
Ipv thf 'Iwclfth who had si\'ial patrol i ncountris 
diiriiiL' fills tour. On the niL;ht of thr Istli •Jnd la.iit. 
Morrison took out a pattol. siipjxirti d hy a .Sinkcs 
j:iin ilttachiiu n( . 'riuy crossid four strtatiis, were 
(■liallfn<^t'd liy thr t ncniy. were tired on and forced to 
ritirc in the face of ;,'reatly siij)irior ininiliers. The 
.stokes jriiii lired one round. 

On .Ianiiar\- Isth the two hattalioiis withdrew into 
lescrNc at Mi.idene, I'ederiva and the vicinity, where 
Iraiiiini,' was carried on until the end of tin nioiitli 
althonirli working,' parties were still in fjnat demand. 
H\ this time there was aeconimodation in tunnels or 
concrete du^'-outs for all the men in the line, so that. 
Ml spite of the .\iistrian reply to tlie incnased activities 
of the l{ritish f,'unners, life in the trenches was prefer- 
alile to that in liillcts which were Ireiiuently honilied 
it nij,'ht liy Austrian aeroplanes. 

The (i.sth Hriuade took oNcr the rij^ht sector of the 
divisional front on Fehruary Jird, the Thirteenth <,'oinir 
into the sui>port position and tin- Twellth reinaininL' 
111 n si'rve at \'enne},'a/.u. south of the Montello. On 
the 10th the N.F. liattalions were rehe\e(l in tin front 
line, the Thirteeiilh liciiiij; then on the ri^'lit. Hoth of 
Ihe Durham liattalions had pa'rols across the |*ia\i- 
diirinj,' this tour the moonlit'ht liein^ nf some assist- 
ance. A |)atrol of the Thirteentli went out from tiie 
iii^lit of the line on the eveiiin^' of tile l.'tli and reached 
the enemy wire. Tlii' .Vustriaiis then opcm f| rapiil tire 
N'.hieh was replied to hefore w ithdrawitii,' with one man 
■ !iehtl\ Wounded. 

This sector was taken o\ir h\ the fist l)i\is',.ii 
"11 l''ehruar\' 17th and the Dnihaiiis vsillidnw to 



The I )inT.ain i'orccs in the l-ickl 

Hijulciir. l(;i\in;,' ni-xt (lay i"i Altuolc, it iuui' 

liulcs sdutli-Wfst (if Moiitcht llniia. 'Y\\i> d;. .aiiniij,' 

Jii lull warfaic was now carried out, tin Imt is [)r()- 

(■(■< (Imr; for this |iii!|)osr |i\ lorry to As(.. •. Hire 
jiinoii^' tl fo(p||ii||s of ilir Al|)^. Willi, II ^i;:!it o' Mount 
(irappa. olllccrs and iik ii li'c.iinc iiiorr or less accus- 
toriH'd to the r^lra strain (1( maiidi d oj jc^j and inn;; 
ulitii rnjlilini; HI iiio!nitainoiis coinitry. 

Oil I'l liriiary "J 1 1 li tlic Tliirtii nth rttniiitd to 
i'((l<!i\a and rili(\cd the 'rwcnticth then-. Tlic 
'I'wclltli ri|i|ai'il Ihc lltli (^uccirs in th' Mijipor' 
I'o-^ilion ot til'' h fl s( .lur of till old (li\isi..i::!l front. 
\w re r(lii\id hcic !iy tin- 'i'liirtccnt h f"i;r ila\v lal'r 
and ri turned t.> liilhts at I'siadene. 

Dunnt: tins month \\as announerd tlr award i.f the 
IJil'^ian I I'll I di (iiiiiii to I'te^. 'I'. Arni-t run',' and 
V. (.. Miller, ol the TInileenth. 

V i 

Tile TwelilKih elltraiP.ed al \.'<i<\) I'la;'e for ltal> 

oil \o\(iiilier lull and eri.'s(il the liilian frontier in 
the eaii\- iiiorniii:; (if the Islii. 'i'li( A aUo ncrixed a 
laptiir.jtis Welcome, III wliieh llov.eis, fniil and eiiiar- 
itles placed a proininiiil part. \l (eii.M the second 
half of the l)attaiion weic acei.rdid a piiKhe I'ception 
li\ the \ia\i>r. Al Isola delia Seala, limlh of Manfna. 
and at (erea, which is i ast of that citv. 'In- Tw' ntieth 
(htraiti'd (III N'ovetnlicr I'.lth and I'dth. The tlst 
|/i\ision n<i\v c(inc(nt rated nortii (pf the •J'ird and coiii- 
im ne«(l I heir foi\vard nio\( . |{y way of Harharano 
and (amposaiipiero the Twenti(th ii aclu d (.ia\cra on 
\o\( inh( r "J".'!!!, a joiiriK y of l()"i niih s. After spendiuL' 
till ni!'hl h( re tlie Durhanis relic\-e(i a part of the 
rnihnan Krij'ade, 1st Italian I)i\;sion. in the ti'cneh<-. 
alone the rndit hank cf the Piavc ri\t r a'KAc \(r\csa. 
< >n th( ritrht of the line the main sti'eatn was close in 
and th(i( Was a pre( ipitc pii^ slope from ih.e plateau Id 
the tisci' hed : oil the Icfl there wa'- a lucre L'cntle slopt , 
with some ctllt!\alcd L,'roiiiid and shin!_'le beds hctwceii 
t|i( hill am! t h( rucr. 

The 'l'w( nlKtli found xcrv litth tKiieh d diu'-onl 
accuinnio'ltt ii>n. hut tlie sti 'ii hullows m the --..lis of 
th( hill Well iiiad( sniiir with till Italian sIhIIits a\ iil- 

Italy. Nov.. 1M17-Kh., HMS 

nl)le. Hay \va> tlio tinic nf r>'st ami tin- work of iin- 
|('o\iiiL,' the trtiulu's w nt fdiwanl ;'.t iiiuli'- Ol'scrva- 
tiMii posts were fstal>lislu'(i aloii;^ tin- nvtr hank, liiit 
iiif tiiaiu line of nsistaiicf ran fuitlui liatk on lii;.'litT 
;:rounii. Tins nicdiii inufh work on if. 

Soon after the battalion ha'l taki n ovir tli.' t ii iichts 
l.ifiit.-t'ol. H. C. Snutli was srvcnly wonp-iicd while 
leconnoitrin^' the front line, lie died on Dectniler 1st 
and \'.as sueeeided Ml the eoniiiiand 1)\' Ma|or A. \. A. 
(.ayrr. D.S.O.. from the -Jiird Middltsex He;.'t. 

The •_';)!(! Division (Mil"' into Ihe line on tin left of 
!hi- Hst at the I tMjinnini,' of Deeeinher. 

I'afrols of tin- Twentie'li made re|>eated alteiniits to 
Moss tile l'ia\e, thoiioh the water \sas icy eold and 
the current swill. 'nd L.eiit. 1'. I,. Davi.s, who jur- 
sevt-rcil in these eiidia'. Dills iiiitil iinite iiieapaeitaled, 
was awaidv'il the Mi!i!.sr\ Cross. 'Ihe hattalioii were 
lelifViil on ne( • nlier fitli and withdrew to liillets at 
Seha. on Ihe s, nth -ide of the Moiit.'llo. Traininjr. 
ineliidiii;,' n.Msketr\'. vas done here until they moved 
into a sMj)port [visition o.i the It ft s.ctor of the divisionui 
fiont. The Twentieth relieved Ihe '-•.■hi! Middlesex in 
the hue on the 'Jiitli and stayed tlure till the end of tlie 
vear. C'a^ual'ies in tlie ranks diiriM<: Decemher only 
an'.ounted to t- killed and '> wounded and there were 
iri other losses wliile the hattalion were in Ital\-. 

On .January •Jiid the Twi iitieth wlthdre^^• to (.ia\era 
aiel i>nlv had oi.e more tour in the front trenches 

hefore vin^ on tlu' Istli li\ way of (daMra and 

.Mu>-ano to the vieinit\- of (.'asts'lfranco. In this ana 
the whoh- of the Hst Division assemiihd for training,', 
tuit hefore the end of the month the Tw ntletll Wire 
SI lit to I'ossat'iio for work on a nsir\e line which was 
to run from La Hocca to Costalmii.'a. On Feliriiary 7th 
the Diirhains m.-inlieil to Altivole where trainmt,' 
WHS continued \'>v a week. Then the I'.'.'Jrd nrii.'ade 
relie\ed the f.'.f.Ii Hri;'ade id the '-'."trd Division, the 
Twentieth takin<r o\er riM rve hillets fri.m the West 
^■■lrkshlres m Miadene. Ui lieved m turn on I-'eliriiary 
•Jlth 1\- the Thuiitiitii, Mie \Vi ar-~.ili rs marcln d to 
Miiit-helliin I .ml thence to ('anipt,s;inpi. lo where 
tijcy arri\'i| i.n th. 'Jt'.th. 

h i 

I'hc Durham I'oiccs ii; ilic l-ic!d 

llitrc wa-^ HOW f,'rrat intti of tiiort troops in l-Varicp, 
.•iiiil the Ust Were one of tlic Hritish divisions stlti'tcd 
for witlidraual fr. m Italv. 'I'lic 'rw.nticth ( 'draiiitil 
al C'ainposanpicro on March .".rd and tiic lirst half of 
III! Iiattalion r; aclird Doulltiis on (lir 7t!i. Two days 
later the Wcarsi.lcrs <'on(i utraicd at Ivfr<,Miy and 
carrK-d oul Irainiiii,' ui tin forest of Jjiclitux unti! 
Marcii ICitli. 'I'iic Ust Division now rt or;: iinscd 'Hi the 
new li;iMs of Ihrie liattalioiis per lir;i.'ade and the 
Twentieth wi le traMsfi rn'd to the 1-Jlth Hn;:ade. They 
inareh<-d to Warln/.el on the ITtli and were p!,iy( .1 uito 
eanip ly the hands of llieir new comrades, the l(»th 
(^iicn"-- and tin -.'(ith l!o\al l-'thaliers. 

t 1 


/ - 

' / 


. \i 

r -s 



On Dc'CtiniRT Mrd tli- IVntli went hy train Irorii 
W izirncs t:, St. Jean, and took over a caiiij) iirar 
V\K'ltjf. It was vt ry cold and tiuiiiv l)onil)in^' ai-m- 
|.laiK-.s Wire active. Six ("ays later tlie J)Mrlianis 
stni(,'jjle(l ii{> over duekhoards, hroken and slippery 
u;th frost, to the front line on the Passeliendaele spur". 
I'or til. last •_',()()() yards the ),'round was a swamp 
• iiid many uf tl.e men who fell into the mud had to 
remain there til! they dnild In- duj; out m davlif;ht. 
I'hr relief cost the battalion !,"> casualties. 

The line faced due north, ahoiit half a mile l)evnnd 
!lir remains of the hamlet of (;-)udi.erf:, and consisted 
"I shell holes and odd len<,'ths of trench. It was the 
■ opportunity of the sniper and the machine-Kun. 
I'ortimately ilic (.ennans respected the Hed Cross, and 
iiius the wounded could he carried hack hy day; the 
ground was to.- ha.l to all.)w ..f this l.cin^' .ion'.- m 
the darkness. 

Th.' Tenth were reh.vcd on l.'Uh mi.1 
\'itlidrew to duf,'-onts ami shelters n.'ar St. JuJien. 
I.i'ss.s diirinf: the tour amounted to "_".t. h.sides 7 m.Ti 
>iik and one olheer and .'U .)tiiers sufferiii.,' from tr. nch 
foot. On the l.-)tli ther.' wen- <« easualti7s from -.hrll 
lire. The next soj.)iirn in tlu- lin.- lost tn ju ki!!.-d, 
v.Mind.'.i and sick, h.sides -.'[i.l I.uut. Hern, s, uh.'. 
di.<l .>f his wounds, Lieut. \{. M. l^eveson killed hy a, and ('ol..ncl .M<;ri,nt an. I CajAt. Hcrisford 
^li;,'ht!y Won ded. 

On -Juth the Tenth left hv litrhf r,.,ihva> 
f"r a camp n.-ar \lamertmi:lie t. rest and up. 
The next move cam. on I{..xinL' Dav when Wi/erne-, 
was reach. ■.! hy rail, the T.nth th.ti' marehiny n.,rth- 
w.stward to hilhts at Her. Mi|.7r K. B. 

The Durham I'oiccs in tl:C licld 

W'.'i,';! ;i>-siinii-(l (■(liiiniaii.l v^li^ii CdIi.ihI Muriiiit went 
(111 lia\r. 

On .ianiuiry "Jim I the Dm iiaiiiN tiili.m.i <! ;;t SI . Oincr 
lor the '^iintli ami i m i:lu:il!\- ()<-cu|iitil lullrts at Mor- 
cdUit, nil til'- riMT S'linii.r. 'rrainiiii.' r. .i:t iiii;c(i in frost 
and SHOW. 

'I'll.- lltii |)i\i>.:oii v.i-vi- iiou III 111' I'lttli Army, 
uliosf task It \ to r( 1m M' tin' Fniidi as far soiitli 
as till- river ()im-. I.iaxiii;.' Morroiirt on tlic 'J'Jml anil 
U'laiiL,' li\' \sa\' ol llarlioiihi 'is, Mcspil-St. Nii'aisc ain! 
(iiiiscard. Ill'- 'i'(iith took o\ir li'll^l•^ from "ur .^lli(■s 
at Mondcscoml mi I fir •_'.">tli. \- \t day I'oloi;' 1 Moral, I, 
\\lio imd I" (II ajipointt-d to li.- coinrnaiid of the iird 
Hni,'adf. imiih I') sa\ lari-vo II lo Ins old lial lali"ii. Ilr 
tliankcd all ranks for tin ir ii(-\. r-failiii'T sii|i|iorf a.nd 
o'lcdicnci- to ordi-i^, tin ir cliri-rfnliirss an<l their dis- 
(-Iplllie. Ueferi III!.' lo 111"- (■■■Pi'li;.' disi laiid Ilii 1! t . lie re- 
nnndeil tlu-m that ordt is iiiiist In- olu-Ncd mid tlial 
" \\i- (-an r( s( coiit'-rit that the hattali"!! \\ill lia\'e 
eoiiipleted it^ task III tin (iKat War with a reputation 
second to iioiu ." 

Hn tli«- saiiK- exi-mii!; the Tenth r-lie\'d part of tlu- 
nUli Fr'iK h l!e^t. in the line ik ir \'en(ieuil. 'I'la- 
tuiielies Wire niiiddy and iitiihd r(-p:iir. lait the only 
sii,'!! of the ( !ieni\' was the ehatt'-r of nia(-lmie-unns 
thr'iU'/li the fo_'. 

In this part of I'raiiee tin- (-\islti,(c of the TeiiMi 
(aine (o an iiid al'out si\ wi-eks ln-foii- th'- (iernian 
torrent rolled forward and swpt the I'dtii Army to 
ruin. No drafts liad Ih'Ii !((-ii\ed I ■>' the hattalioii 
siiiee the ti^htiiiLT id IliNeriiess ('o|.s,-, hut, aj'a't from 
iimnliers, they had never Ix-in m liiu-r fettle tlriii when 
the atithorilKs a! liona- s(-|eet>-d them f"r dishan lineiit 
as one of the innior liattalioiis nf th.e di\isi,.|i. "One 
of ii!\ tiiiest l>at talions." was the opinion of Sir N'letor 
(laip.r, till- divisional eoinniander. 

(Ml !-'eliiiiar\ '.Ui\ the Tiiith paraded in detaehments 
will, h departed to jmii the •Jiid nnrhani IjL'ht Infantry, 
the l''ifteenth and various 'rerritoiial Hattah: i-.s of 
the Hei'iiuent. 'I'lie liaiid formed at the i nd of \'.l\'i 
lis tlu result I if 11 ^renrroiis money L'if* for the pure! i at* of 
instumieiits \vei,t eomplfte to the Kei^jiilar Mattalioii. 


Trench Warfare, Dec. Un7 -Mar., 1918 

Major Ward wrote t.. (.rinral M.ii;iiit : " I t iijoycd 
iA(ry iiu.iuciil of my six weeks" coniinaiKl ; there was 
-iH'h a wi,r.(lerful -.nirit in tlie l.attalioii and the men 
were splendid. I loved the little ditt\ they Used to sillf: 
on the mareli. 

The ■■ htfle ditty."" well-known Ihroiijrhont the 
l{e<,'iment drafts sani; li to enli\en the lona march up 
to l',ta[)les Is just this : 

^^ '' are tlie lail> fiiuii Durhaiii. \\c are, 

\\ (• 1ki\c ju>t arrived in lowii. 

we make a show u||ere\er we ;;i). 

Well in the triiiil hue. were in Ihe kiniw. 

We ! niiu all tlie |iretl\ ;:iiis JrMiii ^ |)re> (Shields, etc.) 

I'lt to Durham, to Diiiliam, 
So wake u|p and si.ake u\> the dear old town— 
We are the lads liom iJurliam. 

For the Twtlftli, HI Ital>. CoIoikI Lon^deii procured 
lh<- hand parts which were the wurk of a man who 
served in tile Knditeeiith. 




The Kieveiith left tli<> scene of the Cafulirai hattle 
earl\^ in Decenilx r. I'.tlT. after puttin<,' in a few more 
da\s" Work on the trenches. The move was northwards 
to \ pres ayain and the hattalioii reached War<lrce(|ucs 
sonic miles south-east of St. Omer, on nth. 

After a few days sp( til m trainirif,' then' the Pioneers 
fiiox.'d to a camp near Dickehusch and were i n. ployed, 
'irdil January r,\h, in wirinj,- the Corps line of d, ■fence, 
-uffcrinj,' some casualties from shell lire diirinj,' this 
period. On .-{Oth "iu men had been s^nt to 
the Fourteenth and .•.(» to the -.'tid Durham Li<,dit 

Karly in .lannarx. p.Ms, the -jnth !)i\ision n'licvcd 
•he ;{(lth in the sector astride the Menm roa.l west of 
l.h.'luvelt. Ihe Kleventh moved int.. (piartcrs at 
/llleheke Miind and settled down '■'> fi\e wf.ks' work 
ii! the Worst weather irnajfinahle. .miow was followed 
l'\ rain and then eame sh, i and more snow as the 
Pi' neers stro\e t., .eep m tohralile shape the tracks 
wlcch ran forward to the Ime through the swamps ut 
Duinharton Lakes and over Hass.ville Heck. On 
I'et.ruarv sth the division extended their line northward 


■ If. ^ 



The Durham I-orccs in the I'icld 

t') l'ol_\7,Miil)fkc and a wrlcdrm- r( iiifinccmciit of lis 
riicii fmru the Fdinhtnt li irnclitd tlir lOli'Vcnf li tlir saiiu' 

Tlic ;i7tli l)i\isii)ii took nvcr thr front on the ITtli 
and the J^lt xciitli, who had had few casualties (hinn;,' 
weather which i( iidnrd li^htin^ all I'Ut inipossiMe, 
secured a fi'w d;iys" k >t at Hae(|Hiiii,diein liefore they 
entrained for the soutii on Fehruarv- iMst. 

Nesle was reached next day. and the Pioneers 
marched to Muille-X'illette and (iolancourt. south of 
Iliitn. TIh' •JOtii Division, now in the Fifth Army, were 
kept in reserve and tlie FJeveiith devoted some days to 
tiaimiif,' and the necessary reor;.'anisation conse(|ueiit 
ui)on llie reduction of pioneer hattalions to a three- 
eonipany istahlisluneiit. (' conipan\' were aliohshed 
ami the men distril>utrd amonj,' the other companies. 

On Ferhuary 'JTth all liands hejjran work on tlie Ilam- 
Xoyon railway, and lliis continued durin<; March, a 
little essential instruction luiii)^' introduced where pos- 
silile. On March 1 Itli A compan\' nio\'e(i to Voyennes 
on the Somme canal. 

On Decemlier till the Fourteenth moved hack to the 
eatacomlis al Kiln'cDiirt and r<'.ioine(i the Isth Iirij,'ade. 
WiriiiL' and earryini: partic'^ were sup|i!i< d for the front 
lini' on Pri'mx' Chapel rid^'c. after which the liaftalion 
now formed into I wo wiak companies did little until 
they arri\((l at Ileudicourl hy hus on 11th. 
Htrc drafts were recrncd and training' iic<,'an on the 
usual four-eomi)aiiy lusis. l''i\c days Liter the Durhaius 
departed for a snpp"tl position luyoiul Mory. in the 
HuUeeourl salient, head(|uarters liein<,' estahlishcd at 
Noreuil. Four fiosty days were spent here, work'ni},' 
and wirini,' p.iities liein^ supplied at nitrht. Tlie bat- 
taliMji !irri\e(i at lleiidicourt ai,'ain on I)( eemluT 'Jlst 
and traimui; continued hofh hefore an<i after they 
mo\eil to Hi( iivillcrs. The Fourtienth reaclud Achiet- 
le-Petit on ,Jamiar\ HHh and a week later moved, by 
«ay of ('ourei|lis-!e-('onite .and napMUine, to tlie 
Frcmicourt area. .Vrrivm^,' here on .January I'.tth, 
tW( he l,( wis ^'uns were at once mounted f(U' anti-aircraft 
v.ork .and iii \t ( \-cmiiL.' 'he I'ourtei nth rt he\'ed tlie 

•-' 1-2 

Trench Warfare, Dec, 19l7--Mar., 1918 

.til (iordoiis 111 titiicluN iH.itli of I.diivcial wliidi is on 
lii'' lamliiai road. Ki<,'lit days wire spent in the line 
and niisty wcaflur cnahlcd niiicli ii<( ( ssaiy work to he 
don. on the frcnchts wliicli wt r( m an afipallin^ state 
^dtrr the liiaw. A mining' platoon %vere enijiloved upon 
•i"' iiii;-outs. Tile last f<\v days of the nioiitli wer.' 
-pent III l)rif,'ade reserve. \m^ working: parties (,'oinj,' np 
I" the line every ni<,dit. 

\\ lun the dishaiidnient of the Fourteenth coiii- 
naneed at the heeininni,' of Fehrnarv the hattalion 
shtii-tli was !.•( otiiei rv and .s.'V.t oilier "ranks. The re- 

•rf^aiiisatioii of the iiilaiitry in France appears to h;ive 
!"en a p hey settled in d-tail at hon,e so tlieie was no 

hanee fur i \cii siieh a line !if,'htin>: unit .as the Four- 
ieenih lo escape dishandineiit . Our only consolation is 
til d i.llieers and nuai ilepart( d to he a source of stren<,'th 
io many other battalions of Durliani soon to l>f involved 
in one of the Moodiest strnj,'i:les of tl'.e whole war. 

On Deeeniher 1st the Fiftitntli arri\((] at Tincoiirt 
(". train and, inarchinj,' forward throni,'li (.u\-eneourt, 
leiieyed the IJverpool Irish m a line of posts liorth-east 
o| Kj)ehy the same ni<rlit. The tour was uneventful 
and on the ,")tli came a turji in support in du(,'-outs on 
t!u railway. Hire Ma.jor F. .\. Wilson arrived and 
issiimed command of the hattalion. The '.'1st Division 
liow took over ground to the north as far as t'liap<'l 
I rossiiij; where the railwav cut the \'illers-(;mslain 
i-ad and on Deceniher 7th the Fifti-iilh went in on 
'li' hii of the hue opposite \illers-( , nisla ill. On this 
■'.eiiino. ;,s ., I-,. suit ,,f ;, patrol encounter, a (ierman 
I the is.-)(h l{ct:t. w,;s hrou-rht in. HelievKJ hy the 
1st Lineoliis after Iwo days, I lie Fifteenth then sj)cnt a 
v'-ei k at Heiidicourt where seme drafts were received. 
I hen they t(*ok over trenches near Vaucelette Farm. 
(lieif was snow on the trronnd uTu n at ").;5() a.m. on the 
■-'■Juil '.'nd Fieut. \. Sluan r and two men, all dressed in 
\'hite. Went out on patrol. They apjieared to have lost 
Mieir way on the return journey; at all events, they 
■liildeiiiy encountered an eiit tny jjost where three 
• itrmans wen- seen. '.»nd Liiait. .Shearer shot one 
■ li'l pursutd the others, who flid. hut many (iermans 

•2 y,i 







The Durham lorccs in rhc licld 


apptaifd fiiiiii (liij,'-()Uts m the vicinity. Althuu;,'li flic 
two Diirlmms killed three of the cneiiiy they hail to 
crawl hack uinlcr Inasy niachiiie-i,Miti and nllc tire. 
1 he otlicer was never seen a:_'aui. 

The I'lftcenth \M re niic\cd tui Huxin!,' i)<iy and 
i«'inained at Li- raiiiinil till .laniiHry Mil. The next tour 
was in the triiichcs in froiit of K|)( hy, and here "Jnd 
Lieut. A. W . S. Hooper was kilhd on January Ttli. On 
tin foilowiii;^' day the battalion withdr<\v to Saulcourt 
aiiil after another tour in had weather and dirty 
trenches spent tin rest of the iiKOith at l^p< hy and 
I,i( ranioni . ( asualties m the ranks ijunn;,' January 
anioiinted to 7. 

On Kel.ruary ."ird t ot!:c rs and 1 HI nun arri\ed 
from till Tenth. 'i'he dishandnieiit of the KMh 
K.O.V.I.I.. which a few days laler, reduced the 
tifth Hi.:.'ade to the lit w est alilisiiincnt of three 

On I'cliruaiv 7th the I'lfteeiilli relie\ed tin- (Itli 
l,<ieesters in the line heyoud I'",[)ehy. and duriiit.' this 
tour '-'nd Lieut. C. \V. IJodinan was wounded. .\ft( r a 
ucck 111 the lii'iiclies came a fortnii;iit 's training; at 
Ilaut-Allaines .vhrie. <,n the -.'Uli, Lk iil-C'.i|. IL \V. 
Festiiii: took coiiiiiiand. I"our days later the l^'iftceiith 
nio\fd to Li('ianionl a<,'aiii and continut d there for three 
weeks, providiii;: workiiii,' parties for the rear lines of 

Till- award now aiiiiouiiced of t!ii' Hclj^rian ('y>i i 
ill (,iii rii to ( orpl. J. W. \\'( st^'arth and I'Ic. C. \\'aU},di 
(attached (ilth T.M.H.). 

The l-a^'hlceiith wcri' in the line at Arlciix at the 
liefjinniiif^ of Dccciiilier when utillery and niachinc-;,'uns 
had to co-operate in retaliation for the licrnian 
l)oinl>ardin( lit of connniiiiicatioiis. Hclievcd on tin 
7t!i the liattaiion spent [i fortni;:ht tiainiiij,' at lv'oi\res 
in wiutr\' weather. Miiski try was done on the rantze at 
Hra\'. 'l"he Durhaiiis spent I hiistnias in hriijadi' 
reserve at Lcumc c.inip. and on the "JNth the\' rchu'Mil 
tilt iNtli West \'orkshiri in front line posts near 
\\illcr\al uiitlcr a linj^dit moon. This was proiiahly 
otiser\i d l>y the enem\' who o|ii neti with his ,".'.t"s almost 


Trench Warfare. Dec. 1917— Mar.. 1918 

■It (iiKT, l.iit a quiet tour followed. 'Vln- frost-boiiiid 
I arlli iiiiide work on tlie line \ery (iilliciiit and slow. 

On pect iiilit r .'JOtli Majwi- T. (.. l.ilis..n, from tin- 
l.')tii West Yorkshires, replaced Major Twist in eoin- 
Miaiid nf the liattalioii wlio were relieved on 
.January ."Jrd and returned to E(>>ivre.s ajjain for twelve 
days. Then eaine the thaw witii heavy ram and the 
Eighteenth, m sup[)ort af .\rleii\, toiled hard on the 
trenches which were m a tcrriMe condition. On 
.lanuary litth they relieved the front line over the top. 
Major (iihson had lncn succeeded in tlie command on 
the i)re\ious day t>\ Major Anderson, of the li'th P'ast 

The rain coi.siimk d. A [latrol of the Durhanis found 
a taiiLrled mass of wire ahoiit .'J feet lii},'h in front of the 
( trench which was shallow and dilapidated and 
unoccupied for a distance of '_*()() yards. After four days 
m tile line the hattalion withdrew to Keiirie, where 
Major 1). K. Ince liecatiie coiumandini,' ollictr. 

.Vrter another turn it Kcoivres the Eighteenth came 
up in supjx.rt iit Arlnix on Fehruary .')th. The !)»rd 
Hrij,'aile and the .'51 st Division were now und'.-rf:oin<i re- 
organisation. Hoth the Kith and istli Wist Yorkshires 
Were (lisl)aiid<-d, and the thrce-hattalion strength of the 
lirigade was made up hy hringing in the \'Mh York and 
I-ancasttT Hegt. The Mh (iuards Hrigade replaced the 
'.•Ith Hrigadc in the division. On Fehruary 7tli 
T ollicers and 1 t.'j men joined the Kiglilerntli from the 
Foiirtet nth and a lit w draft of H arrived on tlie 
following day. 

During the mxt tour in the iijie a daring (krman 
patrol reaehe<i the British parapet and nearly captured 
.1 party carrying a container of hot food to one of the 
posts. Hut the alarm was given, tiie eneniv repulsed 
at thf cost of 2 casualties and the hot meal was de- 
liMicd. The nil (ireiiadier (iuards took over on 
rcliruary 17th and tht- hattalion c!\rried out training 
and provided working parties till the last day of the 
month. Then a long and muddy march hrought the 
Kighleeiitii hy Auhigny and liethonsart to Magnieourt- 
eii-C'omte on the rivt-r T.awc. Next day Lieut. -Col. 
H. !■',. ChcMic look a luial leave of his Uicn hvfore going 






i !? ; ] 












I he Durhaip I-orccs in tlu- I'icld 

Imiih- fur>,i\ iiioutlis" (iiii\'. iJuinii.' his tt iiiii'f (if the i'(iiii- 
iiiiiiui lit- had j>t()VC(l Iniiisi a Luc soMh r and ail raiik'^ 
\it\V((l liis d«|iarturc ■Aitn j.'Mt. .Major irifc rfphtctd 
hull until thr artual <•! I, nut . Id. H. I'. (.. Carter. 
.M.t.. K.O. V.L.I. 

On .Marcli Ilth tht Ki^'httrnlh inu\fd In HajUs and 
Fr<'\ lU'Ts. I \chanvui<.' lalli'ts wiMi thr ];Uli \':>vk aid 
Lancaster l{ei't . 

'1 he Nineteenth \Mth(ire\\ for a week id rest and 
traiiunj,' uh( n reheved in the Inie l,y the IMli Laneashirc 
I'usiliers on .\o\(ndur 'Jdlli. They jifteruards e.itne uj) 
to the liank of (lie \\ei' canal and sn|)])iitd Udrkinj,' 
partus, liiii nio\<ii daek to l{oad (.'anip. not far from 
I'ntven. on n<ceinlier Ilth. (olnnel (.reenweli had 
I'( Jonied ere tills. 

Now (iiiie ,1 month <d training; ilnnnj,' which a lar>:c 
draft was alsorind. The wiather was \ery wit lint 
ehaiiLred to frost and sunshine li\ .Lmuarv Mh. when 
the Dnrhaiiis came hy rail to lim sinidic and he;.'an work 
\Mth the tunneilers and with the sappers and pioneers 
of the division \'.lio now eaiiie into tiie line aj,'aiii. .Snow 
and ram wire followed li\- a real impro\ement in the 
weather. On .Faiiuary Jlst the battalion r<lievc(l the 
1-th i>o>al .Sussex south-W'^t of \\'( s! ioomIx ke where 
two' coinpanies occupied ihi' froi't posts. The enemy 
was very (jui-t , Mefore tin end of the inonlli came a 
tour in the left sector nearer I'oeleappt lie win re the open 
jrrouiid was liei^'inninL,' to dr\'. althou<,'h there wen- still 
sw.amps 111 tile valley-, of the slieams. 

Karly in l''(l..uar> ihe Nim teenth were transferred 
to the KUth |{ri;,Mdi which now coiisisti d of the 
Dnrhains and tin ITtli and l.sth l.ancashirc l-'u.siliers. 
I'lie hattalion took over a chain of fiont hiii' posts ui the 
Lanj,'emarck stctor on Leliruary loth and then chan^'cd 
over for a lour in the line on Ihe rii,'lit. The last week 
of the month was spent in resi rvi- where \o otlieeis and 
■JOO men |omed from the I-'oiirtei nth. ( asualti<'s durinj,' 
I'eliruary only aiiiou-.tcd to f_'. 

On March ls| the Niik tii nth went in on tin extreme 
left of the Lan).'emiirck sector. Snow fell next day and 
in the I'vemuf,' / coinpanv took one pri .oner. On tlw 

Trench Wariare, Dec. 1917 Mar., 1918 

corly iiuirmii^' ul llu' .jth tlir luittalidii nii<it!l t!u' huts 
I'ltst of ColiJinlni Hiiiisf, (111 tlit' Ilniitlml-t roaii. In 
mud and darkiRss tin- raiders |niiitrati-d the iiitiiiy 
win- ".Mtlmut inurli liiliiculty liut found fliat tlic 
(.finiaus had tied to tluir main line. 'I'lurt wcrt- '.> 
casualties from machiiir-^'iin lire duriii},' the return 
Journey, mehuhn;.' "-'iid laeut. d. L. Jlounam mortally 
wounded. Ser^'t. W . Dimhi ami I'te. .1. Pearson were 
awar<h'd the Mili'.iiy Mt dai for their t-'allaiitry on this 

Hilieved on .March ."ilh. the Ninttteiith remained in 
and around Lanj,'enuirck as support hattalitm for four 
liays and then withdrew to Kiverdiiif/lie, wiiere train- 
intr, rest, and it cnation were interrupted hy tlie con- 
stant call for workiiij: parties. There was a practice 
manniiij; (pf the Arm\ liattie Zone m the pouring' ram of 
March I'.tth. 'I'liree davs later eaiiie ordi rs to entrain. 

The Twenty-Second were still at uork hehind the 
I'asschendaele front when, on the niirlit of Decemlier 1st, 
the '.'."ith Hri-,'ade co-operated with the .'{•_'nd Division in 
a surprise attack hy moonlit^ht north of tiie Passchen- 
daelc \ lilajie. 1{ company of the Pioneers proxided two 
platoons to escort iirisoiiers and ^'Ui<ies; C and I) coin- 
paiiies were distrihuted in small ;,Moups with dumps of 
material alon^' the forward ro:ids and tracks to repair 
the damafie canst <1 hy the constant liostile shell fire; \ 
company were availahl ■ for an\ other work reipiireti. 
Casualties only amount td to •; wounded on this occa.ion. 

The Sth DiMsioii w« re th«n relievtd, Imf the 
Pioneers, still t nifiloyed on trac'<s and roads in the for- 
ward area, onlv si nt hack to rest one company at a 
time. .V 111 u camp was i reeled mar thi' Dixmude (iati- 
al Vpres and then the work of drainiiii,' and nietallin); 
the Frezenlier}:-'/oniit i.eke road was taken m hand. 
The plank roa<l lu tla- \i(inity of (.ravt nstafel was 
shelled <'onf imioiisly at this tune and on Deceriiher Uith 
(apt. M. \\. White was wounded and workiiu,' parties 
dad to withdraw. Dumps of material were tstaliiished 
alotij; the route so that rapid repairs eoiih] lie made 
.uid all three companies worked at the task of pushing; 
this road foiward. There wi ;•!■ three shifts, nrd nt no 



1 he Durham lorccs in tl I'icld 


tinic tlid tlif work ccasr, Imt tlit- liard frost ('oiiil)int(i 
with tlu- inciny slull tii'- t'> make proijrcss very slow. 
Soon Jiiiotlicr task fell to the 'I'wii.t y-Sfcond win. wcrt' 
r((iuirc(i to (■!( an out and r-pair the Cicnnan "■ pili- 
lioxcs ■■ so that tlity ini^lit lu- ocrnpifd by our infantry. 

Arnoiif,' tln' Niw War's Honours w<r<' tin- names of 
C'dpts. H. i{. While and (;. l\ Hamts, awarded the 
Military C'ro^s. and .*>iri,'t. II. C. Welsh rcciivi-d tin- 
Meritorious Service Medal. 

The 'I'wt nty-Seei.nd ikiu st nt awa\ Is nun to the 
Nineteenth and .".(i to tin Ki^'hteenth, these luintr re- 
{jlaeed hy 100 •• Hi ■■ men from the IJase. On 
January Kith came lu'avy rain; part of the (iravenstafel 
mule track was soon under uatir, a jiortion of the road 
lieside the '"avclx-ek was washed a\\ay and tither 
tracks were also sutiiin ri,'((l in places. 

On Feiiruary 7th a reinf(ireem<nf of T olhcers and 
l.'iO null arrived from the Fciurteenth. Kariy in the 
iiKiiith, tiMi. i'.-(^.-M.-.S. Thciinas Danliy was awardt d 
the Hii^nan ( mi i <l, ( , m n i . 

The Ihlef Kni,'llleer nf the Mil C'urps tliollt'llt "-ii 

hi<,'lily (if the work accdfiiphshed hy the 'i'wenty-Seeond 
at this period that he specially commended them to 
the C'orp^ idinmaiKler. This spnnt.uiedus tritiute tu 
l)iirhain"s youn^jest ti;ittali(.n was m the folliiwiiii,' 
terms : 

I wivh III liliii^ 1(1 lintiic (i| the C'lrps ('.(ilUlliaiKlcr 
tlic (Mciliiil vMiik (•arii((l (Hit li\ till' umlcrniciit idiicd ;iiit 
liming Ihc ikinI 21 dav •- in Ihc .\riii\ liatlle /(itie and f(ir- 
\Mii (I Id, ids and Ihc ( \i 1 |il iiiiiaiiy l'ikkI si i\ i( cs rindcrcd 
liy Ihc (illii(is ami nun ni lliis iiiiil s|ir(ilnd hcrciiiidfr : 
'J2ii(l livlil liit.inli\- ( I'iiiii.i rs i. Mli Mix , (^cin 
Muilldcr l.i( III. (.111. (. li. M(ii^;aii, i)S(t 

l)iiiin)4 the t^Tcah I |i,iil id liic ,iIhi\c piiind Ihrif ciiir, 
paiiiis lit Ihc lialtalidii liave jiccn cin|dii\rd nn 

(i/i ('.(iiislniclidii (d lu u dmilili |dank M'ail lnrvv.nd tmni 

|)(\ils C.iiissini;. 
(/') Cdiislnu lion id jiridLc cast cj I-rc/cnla i l:. 
(() (.ciicrallv supcrx isin^j the Lilimir alinllcd Id \,iri(His 
sctlidiis dt fiiiwaid 1(1. ids I inainleii.iiH c work and 
Id tlic cdiistnn tii'ii (d llic (IJMisi,,ii mar Kansas 

♦ Whirc tin- Zoiiiii-brkc'-Li)nKcniiirt.'k ro.ul irosstil llu- ^lll^.s- 

.Mdssfliii.irl.l r-' ••' 

rrciich Wartarc, IX'c. 1917 -Mar., 1918 

lur !!u' iii>t tiw (lay-, oiii- tu two (..iiupaiiii -^ li.ui' been 
iiupKnid oil tin- Army Hattlc Zoiii'. < hii-ri> i>ii \Mriii(i. 

riiV rcsiilt.s jaudui III )i> llii^ liathiliou liaM- iM iidcil all 
1 \|in iatiuns. ami Ikim- luiii ihu' ii(it (uily tu smiml, ^t^•aliy. 

iilul work, \\lli^■ll lla^ linii ( arriid out by all laiikN with 
Mich (Diisi^ti'iil t.-mT-y ami iiiilailiiiL; good .spirit, hut also 
lo the carilul and i misc itutious supt'r\ isioii wliiih has m 
variably bicii * xi'rcistd by the ollmrs aiul .\.<:.(i s of the 
battalion. 1 would parlitularl\ briiiji to iiotitc tin iiurgitii- 
mamicr in whiili Major .1. 1,. MiUlull lias pcrsouall\ sujicr- 
iiiti'iidi-d the work Ihrou^ihout. and the kifu interest he has 
shown in i^eltin^; tln' double |>lank road at JieMls Crossing; 
pushed lorward. 1 would also like to spii iall> mention 
llli- ai.od str\iees rendered by Capt. A. \N . 11. (.ooke and 
■Jnd l.ieiil. \\ . II. (.ibson 111 the work of t;eneral supervision 
ami the eoiisliuetjon ol the briili;e on the I- re/eiiberji road 
i(S|nrtJM'l> . On the (Kta^ioiis 1 have visited lorward roads 

I have been min h imiiresscil by this baltalion's eapaeity 
Id! work and the , In trlnliiess a'lid tiood spirit with whieli 
it has met all diinaiids ni.idc upon it 

Wi.rk oil tlie wtstiTii slopes of Fasscinndaelf rill-,'!' 
and tlic lower ^TolUKi liv ( i Pa velist iifrl collt illUed 
llirouf,'hout llie iiioiitli of I-\- 1 Hilary. Tlir iiiipiiiK'tualit;, 
of ilu trains on the lif,'I>t railway was a {,'rtaf aiuioyaiiet' 
and liiinirance ; in some case.s parties waited and then 
had to iiiareli lo work. The fr()st also proved a j;reut 
haiidieap. .Vnotiur task an onipiished was the con- 
sfnietioii of fhret- datiis across the IJavt lieik a stream 
winch Mowed south-west from the hi^di ;,'roiind west ()f 
I'assclumlade as part of the defensive system. Tiic 
.s.lh l)i\ision had come nto the Ime attain, and early m 
March a^'aiii witlnircw. lait the 'I'went y-.Sfcond were 
still employed iimltr the (.orps. On March 7th I) com- 
pany W( re liri>k( n up and th. no n distrilmted aniont; 
the other companies to coiifoiiii to ;lie ?iew tsf:,|ilish- 
iin nt for pionet i hattalioiis. t'ompaniis now took turns 
111 f/ointr (Hit to rest, lait it n<it till March -'1st the 
first dav of t!ic (iermaii offensive that the Tweiity- 
Si cond concentrated ami moved hv tram to roiierm^'lie 
(III tiicM- wav' to lejoin the Nth Division, who ha<l already 
''oiii' southwanl. 




MAKCIl TO Sll'l i .MHr.H, I'UH 

On March Kli tin- Twtlfth and Tliirttt ntli look over tlio 
left l.n^'adf front from fiic Fui.ili'rs and found thai 
tilt' rivir was risnij,' rapiiiiy, fornnn^' nt w < hanmls as it 
(hd so. Thf activities of patrols were conseiincntly 
liinitt'd, wliiie a <,'reat di al of draina^'c work had to he 
undertaken. After eij^ht days in the hne the Durham 
hattahons were rehevcd liy I'ahan troops as the 'iiJrd 
Division were about to move .nto the mountains. The 
return to France of two Hritisli tiivisions meant htth' 
rest for tliose who remained in Ital> . 

Tlie Twelfth left their billets at I'ed.riva and the 
vicinity on March \'A\\\ for Castelfraiico. Next day they 
arrived at a small villap' near ^'i<'( iiza called Lanzc, 
wiiere they rested while the otlicers n connoitred the 
new line. Having' moved in similar fashion the 
Thirteenth were now at Rnffo. Colonel Liiulsay re- 
ioiiied and assumed command of the battalion on 
Slareh Kith. 

Training,', sports, football, and a horse show tilled 
the days until .he (ksfii Brigade moved to Thieiie on 
March -J^tli. This was the first staj,'e of the journey 
into the mountains. On the morrow the Durhanis 
.'iiid Fusiliers were erow<led into F.I.A.T. motor-lorries 
and soon left the {genial sjiriiitr weather of the plains for 
the snow and mist of the .\lps. It was a uniipic ex- 
p( rience for all, moving; upward, to and fro. by pre- 
cipitous mountain roads while a vast extent of tlie 
X'enetian plain appeared l)elow. .Soon after midday 
tile troo[)s arrived in the snow-covered valley of 
C'arriola. The mist cleared sutliciently to disclose 
Mount Maj,'nal)osehi and the broad valley of the .\sia<»() 
HW!\y to tlie tmrth-n dull and cheerless prosjirct to the 
men will- hail to settle down in danii> and dirty huts. 

The Durhams now made a; ipiaintaiire with m!jn\ 



ItaK. March to ScpicnilK-r, 1918 

kinds of .stiaii{.'c f,'t;ir fur Imofs. snow gof.'irlfs. alpcii- 
4(((k>. and ice },'rips. 'llif lit-avy transport had hern 
1> ft m th<- plains hclow Imt the li<,'lit vilnclts canic thus 
far, and the nurnhtT of pack anMii.d.->, who wtrc to In 
ihr chiff tnians of supply, was au>,Miuntrd. 

On the cM'iniif,' of tlic •_'7th tlic Twi'lfth nlicvcd 
Italian troops in the lint- which was naclR'd hy way of 
< lahoratrly cainouna^'cd roads. The j)osiiion on the 
lift is d(S(Mdi((l \>y one of rh.- ollicirs of flir liattaiioii as 
to! lows : 

•• The wcstrrn half of tin- frwut tak< ii over lay alon^' 
the southern side of tin- nairow irorj^c of the diu Ipac. a 
stream drainiiii,' tlic Asia^'o \allcy to the cast. Here 
tienchcs had been hlasted out of liic livin;; rock at vary- 
iiijj altitudes on the clit'f side with w indinj,' rock stair- 
eases eouMcet III;.' the differi-nt sections. In sonic places, 
where tilt face of the cliff was almost vertical, tunnels 
had been driven throuj^h the lu art of the rock. emerj,'in<.' 
in the form of trenches furtli'r on. I'rom these tunnels 
ijallcrics and caves opened out. pro\ idiiij; safe and 
fairlv coinfortalile ficcoiniiiodatioii for a lar^re numlier ot 

In the (cntre and on the ri^'hl. where the valley 
liroadencd, trenches were of much the usual type and 
llic Austrian lines were nearly a mile away, so that 
patiols !ia(i a yreat licld for tluir a( fixities. Hut the 
mountains in rear |)reseiited jieculiar prohlciiis for th.e 
defence, chit fly as ret,'arils communications. The hi},'li 
winds made it impossilile to hear over tin- telephone 
.iiid \isual si^'nalliii}/ came into t;encral ii^i\ 

The fiStli Hri^jaile occupied the western emi of the 
iitw lirilish front iiiif with tin 'i'wflfth on the extreme 
li ft. It was a three liattalion front and the Tiiirtt fisth 
r< iiiainetl in rtsrrNc at Hoscon. K\ir>one suffered 
Irom the cohi. .\ustrians uere seen iiii:j,'iri;,' on a hillside 
opposite the centre of the Twilfth hut .he Durham 
(jatrols dill not fzet contact with the t ncni\', althouj/h 
thtir rect)nnaissancf of the ;;romid in front was useful. 
The 7tli Division came m lieforc the end of March 
.ifid the Twelfth reached rest billets at Mai;nabo-.ehi on 
Ai)nl Isl. Nex! dav the two Durham battalions were 
lioth at (tfiinezza where they stayed for hum- ihtys, 



The I)Lirliani l-'orco in ihc licld 

practising hill ami wuud li^:liiiiij: iii rain siiuw. 
(.'olont-l l.onndrn ui.w 1( ll W-.:- 'i wciltli an^i uas suc- 
ct.d.d |,y Slajoi .). ll. i;. liMlfoi.l, D.S.O.. of tlif 
Sin r\N(H)(l J{;inj,'(r,s ^<(itna!iry. 

Tlii- Durlianis r< licvcd uniis of the T(»lh i{rij.'a(i( in 
the linr on April lit!:. I'liis was n>:iicr Asiaf,'<), on new 
{ironnd. wluiv the Hntl'^ll Inir ran round tlic nortlu-rn 
slopes of Moiuit KalK-rlalia. Hire m the \s idt- stiitcli 
oi ■■ No Man's Lund," \vii<ri- tlir (iliilpar rixcr lu'd lay 
licfort' till' Austrian positions, [latrols liccanif vt-ry 
aiti\t'. An outpost iim- was iakcn up in '* No Man's 
Land " ( \fry ni<,dit ami rrplaccd liy sniptrs at da%sn. 

On the iiit.dit of April llitii a "party of tlic Twclftii 
crossed the ii\er lied and advanced as far as tlic iiainlet 
of Morar wlure there were Austrian ad\anced posts 
in front of Ihiir main treiicli. Tlic patrol withdrew, 
a[i|)arently uiiolis( r\ ( d, Imt a stron;,' |)arty of the enemy 
tiircaliiied to cut tiiem off as tiiey retired. Austrian 
rilh-s. luacliine-jriins aiiii lieneh mortars opcm d. and 
the Durliams diil \\ell In net III \sith only one man 

A patrol of th>- Thirtec nth exjiiored the hamlet of 
lioiiealto on the same ni<,'iit and diseo\ered several 
Austrian sentries on the furtiier sidi'. tint they eduld not 
111- approached o'.mii^' to trip wire and otlu r ohstacles. 
Two ni^'hts !at'. r a patrol readied Coda, on the ri\er 
haiii<. and iiad to v.ithdraw fi<,'hf ini.', •_'iid Lieut. K. 
Davles, M.C, and t men lieiii}.' wounded. During ttiis 
period the Ikltish t;uiis niamtained a steady tire on the 
Austrian positions. 

On .Viuil Coloiiei Lindsay left the Tiiirt(!nth 
(or the NLiehiiie (iuii (.'orps, and Major I). H. t'larke, 
D.S.O.. ^L('.. was coiiiiiiiied III tile eoniliialld of the 

Tile Fiisiheis took oxer the liiK on April 17th and 
th<- Durliaiiis withdrew to support positions wiicrc 
W()!kini» parties had to lie pio\idi-d. On Af)ril "J'Jnd 
eomnunced the relief of tlii v'Mrd Dnision, wlio were 
iluc to dcjiarf for the framing ana. Tiie Twelfth 
arrived at hillefs m the vicinity of L(ii{,'ari- on 
April '.".Mil. after takiiii; two days' r( st upon the wa\'. 
Hill tracks had to he ii'^'otiated in tile, <ha(,' r^ijas were 


Itah, March to September, H>1S 

iicctssary lor tlic ncIucIi's ;ui(I our J.cwis ^'un ilftacl'.- 
inciit marctu'd ready to coinr into action airanist tncniy 
aiicraft. 'I'lic 'riiirtt-cntli had a sliorttr |oijrni\' and 
nai hcd ( osto on April •J.")tli. 

All ranks wi'-c now practised in patrollint,' and 
(iiniliinj,' over hilly conntry until the ,|oiirney ha^'k to 
the line eoi'uiieiieed in the middle of May. Hoth l)ur- 
liaiii liattalions arri\cd at (iranez/.a a<^ain on the ISth 
Mild on the morrow took over the Asiaj^o line. 

Tile Twelftli had an uneventful tour, during' which ■_' 
nun were wounded on patrol. The Thirteenth also 
found a quiet enemy, hut tin re was a patrol skirmish 
nil .May I'.'ird when the Duchams were outnumhered and 
vMthdrew. \ dead .Austrian was diseo\cre<l next ilay. 
'! wo nij:hts later. Ave, a small handet near tlie .\ustrian 
line on the road runnin<; north to .\sia<,'o. was explored 
and found deserted. The Fusiliers came in on Ma\ •2(ith 
and tile Twelfth went into support positions. The 
I'hirteenth. now in rcser\'e. had to supply pj.rties to 
r.irry uj) artillery ammunition. 

.\t tliis lime preparations were practically completed 
lor an offiiisive on the .Vsiajjo froiit. hut this was iu- 
ilefinitely |)ost[)oned. 

On .lune ;ir(i the (Isth Brigade passed into divisional 
itscrve for a week and the Thirteenth moscd down to 
Mare in the foothills to escape a kind of mountain fe\er 
\>.liich resemliled inlhien/a, lint on tin- mornin<,' of 
.lune loth the liri<,'ade replaced the (HHh m the l< ft 
portion of the Asiat'o sector with the T\\elfth on tin 
left and th.' Thirteenth . n the rit:ht. On .lune f-Mli the 
line of the OSth H!i;,'ade was thickened hy piittinj,' m 
the nth N.F. on the left. 

The lith was an exc filiomdlv (|uief day, hut at 
.'i o'clock next mormnc a very heavy Austrian homhard- 
im nt commenced ,ind all outposts were withdrawn. .\ 
lartrc proportion of jjas shells were used hy the enemy 
whose fire was extremely accurate on eonummications 
.uhI L'Un positions, thou;:h few of his liattcries apfxared 
ti. have carried out any previous rcfistratio?). The hom- 
liirdmeiit (piickened at i a.m.. sh-ckeiied rather more 
than an lu)ur later. <|uiekcne(! a!.'.ain at .').V.") a.m. and 
eontiiiue<l so until the Austri.iri assault was launched. 





The Durham I'orccs in tiic I'^icld 


Diirliaiii patrols had n ixutcd tl.f tiicmy assfiiihliii^' for 
the attack in "' Nd Man's Land " and at about (y.i't A.M. 
tlu- Austriaiis caini- on, headed by " storm troops " 
with detaehnieiits of bf)inliers, niaehine-fjnnners and 
men Willi tlame-throwers. 'I'he .S.O.S. si;,'nal went up 
.all alon;,' the l^itish line; but it was a misty morninj,' 
and some of our ;,nms had .■■lread\' be<-n j)ut out of 
aelion by the enemy artillery, so that the protcetive 
liarrai,'e was not so eifeeti\-e as it miyht have been. The 
Austrian iidvanee was elu'ek<'d liy the rapid tire of rifles 
and maehiiie-frims which inflicted hi'avy losses. Ten of 
the enemy reached t!ie trenches of tlie I-'usilicrs upon the 
left but w(re killed at once; in front of the Durham 
battalions no .Austrian penetrated the wire. .S. Sisto 
ri(ii,'e, furtiuT to the ri;,dit. was taken, but the 7()th 
I}ri{;a le eoimter-attacked .and soon restored the situa- 
tion. On the left of the (i.sMi IJrieade the enemy had 
some success, securinj,' a footm<; in the trenches of the 
IStli Division, and the Fusiliers became hard pressed on 
their threatened tlank. 

The Thirteenth on the rij,'ht saw the .\ustrians form- 
in/,' up on tlie line PosIen-.Mal;,'a (iheller at about H.'.W 
A.M. and they took heavy toll of them as they 
advanced. Soon after iiint o'clock the eni-my appeared 
to be dif^'cii'tr in from (iuardinalti to Posleii. Partut and 
Tescia, l)Ut he made repeated attempts to t;et forward. 
Three of the foremost .Vustrians were killed on the wire 
of the Thirleenth and their identifications were secured. 
IJeinforcciDciits appeared in the rear and came under 
the fire of the I{ritish aililleiy. but at about lialf-])nst 
eleven more t iiemy troops concentrated beyond the 
(ihelpac river in the \iciiiily nf Morar. All the after- 
noon the .Vustriaiis strove to make headway and at 
f I'.M. the front trenches of the Thirteenth were under 
heavy shell fire. .Soon afterwards Lewis umis of the 
battalion opened on a party of .\ustrians in Honcalto, 
but by this time it e<iiild lie si( n that the attack had 
dctinitely failed. At aliout ,").t.") P.M. A company sent 
out patrols who returned with 7 j)ris()ners. described as 
" verv poor specimens of hinnanity." \\ trians were 
sfiU wamlerint,' about "" No Man's Land " as the evening 
ad\.incrd and the snip rs of the Thiitcinth foui:d many 

•j:. t 




i f 


' ■'! Hi 


Tlu- Durham I'orccs in the I'ickl 


tartrtts (iisiKilhr^ (III till. iia\ ill lutrd to •_' killfd, 

•■Hid ■Jiid l-ifut. 1'. (.. Miiii'i! ;n:(! •-'.■; WdUiulrd. S!\tc<-ii 
(if tiic cllcIltN' were taki II. 

Tllf 'r\V("l|tll II, id a defensive [.atnil (.lit 111 irdit 
when tile Ausliiaii l.i.niiiariinienl l.< ;;aii. 'I'liese iiifii. 
under -'nd l.ieiit. .1. I-'., liasehe. h. Ip.d to rejiel the lirst 
attack and tlieii \'. d hdnw. l(r;iii:in(,' in all tliiir 
U(,iind(d. Ai'out ik -n Cdlnni I llolfffd Mi;:<:csted that 
tile 'I'NSeiflli sh.iiild sall\- fdi-lh and i .ipliive (ir kill those 
(if tile enemy wiio lay in fdds >A the oroiind mar 
tlle Wlle. hut the projd't Was Dot a[)pr(.\(d h\- tl:e 
iiri<,'aiiier. At dusk a hndy nf -jno Austriar.s was 
(pl)scrved m retreat ai.d tin- rilh s ;,!id I.eWls <:uns of tlle 
liattalidu aeeoiuited for nearly a': i'{ tiieni. Oii tin • 
day thi- Twelftli lost a ^.'ood otlieer in Major K. W. 
La'fone. M.l'.. hut only i others were kilh-d. '-'ml I.ieiit. 
.1. !■".. Kasehe and •■tl men were wounded; ami I'apt. 
W. L. lIuL'h(s. M.l'.. and t men xvcre ;dso hit. hut re- 
ma;ned at dut\. 'I'lie wi.umhd Austriaiis hrom.'ht m 
nunihered -Jl. inehidir^' -J otlicers. and 7 imwoiinded 
irisotiers Were tak' .!. 

The iiiLdit was (piiet and p itroK seoiinmr " No Man's 
Land ■■ found none hut dead and wounded Austrians 
there. \W C< P.M. '11 June l<;th the captures of the 
d'hirtei nth amounted to :5 otlicers. 1". nun. and three 
niachiiic-^Miiis. The T\\( ifth had colhctel a nnmlicr of 
trophies. includiiiL.' I'<"ir machiiic-'juns. Ii\e tield tele- 
phones, scM'ii ticneh niorl.irs of dilter( ut c;ilih'-es and 
ammunition of various kinds. 

At niLrht a patrol of the Mh \'(irk and l.ancasters 
left the line of the Thirteenth to oKUpv the .\uslrian 
trenctus at Kdelwiis .'^pur. In voml Moiar. The\' en- 
countered the cncm\ at Idda Spur .and to witliifraw, 
after which the .Auslriaii artilh ry slu lied the trenches of 
the Thirttcnth who had t <'asualties. The British eruiis 
Were also hlisy Ik fore d.awn. 

'Idle afternoon and evemiiL.' of the ITtli ue. • ver\- 

Wet. .\ few more WoUIlded \ustiialis wel'e hroULd'.t in 

and ])atidls were lnisy i h arim: the hattlcticld i.iitd 
.liiiic ■Jdttt. wTk n tiie i)urh,am h;itf:i!ions withdrew to 
support positions. 

In this action hoth Twelfth and 'I'luilientli won 

Italy, March to ScptcnilxT. 


main lutnoiirs. t'apt. C. (.iI)Ikiis. MX., of tlir Tw-lfth. 

ua> auardcil a ! n tu his t'ross lor ahir liaiidliii;,' of 
Ills company: Luut. .1. E. l{ast'lu- rt-coived thr MilMaiy 
Cross for Ins work iii coiniiiaiKi of tlu- patrol and for 
contnuiiiij,' at iluty when woiindfd ; (.'.-S.-.M. T. Martin. 
D.t'.M., of Scotswood. won a liar to ln> nicdal for 
orj^'ainsuif; a party which Itoiidtcd out sonic cnciny 
snipers fstalilishcd close to the wire; and the Distiii- 
^'nisiicd ('on(hict Medal was awardtd to Scr-.-t. ,1. A. 
Speed, M.M.. of Hlaekhiil. for ilireetiii",' the "repair of 
sif,'iial wires iindc- the violent Austrian hoinliardineiit. 
Ainoiiir the recipients oj the Military Medal were S.r<,'t. 
J. O'Ha'r.i and Lance-C'orpl. U. Cooper: Ptes. T. 1{. 
Kirhy, (. . Woodward, H. Maedonald, J. Saltniarsh, U. 
Hedley, .1. Cook: and Mn^'ler C. Harrison. Lance- 
Seri,'t. K. \'. Teai,'ue was awarded the ('/(m- ili (iinrni. 

Ill the 'rhirtt'cnth Caj)t. I. J^ewley displayed <,Meat 
initiative as a eoinpany eornniander, stiidin/r in valnahle 
rt ports and followiny ii|) the enemy with patrols when 
he retired. \e\t monniif,' he made a reconnaissance in 
person anu killed •_' Aiistnans. He won the Military 
Cross, as did I'nd Liciits. \. H. Wiflis and C. H. Hisliop 
for similar •,'ood work. 'I'he Distin^/mshed Conduct 
Medal wfiit to C.-S.-M. W . Donaldson, of I'elton. for 
hi.s j,'allant example dnrinj,' the lioinhardtneiit and his 
eiierj^'y in followinir uj, the retreatini,' Austrians and 
hrintriiiL' m prisoners. Ser^'t. .J. .\nderson, M.M., of 
\Vini,'ate, was also awardcil this medal. He handled 
liis Lewis <,'iins with tzreat skill .iml personally accounted 
lor the whole of the ti am of an enemy maehine-mm. 
I,aiice-Ser<,'t. H. Morrcll, I-ance-Corpls. \V. Hall and 
(.. Hewitt, and Ptes. T. Armstrorif,'. H. I'ariiahs, (;. 
\cale arul .). 1). (.ault were awanled the Militar>- 
Medal. Corpl. W. Clair. M..M.. received a l<ar to Ins 
deeorat ion. 

On .Imie •Jtith the (iNth Mrii,'adc were withdrawn to 
iliMsional reserve, lnit replaced the 70th in tlu- line 
ayain on .luly J-th. The 'I'hirtccnth were now mi the 
left and the Twelfth m rescr\<'. There was much raid- 
mi,' activity and retaliation hy th.e .\nstriai! hattcries 
followed. .\n enemy lunnhardmcnt [lersisted all day on 
the Tth and the Thirteenth took nj) hattle positions in 

'I'hc Diirhain l-'orccs in the I'ield 


thi' ailciiu.iii alter a Lcwis f^un iiaiii hau Urn killed 
liy a (Unci ami si vt rul oUrts WDUiuivd. The rest of 
tiie luiir was <,UMt and <>n July lOtii the Twelfth and 
TliiiUeiitli eli.mnid pints. Two days later the 
di\i-,i!)nal artdlery siiiipoited a raid of the Freiieh 
troop, liirther ea'sl am! th<' treneiies of the Twelftli 
wtri' shelled, one man In !n<: kUlfd and i wounded. 
I'atrols of liic Tw.lflh wtre aetiv.' ui the vieinity of 
Moiar and one Austrian \^as killed. 

'1 hr l.Mh Division relieved tlu" -.'.'{rd on .Inly VJOth 
and lioth Durham liattal.oiis marelu-d down the nioun- 
taiiis to Arzi;,'! alio <if Vieenza which was 
riaehed four da\s later. Here, in hot weather, training' 
was carried out and the troops felt the benefit of their 
newly issued tio, ileal elotliiii<,' khaki drill and sun- 
ii( Iniets. 

On Aui,'ust l">tli eaii;e a move forward to the line 
aj:aiii liv v.i'.v of ;iniisaiio and thence hy mule track 
till, on the r.ttli. 111. I'welfth airiNed at Mount C'avaletto 
ami the Tliirtienlli at a camp near Mount lirusalio. 
The ilNth Hri<-ad<' \\( ic now in reserve preparatory to 
taking over ih< ' ft of the Hritisn line with which they 
had made ae(|U.i Uiiiee on the tir-^t move to the moun- 
taiiis in March. 

Muskitr\-. lull trainiii;.' and reconnaissance (d tiie 
forward ana were done liy the Durhams liefore the 
Tliirteenlh relieved the '.tth Yorkshires in trenches on 
Auf,'Ust •JTth. The Twelftli moved into support at the 
siiiK tiiiie and pro\ ided workiiif,' j>arti<'s and patrols. 
'I'lit If was .me hostile shell tin', hut it was dillicnll 
to ifain cont.'iet with the enemy whose infantry were 
liiit desnoi'.s of an ern'eiinter. 

The Tw.lfth leli.vcd the lllli N.K. on tlu ntjlif of 
ilie l>n-;!di front on Si ptemlier Itli when the other 
l-'usiiier haltalioii replaei d the Thirteenth, who with- 
dresv to support positions ahout Mount [.enierlc. While 
here they pro\iil( d patrols who worked with an Italian 
s( .irehlii.'ht liut found little M<jn of the ( iiemy. There 
was sonic e\|)eetatioii of an .\ustri,'in retirement and all 

tloops w.ri liil.i O! II iillliess tc uixaliee if sUcil slloui<l 

orciii . 

Mnt I!'! ii;ni'e!ii:, Wire now t"! I'raner a!.'ain. On 

Ital\, March to September. H^18 

vdiictK!!' ill M *tiirt--!iaifiil"((ii strcnytli ivrry Hnt's'i 
I'iifradc III Italy ('((iitrilMittd (nic liattalioii to the re- 
ciiiistitutrd •.'.")tli Division for strvicr in rraiicf. On 
ScplcwilKT !lih the Thirticiil li were nlitvcd \>y tlic 
:tli F\.(). V.L.I, and inurclu-d to C'fntralc tliat satnc 
liiulit. Ilt'jf two (ia\s \v( i\' spent in preparation for 
tlif joiirncy and on S('})unilirr 1 l(h tlic liattalion cu- 
liaint'd ni'ar Tiiiriif for rrancf. 

'I 111- Tuclflii wvvf r(lii\(ii in t!u' fioni (renchts on 
.^rpt« inhcr loth and, aftt-r spi imIiiii,' six da\s in rcscrvr 
to tlif CtKtli I{ri;.'adf, they witlidrcw to divisional rtscr\c 
it Mount Matrnahoschi. W'ht n tiny moved np to a 
support i)ositi(in v)n the I'ft. four ilays later, patrols 
were provided as usual and, followiii},' a raid l)y Italian 
troofis fiirflier west, tlie (ihelpae t,'orye was explored 
for \voiu:ded. Tliis liroui,'lit to an end the stay of the 
!)iirliaiiis in the nioiintairis, for on I'titli 
thev were relieved liy the Italians and proceeded by 
mareh route and lorry, with some intervals for rest 
:.!ei traiiiin;.' on the \va\'. till on (>etolier ."itli thev 
le.iehed Montecehio Ma<'L'iori . 


! :i 

„ -11 





niAlTKU i 

OS M.nh -.'Is., Ulan in th. [..;: ..1 tlu .arly n.ornint,. 
thr (.rniWU, l.o.ts,! tl.r wl.i.' fluut hH.l 
l.v til.' British Fifth aii.l Thinl Annus no Nrvuv 
liattMhcMi uf Durham uas a. tuaily in thr iiii.- ; l-ut 
thr -l^t D.visuai ...vupi-.l thr srrt..r ahniit Lpr.y 
,.„„1 thr Kiftrrnth. ill r.srrvr at larramMut s,ncr hr 
l„.o,nnniL' uf thr nlh. unv s,,,,,, thruwii int.. thr 

'""\t -, •'-. VM Ihrv llM,Xr,l h.rNvai.i I., a |.nsiti..n (if 

,,,,;i,„,.. .,,u,h rr' iir,i.ii.'.,urt aiai '" '" 7" . 7;''";' 

..nlrrr.l tn orrupv tll.- - \Un.yu 1.1 fro-it of ha 
,,11.,,,,. r,, .lo M, th.v ha-l to pass tlirouyh a eh) mi 
,,f ,.as aihl thr 11, u i...sitio„ was .o.,n slulM hrrcrly. 
S,nons nrus ranir .hiriii- tlir aitmio,,,,. I hr nirmy 
ha.l Krok.ii thr hft of thr .1, visional trout ^'nj thr 
•• Vdlow" lioiii a i-oiiit soutii of thaprl Hill 
.^ ,,,„„,i.ii.lino spur, o^.r whirl, .an thr roa,l fro,,, 
llrti.hrourt to Villr,'s-( .uislam to soiur .iistan.r soutl. 
of thr Hru.iiroin-t-l'ri/i.-rr railuav. n^ as in his 
Thr Fiftr.aith. onlrrril to .ountrr-attark an.i rt- 

,.,,vr,- th. •• Yrllow" south of thr UrU.iirourt- 
Vaurrlrttr r.arn. roa,i, assrluhUM for this purpos. 
_^,,.„., ,1,.. ..,,,,ss., at Hailtoi, lialf . niilr rast 
,,,,„|,...„,,., hrh.rr 7.1.-. i-.M. llnrU m.nutrs latr 
Mm- assault was ,lr!p..rr-l m tiir hur of hravy ritlr aiyl 
,narl„nr-m. tirr. I hr Dmhams p. isrs ,,.,1 m 
.,f lossrs. Thr> narhr.i t hr t r.„rhrs an. 
drovi- out th. .-r.v mf.uitrv fr,.,n U-th thr fn.n an- 
support hn.s. l-„st Ml uas C. <f M ->. (.• I'^K. ..f 
>u,i'lrrhm.l. Nvl- .o,;..i a p a.....M. 1 hou,-h hr .rniauual .m dutv, an. w .s aft.Twan K 
..wn-.i..! thr nistiiurmsh.-.l Con.lurt! t..i 
.alhmt Nv..rk. (»Mr otluvr an.t m ..tiirr (.-rmans wnv 


The German Offensive. ]<>1S 

taken and litavy lossis wi-rr iiitiictod on the ciu'iny ; 
I. lit Lu'ut.-t'ol. " H. \V. I-Vstinj,'. D.S.O.. who had 
led his nifn witii j^rcat {,'allantry. ua^ kiUrd m the 
advance. C'apf. S. 1). 'I'liorpe, M.C. now assumed 

Tile Fifteentli loined hands on tin- -.outh sMth the 
■_'nd Liiieolns. hut tlie entiny stiil lield the trench to 
the left. 'I'liouLrh hercely shelled all the tui.'ht throutih 
the Durham^ tuade an effort at :< o'clock ne\t niornni^' 
to hon.h their %va\ northwards towards t hapei Iliil, 
which was still ni British hands. Some proi,'ress was 
made, hut the (icrmans had esta.hlishcd machme-muis 
111 tlu' du^'-oiits alon<i the r'lail winch crossed the trench 
ami It was impossilile to push past this |ioint, where 
a harncadt' was cstalilished and laid. 'I'hesc opera- 
tions were under the direction of "ind I.u iit. .S, Walton, 
uho had assuiiicd adjutant's duties and who for this 
and his siihsc()uent i^oud wt.ik r<cii\cd tin- Military 

.\t s A.M. the enemy liomhardment increased in 
\(ilume and an infantry attack foMouni. This was 
repulsed hy I.cuis i.'un and nlle Inc. Later in the 
niornini: the dcrmans came ^n auMin. tin* the line of 
111. Kilteenth stil! held linn. Th.' ho- ile siicll fire 
never slackened and at noon (urman infant r\ were 
i'liser\c(l massinjj for a fre-<h ;itt(ni|it. Tin Dnrhanis 
How received orders to \\ilhdra\\. .1 diliieult task with 
the eiieiiiv tnreatemnt? hoth flanks, lait the liattalion 
retired stciidily in l'ockI ordr' . thanks la^L'el^ 'o (apt. 
A. Holieits. who c'Miiniand'd in the fr^ail inn Mc 
.dsd won the Military I ro^>. 

The l-'iltciiith crossed the ••Hriwn" lane ami 
m.irched hack tn lai rammil which w.e- now a tiUj/et 
ha- the (ieriran L'nnncrs. The LaMalmn mosed out 
til tile Niirlu i-ad. and at ti.;<u cm. withdrew tn a 
position in the ••(■rttii'" lain on tiie hii.'h t.'rtii.iiil 
iK.rth-wesf of 'i'cmplenx-la-l'iisse. This retirement was 
n ndered neccss,ir\ hy the ad\ance d the eiiemv from 
the south and snuthtast which had tnrind the riL''<d 
tlank of the division. Ili ri the otiur liatlalioiis of the 
• iltii Hriyade were stru}:!.'iinL: dcsiit rateiy aini, during 
'!•■ im'lo i.f March •'•Jnd. ihe 1-.t Fast ^■. irks)iiri-s and 



i. j 



■' v 


The Durham lM)rcL's in the l-icki 


'.nil K.O.^M-.!. ioU-'lt th'ir \.a> tiil(.U:;ll Im ll.f 

•• r.rccii ■■ Liiir. Thi- l-'ift; viilh vv«-!<- u->\y iii twiuli 
uitli tlu- IKUli Hn,'::i<lr on tin- I'ft. luit llic 1 Uli 
(■louccstcrs h;i(i cuiiir in liitwn-n the l)uiii:iins ;ui(l 
Ii.. Yorkshin-iiicn. l!:i;in,i> a:ui .it.iiiiniutioii wciv 
iivailalilr and v.i it- mtv wiicinic 

At s o'di.rk nil 111.- ihnrimitr nf tin •.';ir<l tlic Ituitioii 
to the south was so l.ail lliat tlir tiUli lin:..>,ail.' wire 
.irdiT-il to coiilmii.- the ntrcat. Tlir 'I'orksliirciiicn 
,111 till- li-ht \V( ;.■ i'.ftackcd m tin !o;.' iK-iorc thry coiild 
ini>\('. l)iil tlir Fifti'.ntli liad to rtlin- in c ' r to con- 
forni to tlic liii-' on tin- The (;. nni infantry 
were now advanciiii,' npon the wliolc front and tlic 
Durhains wi'.lidrrw sttadiU . Ii!,'litin;,' all tin- wa\ . 
tiiroutrll a wo,. 1 on tllr s'lUtlltTIl slope of the liiirli 
j.'i(>iind. At midday tiic hattalion wiH' m iiosition 
1)( liiiid and to till- north of the little village of Ai/.eeourt- 
Ic-llaut. 'I'lic (■loiice^ters hail disapjieared and there 
were no British troops on tin- ri;.'ht. liUt on t!ie other 
Hank the rifteeiith were now in toiieii with the C.-Jiid 
I3rit,'a<l<'. The fo;; sidl hun<: m tiie air and throu^'h 
it came the (.ermaiis. s!ill prt^sin;/ their ailack. On 
the li ft of tile KlftiH Iltil th.' line liej^ail to retire and 
the li.ittalion follow. .1 suit. They went l.a(k thruiit,'li 
llaiit Allames and across the little Tortille mmt and 
tlu' canal, till. ;'t tin- cross-roads at Fcinllacoiirt , the 
lirij,'a(iier Iuj,mii to collect his scattered command. .\ 
line was formed east of tlie reromie-Houeha\ csncs road 
hy the ixhaiisted infantry of the (Utli Hni:..!!'' there 
wcri' liarely l.'JfM) left with the ri;,'ht i'H the cross- 
roads. Here two tield jinns \m re in action, replyini; 
valiantly to tlie accurate lire of the C rman hatteries 
now cstiili!ishc<l at .\i/.eeourt-le-Haut . while tlic road to 
("Ier\ was Mocked hy all kinds of transport m retreat. 
lUit the two Mritish ;,'iins were '-ooii sih need and .d 
jihout two o'clock m the afternoon the < neniy to the 
south occupH'd the spur ai Mont St. (iuentin which 
commanded tlic liri^'ade line. A retirement ((.mm<iiccd 
at once. straii,'ht ai'ross country under eiililade lire 
from the rii,'ht. and the survivors of the Kifteenth cn.nv 
to a stand east of t lery. with, the riLiht on the river 
Somme. On ihe I'h ry road a at <|uantit\ of trat.s- 


'I'hc (icrniaii Offcnsivt. I'MS 

port fi'll into (it-niiaii hami--. Fii:litiiif,' cuutiniu 'i in 
the niooiili^'lit and (lie ciifiuy iiiadi' fuitlitr [not,' its-,, 
so that tlif nj,'lit of tlic Durhaiiis drew Imck to the 
ca'-tcrn vi\iiv of Clt'iy wIktc llurc \S(ic seine of tlif 
Maciniif dun Corps. 

At s \.M. on ^^a^(•h '.'tth a fniious dcrnian lioin- 
l)ardnifnt was followed liy an nifantiy attack in <,'reat 
tnice half an hour hiter. C It ry could I'nt Ik Ik Id and 
tiic line Went hack a<»ani to a posit ii'ii in.rtli-easl of 
lleni and, t'\(ntually, anothir ."iOO yards to tlh' west. 
The '<i'\\\ I)i\ision wer.- now he^iniunir to arri\<- and 
in the afternoon a coiniti i-att,'ck carried (he luie foi'- 
uard a;.rain ; Imt .it li\t' o'clock e^'Uie another (.erinan 
thrust and the i.'i(iund thus <_'ained had to he re- 
luKjuished. As darkness fell th'- rit,'!it of the Fifteenth 
rt sted c)n the Sonune at C'urlu. Here the o.'dh Division 
took over the line and the sur\i\(irs of flu hattahon 
withdrew to billets at Suzanne. 

A nio\(' hack to I}ra\ was maile <in March -.">tli 
and here till' tiltli Hrij.'ade foiiued a Idniposite bat- 
talion. 'I'hc Kiftei nth pro\ideil one \veak (oiiipanv 
uiuhr I apt. {-'. .S. Herliert. .M.C, and in this way the 
division j,'ot tojiether a hri<,Mde 1 ..")(•(> stront: which, 
under (fcmral Headlani, was a\ailahle as a reser\e. 
(apt. H(il)crt"s men. after \arious nio\(incnts. fouiui 
thernschcs in position tlie same e\tnii!'_r in trenches 
north atid north-vast of liray. 

Another eomj)osite (•om|)any was foiined hy the 
I'iftcentli at Chipilly on March '.'t'.th. This di tach- 
ment, which nuinh<'re(l TO. was placed under the com- 
mand of Lieut. \V. (iood and joined a second Com- 
[-ositc Battalion. Meanwhile tiie stra lers wlio came 
m were collected at the transport lims at lieaucoiirt 
and Intel at IJonnay. On March ;;oth the Fifteinth 
Were located at .\llonville where, on the last day of the 
month, (apt. Herbert and Lieut, dood rejoined with 
their men. haviiiij l)een m resirvt the whole tunc. 
Major C". E. H. HolroN <i-Smyt h. M.t'., Mrd Dra^'oon 
(iuards, now arrive*! to lake command (-f the liat- 

in the lieH\v liuhlmj; of tlie four dass comment iiil; 
on Manli 'ilsl the Fifteenth had lost l,s»i in killed. 




Ihc Durham lorccs in the l-ic!d 

wouiiilid iiiui iiii>siiif,', l«cM(l<'s 1(1 otlicfrs. Ainoiif.' tlie 
killfd. iiH.rtallv wouiidrd and niissiiif,' were Luut.- 
Col. H. \V. Festinu. D.S.O. ; Capts. T. A. L. Welch 
aihl C. \V. 1". liark.r, MA.; ■Jiid Ki.iit. \V. H. Wilson, 
H. .1. Halt . A. W. L. llushand. W. I'ark. W. (;ardii(r, 
L. Wilson, and H. .s. TiirntT. (apt. .1. St'di.'wu'k. M.C. ; 
Licnts. K. H. Saunders. M.l'.. M. S. (). O'lin-'ii and .J. ' 
K(y; and -.'nd Li.uts. J. C . Tn-{,Ha and C. Steptunson 
\VtTc woundrd. 

S'.on alter llif l-"iftetntli ent(3red the hattle the 
Kleventh hei/an to assist \n eovcrin;,' tlie lirdisii retreat 
south ol tlie Soniine. The -'(tth Division Wire in restTve 
helnnd tlie rinht of tin- Fifth Army and the Pi(.neers, 
hicated prinei|)ally at (.olaiieoiirt ant! \'o\t lines, re- 
ceived orders to ••man hatlle stations" at •;.•_'(! a.m. 
on March '-Mst. lvirl\- in the afternoon the com- 
panies <'on<-ent rated m h>a\y marchinj: order at dolan- 
court and hit for N'illirs St. (.'hristophe. north of the 
Somme canal. Here C'aj't. .lee. with (1 otheers and 
\n'A men. was detaeh.-d to n port to the Divisional 
Heinforermcnl Hattaiion at Mati^iiix and later ni the 
evening: I) roinpaiiv , under Fuul. M. C'lHipcr, were 
sent to t hr lilst 1{| i^'ad( . 

'I'lie iie\t morninj: lirou<.dit no n>\\^, hut heavy 
tinnti was li.ani awa\ to the north-east in the direction 
of Hohioii Wood and St. (^iieiitin. Colonel Hayes 
iirraiif.'- (i to support th^ .'I'.Mh Hri<:ade and in the after- 
noon till- two eomiianits nio\cd t<i (.ermaine accord- 
ing,'! \. Hill onhrs then eaiiK from tli<' di\ision. The 
F,li veiitli were re(iuired to iill a j:ap lietwctn tin (ilst 
and fiUfh Hniradrs on the line 'ruyiiN -l-avcsne. ('omint: 
southward al nmt . tie- eonimandiii;.' otlicir found a 
support eoinpaiiv of ihf fJth I\int:"s (iU^t Hrij,'ade| 
and Ins own D (■■iinpaiiy du^' in astride the Tuj^ny- 
Diiry road. H\ N I'.M.. when \ an<l 15 comi>ames 
.irrived. the had had to evacuate TuuiiN ami 
the siippoft line thus lieeanie the front line. .\ and H 
( oiiipanies. from n>.'lii to left, tilled the f:ap hetween 
D company aid the Shropsh.ires of the cnth Mrijrath' 
in position further north. Hefore '.• p.m. (apt. F.ndean 
repi>rteii that 1) eoiiiiian\ and the Kiiil.''s had i.tired. 

The Cjcrman Of tensive, UM<S 

k'liviiiij tlic rii.'lit ilank of A ciiinpiiiiy txitosrd. A tluck 
f"^' liad <;atlurf(i and tlir ciK-iny iii Tu^iny foiild ikiw 
lie 'uard slioiitiiif; iii Knj,'li.sli and niakmij a lot of 
noise. Coloinl Hayrs would not ntirt- without orders 
while there were .-.till troops on his left, so posts wero 
du^' to cover the ri}iht think. Patrols soon found, 
however, that the fiuiiiy were already throu^'h the line. 
.Soon after inidni{,'ht H eoni|)any were rusheii from the 
rifjht rear and there was eonfustwl ti<,'htiii<:, with 
Durhains. .Sfiropshires ami (iennans all mixed toi;ether 
III the fof,'. On the rit,'ht Capt. F-ndcan and A com- 
pany fouj,'ht stouth', hut in withdrawing' one party 
came under inacliinc-i.'un lire at close ranjje and w»-re 
all killed or wounded. 

.\hont 70 men <if tln' Kle\fnth. with AO of tlic 
.shropsfiires and some of the Machine dun C'or[)s. weic 
collected south-west of Aiihi^rny and svithdrew down 
the Hani road, having' a rear^'uard under "Jiul Lieut. 
Knylish to support two Vickcrs tjuns whicli were still 
Hi action. On the \va\- to Ham Colonel Hayes n - 
ccived orders to hasten to Olioy and hold the tiridi.'e- 
hcad there. 

Meanwhile (apt. I'lndtMii. with •Jiid I.ieiits. (.alley 
and Lrai}.' and ahoiit ^0 vi<i\ of .\ compan\-. had foiiyht 
a way out m the foi,' tlirou;,'h Dury to Ham. C.-S.-M. 
T. ,] . t'ra}.'(,'s. of l}ish<ip .Auckland, had done Ihe same 
\\ith a part\ of H company ami some men ol tln' I{itle 
Hn^Mde. I'or his ..rallantry in the retreat this warrant 
otlicer was .iflcrwards awarded the Dist inunisht d 
Coiiducl M(dal. 

In the earls moiiiiii<f ol March '-'.'ird Cojdiiel Ha\<s 
reached Offov and organised the men who wen with 
liini iiitii one eonipan\ under tlie cdminand of I.iciil. 
Hushcll. •Jiid laeiits. Sl.irtin. Navb)r and Kii<.'lish were 
also availalile. ami sm was C.-.s.-M. Crajii/s. who had 
manaf,'ed to rejoin. Ii> this time the I'.'th K.n.|{.('. 
had arrived and taken over the defence of the canal 
it Offoy. The Eleventh, with a few of the Shropshires, 
litn|,.n;,'cil this line to the rii.'ht where another hat- 
lalion of pioneers had been diut'ii't.' In fore retiring,' at 
daylight. The position reached as far as the outskirts 
nt C'anizy and touch was otitaiiied with the .'Mlth 




The Durham lH:»rccs in the Field 

Eiitrriicliinj,' IJH'.tiilion. iioMinj,' the liiif of tlic canal 
and tliat \iii;i;,'f. 'I'larc was tt'!'])!i()iiic funninuiica- 
tion uitli flic (idlli l{n,;a(ic at li 'ii.lil.ux and the (hiy 
passed (juutly. .\! dusk the Uernian snipers were 
active and after daik ian;c iinists of ii);;ehine-t,'un ai,(i 
trencli-iiuirtar lire 

A* aliout i i)"c!(iek (in ihe indrnni^ cf Marcli ■Jt-th 
C'a{>l. l^nihan. 'Jnd l/nnt. (iaihy and tivrv .'i!i nun of A 
company rt joined. i lie niovcnicnts nf tiic ti'oops on 
tiie ii;iht \ierc \ ■ ry uneeitani, so ( olnn< I Moore, coni- 
niandni;; tlic Kities, -ihtaiiuii the a-sistance of two 
[ihitoons (if the -' Tlh VVarwicks io secure tlie ri^'ht 
llank. 'I'hcy were nistrueted to di(,' in south-east of 
(.'arn/y and to keep a staiidinLT pa.trol at the liroken 
fodtliriduc At <! A.M. (iernian artilUry and niortats 
concent iate(i on (_'ani/.y and assistance fmiu tlic IJritisii 
artillery was asked for hut lirouyht nu reply. When 
da\li^'ht caiue there a tinek foy. Xo reports had 
lieen reccixcd front the Warwicks at Cani/.y and ji 
patrol sent out did Udt r( turn. A whole company of 
the "J Till Warwicks now arrived and were puslied out 
towards the rit'lit llank. .\t aliout s a.m. rille and 
machnie-t^im lire was ojxiied on tlie railway from 
Cuiiizy and H companv retired. .\.s the (oj,' lifted the 
(Jerniaiis wire sctn advancinj; from the villai,'e. hut 
tire was opened on them and they retreated, H coni- 
|iany r(.;,'aipin(; their trcncii. A (lerman aeroplane 
Hew low over the position and tapit. Kndean reported 
tliat the enemy wire comm^' down tlic llani-N'esle 
road. Other rctirm;,' trcnips of many units now helped 
to form a defensive llank on the riL'lit and a counter- 
attack kept the enemy in check. Hut tdlonel Hayes, 
with Lieut. Cooke and 'Jnd Lieut. EUwood, recoimoitrcd 
to the soutii and found a i,'reat ;^aj) in the line extctid- 
m<i as far as Ksmcry Hallon. I'oIdHel Moore, with 
siiine of his own rcj,'iment and s(in\c of H company of 
the Eleventh under C'.-.S.-M. (rajii^'s, were still iiold- 
iiif^ on l>y the railway, hut parties of Hritish troo])s 
were now retrcatintr down the road towards \esle and 
also tlnonj/h Hond^leux. Early in the sifternoon the 
(icrmans were on the ridfje ovcrlookmi,' the Ihnidilcux 
road and H compan\ and the Itilh s lust mana{,'ed to 


Tlic Cicrnian ()fftMisi\i\ HMS 

'it a\va\ 111 tiiiu' ihruiii'h 


(uulili u: 

tlu' canal al 
f some 

lnr ( 

lireuil. Tlit-ir retreat \va> covcrnl \<\ t'lit 
t niiadian inntur iiiac'hiiK'-<,'uns. 

All thf iiicii of the 'JOtli Division \v!.o could he 
(ollcctcd were plactil in position west oi tlie canal 
lietweeii Uuvercliv and Ikeiiil. The ni).rht was (|uie1, 
except lor hursts of rille and niacliine-iiun lii'e from the 
French tioops who assisted to hold the canal lank. 
On March '-'."jth Colonel Hayes and Liiut. (.'ooke were 
^i-nt to assist in rcstorincj the siluation at Lan<,'iievoisiii, 
ulicrc the line threatened to f.'ive way. In the e\fiun;,' 
I he l!i)oi)s near Hreuil found their ilanks had heeii 
diiven in riid a tii,'litinj,' retreat was n.ade through 
( ressy to Hoye, where there ciiine a hieathini,' si)aee. 
(. uloncl Ilaycs. wh.o had hcen affected hy yas shells 
durinj,' the day, now collapstil and went for a leu 
davs to Hoiieii. He was succeeded hv tapt. .Sear. 

C'apt. .Ice's party rejoined at Ko\t' next day. Oti 
the evcniiif,' of Marcii -J-ind they ha(i iIult a rcar<,'uanl 
p(,sition north of the Mati«:ny-l)ouilly road, facin;: north- 
east, and had retired from tliis line to Voyennes at 
midnitrht. Next niornini; they covered the witlidrawal 
of the Vind Scottish Hitles across tiie canal liridfre there 
and marched l)ack at '.> a.m. over the Noyon canal 
to dii; a line facmj; nortli-east near Lanj,'iievoisin. 
I'ntil midday -Jnd Lieut. Kin^j and "JO men held a 
front post on the left think of the Hitles. In the after- 
noon came orders to sujijiort the ."i'.tth Hri^'ade and a 
position was accordin^dy taken up ;ii ."> p.m., faciuur 
north, ahout a mile north of l»<)ii> -le-l'et il . .\t dawn 
.if the •_'H!i came another (i. rman onslauL'ht .'uid hy 
nine in the inornint; tlie Durhams ucre holdini,' a piirt 
nf the front. An hour later they L'ave siipfiortiii},' tire 
to an unsuccessful counter-attack of the dlst Division 
fro! : Mesnil-St. Nicaise towards Hcthencourt. In the 
e,u-!v afternoon the enemy took Houv in tlie rear and 
a defensive Hank was duj; on the overlookiii" 
the villa<,'c. Here ".'nd Lieut. Dodds was wounded. 
Kventually a lino was estahlished to cover N'esle, i.orth 
of the N'csle-IIam road, hut an intense tire luat upon 
the trendies next mornim,'. Troops on the h ft were 


1 -} 

'I'hc Durham l-orccs in the I'icld 

forced to r<tir(, inxolviiij,' (.apt. Jet's willidrawal 
astride the iiiaiii road from Nesle to llove. Freiieli 
tr()(){)s were now arriving and. m eonjunetioii witli 
tlieni, at) outpost line was taken up -JOO yards south- 
west of the Herly-Hillaneourf road. Wlien at ."> p.m. 
the (iermans attacked afraui tlie Durhatns c.jvered the 
withdrawal of the French, retirui<: on the latter wfien 
they were estahlislied Ml Het hoiivilli rs. In tlie early 
hours of till- •_'t;th came orders to rejom tlie liattalion 
at Uoye. 

On the afternon oj March -.'(ith the Eleventh were 
detailed to di^ deft , ices in the nei^rhhourhood of le 
Quesiiel. and at 7 .:W i>.M. tliey marched off down the 
Aniicns road to Arvillers. Near this viUau'c the m{,'ht 
was spent m dij.'}iin« and unprovintr trenches and 
C'apt. Jee performed a vaiualile reconnaissance as far 
as Erehes and Houchoir. Tht- r.niauis of 1) company 
now jomcd the battalion. 

When discovered l)\- the commanding ollieer in 
trenches l)eh)re Tuj^'iiy on thi' eveninj,' of March 'J'Jnd. 
I) company were at the disposal of the T-'th Kinj,'*s. 
Thev were suddenly onh-red south of the .*<onune Canal 
and bivouacked for the m<.'ht on the OUt 7y-Soinniettt- 
Eaueourt road m support to a comiiany of the Km<,''s 
on tile canal hank. The (.ermans crossed the canal at 
Olle/\- before morning' and 1) company then (inn and 
liehl two posts ill the path of thr tlinabiied advance, 
laeut. Cooper, with three platoons, was located about 
thrce-tpiarters of a mih- west of .Vniiois and •-Mid Lieut. 
Duckefl, with thr other platoon, was a mile further 
west. At tw.i in the afternoon of March '.'Mrd a com- 
pan\- of th>' t'.'th Kind's retired and Lhut. Cooper 
covered them with his fire; but tin- emiuv was m no 
f»reat strength, and tli<' Kinj:"s ;id\anct(i ajram into 
.\nnois Wood, '.'nd laeiit. Dm kilt also advanced to 
siipiMirt another coini)any of the i\iiit:'s in front of 
Cuj.'ny. He and his |)labioii W( rr no more seen. .\t 
('. P.M. a company of the Kuit:"s retired aj^ain and 
about •_'(• men of the Somerset Li<!ht Infantrx. with •_' 
otlicer>, withdrew across tlie railway on the left. The\- 
reported that there were no Hritisli on that tfank and 
this Wiis eontirmed bv a patrol. F^forr 7 p.m. it 

The Gcnnan Offensive, 1918 

iij>|)(ari(i that the tr()<)i).s on the rijjhf lia<l rrtircii to 
( iij,M)y ami I) coinpaiiy then rttreatcd ui that (lirt-c- 
tioii. Luut. CooptT canu' npon a company of an Irisli 
rtyiincnt , hut he (ircided to contiiuu' his withdrawal 
ni the (lirtrtion of (imscanl. The viUa},''" <if C'li^ny 
was (iest'rted and the Durliain imn hd on in th<- dark- 
ness, ".'nd Lieut. Hanks heinj; h-ft to assist tlie Irish 
iiMiccr to j,'et his men hack. Tliey did not foihtw and 
were not st-en airam. At N'lHesehe w«-re foimd the 
htad(iuaiters of tiie tilst Mn;j;ade and I) company 
procured tliree lioxts of amiuimition, biscuits, and 
M'Uie tiimeci meat all very hadly needed. At ti a.m. 
nil th<- monunj; of March "JMh 1) conipan\ moved 
forward i?i tlu- U>^ from Villeselve l)ut found no umt 
of the <)lst HriL,':ide. so du;,' in facing north on a road 
ahout a mile out, m com|)any with some Irish troops. 
Machine (iun Corps an<l others. At noon the mist 
cleared and the position was shille<l from the south 
and the east. The troops on the left retired at H I'.M. 
and half an hour later the com|)any followed as far 
.Is a sunken road just outside \'ilK'selve. Here were 
fi'und the 7th I). C.L.I. At four o'clock cavalry and 
I'mich tiiiltdilli "ame hack throutrh the position and 
K ported the en^ advancing; steadily. His machine- 

l.'uns Were st)on a a' to sweej) the top of the road and 
a (ierman aeroplane Hew low over the position. \\ 
ii I'.M. held {.MUis opened from harely a mile uway ; Uien 
hij,di explosixf slirapne! hurst i)\'erhead and the line 
could holil no longer. The on way of retreat lay 
IhroUfih Vilieselve and for the first "iOO yards was swept 
hy maehinc-yun fire. Before eiyht o'clock I) company 
leached (.uiscard. to find the i)lace crowded with men 
and horses in retreat amidst clouds of yas. In the 
larkness and confusion the Durhanis hecanie scattered 
and Lieut. Ci^oper reached Muirancourt two hours later 
with only t men. He |)Ushi(i on south-westwards to 
Hussv , where, in the nud<ile i>f the niyht, he found 
'1 other otlicers and eollcctcd •2."» st raf.'>.'lers of the tilst 
Hiifiade. At M o"( lock on tin- mi>rnin^' of March "J.'itli 
^1 me (avalry came tliroui,'h and reported that tlieie 
wvrr niily mounted men in front and that they wer«^ 
tctirnifr. Lieut. Cooper then set out for Ho\e, which 

'I" he Duihatn l-ortcs in tht 1-icUi 

1,,. rraclu-.l 111 Ihr ;illrMi,,nii. aipi i,.xt <iay \u- r.-joinod 
tile li.lltalloll. 

Oil 111.- iiinrniii^' of Mar. II -.lli Irnops lA Itu- at-th 
Division on 111.' ntxlit of ti='' Kl. \<'ntli l..M.'aii t.i ntirc. 
This tiir tiaiik of t'lM- PioniTrs; Imt tlu- (.frnian 
a.ivaiirc snn,..l to I'.' lovvanl- the l.ft of tlu' Inn- 
ami patrols -•nt out at .In.k f<ni:i,l no si^iis ..f attack 
upon III.- l.attah.Hi fi.Mit. The Ki-.iidi w. r.' to tak. 
„v.T v::v\v ui, Manl. -i.^Hi an.i lia.i l..'t.'Uii U, 
(in s,, v.h'cn a '.li.'il. ii.ivc lH.inl,ar,linrnl v as followr.l 
ii\' a (iciiiian a(i\an< r. 

An a.ivani'c.l post of lli. Kl' 'v.ulli iv.. i\r.l several 
.lin-el lilts uiu.-li .lainaui.i tiie l-.^vis {.'Uns and furred 
tlie iii.-n to uilh.iiav,. (.<nnan mfatitry w. r.' now seen 
inas-,in.' in Mie w.^ on ili.' riL'lit an.l tli.' Latlaiion 
Uirew l~.aek a .1- |. ii-,i\ ■• Hank. A r. ,nntrr-att aek was 
or<'a!iised. l.i:i il v.,1-. nl.vions tliat tlie .•n.niy weiv 
Inu slroiiL'-. sUll 11-. p.^MMon was maintaiiKd till later 
Ml l!i.' iia\. wh.ii .inl.Ms wcr-' r.cived to i-tire on 
Fresnoy. Mv tli-' ev. nm.^ tii.- Kl.v.ntlu n..w in r.serve. 
in. I reaelie.!' a \vo,,d h-liind Mezi.res. wli-re tli.- niL'lit 
Nvas sp.nt ill the ram. laj.t. W. !.- S. Pend^ertoii, 
M.l'.. !e|oiiie,l tlie hat'ah.iii h. re and tm.k eoinniaiui. 
Next inoriiin;,' tiie C.rnians attacked along the 
Ann.ns road aii.l enter.'.l Mezi.'r.s. At .'i.!:. i .^^. tlie 
kle\enlh e:dl. .i Mi'on t,. r.-capturc tli.' vdla^'e, 
tiiou^'ii tliev ha.l .inly D'.o ni. n h ft . At lour .. eioek 
llie li'ttle for.'.' emerjii-.i t!ie w.H.d and w. id h.rward 
witli great spirit, (rossin-.r tli.' ..pen j,'ronn.i, a trench 
niorta'r liarrr.L"' was eii-'ountercd and enfilade niaehine- 
.'un lire smote Onlv h.r.' ami Iher.' eoiiM small 
-Hnips of m.ii !,"t ttiroudi til.' I.arri.r .'f hursting 
Chelis and I'Mp'- !'cmlu'rt..n ah.ait 'lO Dnrliams 
uith him NNli.n il.' .nter.-.i 111.' villa;;.'. H.' puslied on 
until only •_' survive. i. an.l llun willidiew. On the 
left -.'n.! Lieut M. H. King ha.i also rcacli.d Mezie.'cs, 
luit all his partv w.'re kille.l and wound. .1 anil after 
workiiv a Lewis .nui witli great .IT. et lu' n turned 
,.,l,,iu-. "liolli oiliecrs were award-.i tli.' Mihtarv C' 
The Kleventh were n.AV withdrawn lo a j...siti..n 
l„t\v.en Tli.nnes ami Hourg.s. ami pas.-.i t h.- nigtil 
in peace. O'., ih.' m .rning ol March KiMl, a i, t' 

The Ccr.nan Offensive, HMS 

was ()l)s(rv<i| uii tin- lift and tl;c Frcin h troops on 
Ihr ii;,'lit wiif also sttii to in- m iftnat. 'i lie (urmaiis 
v.irr now in Moniiil wo(k1 and the liattalion forirnd 
.1 dili!isi\( liaiik 111 tills (lircclion. Lattr m the day 
lavalry rt'storcd the Inic Ihtc 

Ni'Xt nioinm;; the ( iit my attacked a;,'ain. Capt. 
Pindirrton look li;> intn up the liill south-fast of 
( lirntKs and joined tlH> ea\:ilry in line less than half 
a mile from the enemy m the wood^. At I I'.m. eame 
.1 determined advance, liiit ntle and Lewis ^'iin hre 
stopped the jrrey infantry who retreated, leaving' many 
ilead and wounded l.ehnid tjiem. C'aj)t. Mndeaii was 
Wounded during' this action. There was some .sh,-llin}« 
alter tliis, hut the evening,' and nij,'hl i)assed without 
further incident and no fr-sh attack developed on 
April 1st. In the e\(iiini; came relief. Murchin<,' to 
the Amiens road, the hattalirjii- now the streni,'tli of 
1 stroll!: [ilatoon journeyed by hus to (^uevavillers, 
some twtUe miles soutli-W;st of the eitv. 

[.osses in the ranks durinj,' these ten days totalled 
l"i.">. and there were 1'.) casualties to oiliecrs. Anion^; 
I he killed or niissin;,' were 'Jnd Lieuts. \V. (i. Crai;', 
U. H. {.alley. H. Rutherford. W. T. Alexander, W. 
Hanks, V. (,. Duek-n. 1'. Arnott, i). K. Ellwood. 
'1'. W. Applcfxarth and (. .\. Morris, and l,ieut. 1{. 
liushell. -Jnd Lieuts. I'. Xavlor. K. \V. Knfjiish, \. V. 
t.ihson, .1. H. Dodds, A. K. \Vilkms(,ii and H. .L 
\Vliitlield, and C'apts. \V. (.. L. Sear. MX .. and W. .L 
Kndean were all wounded. 

Script. W. l5a\Held. of .Soiitli >!ii'lds. lia<l L?-cat|y 
liist int,'uisiicd himself in handling,' his Lewis ^'uns. earr\-- 
mr> on desi)ite his sev-ral woumls. lie was awarded 
the Distinguished Conduct Medal. Corpl. IL Harrison, 
who had done j^allanl iind devoted servici- l)ofh durint; 
the retreat and iti the KlaiKieis titrhtinj,' of l^tlT wtiile 
ill command of the divisional o1iS(r\ers. receive(] the 
same reward. 

The mu-rative of tlie Twenty-.^eeond, who foutrht 
• n tlie immediate left of the -JOfli Divi-ion, now con- 
•ludes the story of the retre;it south of ihe Somiur. 

■\s soon as the storm broke thr sth Division were 


The Durham lorccs in the Meld 

hu.Tir.l n.ruar.i aii.i Manl. ■.':ini saw t!ir 'Uun\y- 
S.coiul l.ill.t(.i III H..M(n-s alt.r coining' south from 
Vprrs. Thf l)attali()n win^ iii res. rvc. hut next day 
thr sth took ovtr part n\ Hi-' fmnt nf Ihr snrcly 
harass.-, i -.oMi (Nnrthuinlaiaii) Division aii'l at V a.m. 
thf I' h.-aii march h.rwanl throytxh 
Chaulurs. l-'nsii,s. .iiui Mar.hrlpul. '1 h.y nst.d awluh' 
Ml Oniucoinl. th.n ninwd t,. I'.rtam. In H"" '[fttT- 
lUKiii .V coinpaiix I'x'k np a poMtioii w.-st ,.f Morcham. 
hut hll ha<k iii thr .vrmii^ !.. a hnr .".IHI \ar(ls west 
,,f l><)ttc Wu.hI wh.rr. witli U (.niiipaiiy. n.w tr.iich.-s 
w.r,- .111" an. I .K.u|.i.d. Tlu- l>attal!..ii u. f uii.l.r 
.„■.!. rs ..flh.- -'.-.Ih Hn-a.l. aii.l hruli:.'.! a t,'ap 
Ih.' Mil aii.l til.' -JiMh l)i\isi..ii ..11 th.' n^'hl. (-■ cxiupaiiy 
iiinamcl in r. -..rvc at 1'' rt'in 

Diirn-i,' th' iii-lit -Jiul la. 'lit. \V. 11 O I).ll. M.M-.' a sue.', ssfnl r.'c.nnaissani.- tu,il-St. Ni.aisr 
;,nil !', \V...iih hrini.'m.j: iii vahiahh- iiif,)rrnati..n. 
\( ',» \ M, ..11 Mar.'h -'.".th .am.- an attack hy inass.'s of 
(..■rnian mhuitrv who hul aniph- artiM.iry -npi'ort. 
hilt til, Tw. ntv-S.coii.i h,.l'i on till tii.y w.r. in (hin^'tT 
,,| hciiii: airr-.nii.l.'.i. KiulitniL' all th.- way. th.- 
Dnrhaiiis t.,.'n r.-tr. at.-.l. Tlu y r. a.-h.-.i ( )nu.-<-..nrt l.y 
n..on an, I h. hi .m tli.-r,' till to r.tir.- t.. tlu- 
ri.ii:,- n..rth-.-asi ..f Ihaiiln.'s. This lin.- Aas r.-ach.'d 
ni thr .-vcnin}:. Heavy loss.-s snstainr.l this .Ifly 
iiiid inaiiv <:allant .h-'.-ds w.-n- .l..n. . (apt. A, H. 
liulisen. M.C. h-.i lii^ .-..ini-ain \ > ry <:all;Hd!y aixj 
rxtricat.d his ni.-n \Mth ;.'n-at skill from a critical 
p,.-,ition uh.n half ha.l h. < n kill.<l .-r w..iindcd. -.'n.l 
I, lent. \. .1. H..ssa,k. M.M.. w- nt r..ruar,l nmicr hca\y 
nth- and m.ii'hin<-i:un tir.' .and i;ot in t.,Mch with tin- 
troops ..n th.- left ..f th. t.atla!i..ii. Laut. (has. (Tillott 
led \u> 111. n until li. ha.l h.-.-i uonnd. ,i thr.-.- timt-s, 
iuni was afterwards awanl.-.l the Military ( ro^s. Lieut. 
T. \\ . Il,.\\.-v an. I Corpl. ph (.r(.n l-loiked a coin- 
numi. aii.m Ir.-ncli .i.'wn ulneh the eiietny were advane- 
ni ' t.i turn th.- Hank .d th.-ir (-..mpany and, m spite 
i.f'naeliMie-utin tin- and snipcis. they yot a Lewis jiun 
in t., s\\.,-p this tn-neh. ( orj)l. Cr.-.-n was 
awarde.l th. Military Medal. C-rpl. K. l)..dd^. wl... 
won lilt- same dernratioii, reinaiiK-d with hi^ men. 


The Offensive. l^MS 

tliiiU;^:i vviiiiiHlfd. Hiiil liy Ills f.NanipIc li.lp. d tu sii\<- ii 
iiitical situHtidii. V\i\ Williaiii Walsoii cdnrctcd a 
I>Hrty (if slrai.';_'icrs and rt iiifoict d tin line, takiiij,' coiii- 
MNUid wlurc all til.- N.C.O.s had fall-n. IM.'. Hnl.,rt 
('iiltniaii. a CDiniiaiiy niiiuiT, was \uiii;idcd carlv in 
tin- attack luit (Miiitiiiucd ins duties nnder heavy tire 
nntil \(ry hadly Int. C'or|)i. TliDiiias Stimelraise w s 
in eliaij,'e (if two Lewis i^ruiis and wluri all the ttaii 
'if (III.' u\i\\ were hit he siTved the ^Mlll hlTlPelf till 
all the aminuniti'.n was i,',ine. 'Ihi ii he lirmi^ht it 
liaek under deadl\ lire. I'te. Waiter llanscine cnii- 
Mnued tu ser\e his I,e\\ is i,'iin til! all had retired ami 
Ihcn liniuj^'lit it (i,it of aeti.' All these ^.'allant men 
n eeived the Military Medal. 

At dawii MM March ' the hattalinn withdrew tn 
l.didiis and at 7 a.m. were in imisiIidh east (if the villaj,'( 
astride tin I>ihnns-('lianlnes load. In the aftt riuKin 
they went hack heyiind Kiisierts, ht int; iiuw in di\ ismnal 
reserve with the 'J."ith MriLrad.'. 

Hefdre iiudn tievt day the eiiem\ had prissed jns 
advance ahm;,' the sdiitherii hank m' the .Sdiniiie to the 
left df the sth Division and the siluatidii near Provart 
was critical. At l,;5(l p.m. th<- Tweiity-Secotid started 
for llarlidiini. res to ( (iiiiitt r-attaek m cdtupanv with 
'he '.'nd I)e\iins, I)( j)ldyinL' nortli-t ast df 'li>' \ilhif,'e 
udli 1} cdinpany nn the ri^rht of the reL'ular iiattalioii, 
Mie counter-attack was lauiiclicd with ^Tcul dt t< rmina- 
'ou. Till' (iernians were driven '■-.^k across the main 
Amiens road and letnated towards Pro\art. leaving 
iiiaiiy prisoners in tin hands of the !)e\ons aiuJ 
Durhanis. \ thousand \ards hvyond the road a tn nen 
•Aas St i/ed and Inhh Thoiij/h losses were li'.'ht, (cn- 
sideriliL' what had hrr\\ acconiplished, Lieut. -Cdi. 
('. H. >!dri:an. D.S.O. who ha<i taken the Twentv- 
secdiid to France in r.Ht! .and continu d in coininand 
I vrr since- was so Imdiy wounded that he died two 
days later. The command devolved upon Major J. 1). 
"*Iifehell. ('apt. A. If. IJdhson, M.C. was a^'ain pn»- 
•iiiH lit III actidii. as were "iiul Lieut. lIossMck. >LM.. 
:d •Jnd Lieut. C. V. ?:astWood. .Sertrt. (.:etinf,' 
( .-.'^.-^!.) Hohert ( . W lit rley and ."^erirt. V. Heuson won 
the .\lilitary Mcthil for their work as platoon eoin- 


fi^ ; 



f i 


11ic Durham Forces in the Field 

tiiiilHiiTs. Laiii'r-S.T}.'t. .Iiiiii.s W'ljzlmiii, will) killed 
iiiaiiv (.rnnaiis. was ii\\<-][ liic -ainr tltci.rat loii and 
another vetv gallant man was l.aner-l'orpl. Krnest 

Lillllherl Wlln tn.ik -liat-e .'I' l)ls lilatnull ^vlll II l)otll 

sul>alfeni ami scri.'raiit killed nr wdiuuleci. 

The pn.ltlnii tlllls nvcII mllld Hut Im- held for loT'-.i:. 

as l.v lli<- iiioiimi^' uf Matvli -Jsth tli.' whole hue of 
th.' .sth !)i\i-ioii uas in iianu«r <<i ixiii!.' enveloped 
fioni th-' north and s.mth. A and I' eoinpanies of the 
Twenty-Second withdrew to ( ai\ ami t'neii to Mi.nsel. 
'I'his was m.t d;.ne withmit dillienlty. hnt Lieiil. (.t(,r<.'e 
(.■. Hec.y handled hi- I.ewis ^ims hnldlv and well, in- 
dict in}: hea\ \ hisMs (.11 tiie . neni\ and elieekin*,' Ins 
advance. 15 e..nipan\ eanie k later to t ai\ and 
Ihen nio\ed t(. .Iinm I. npun the ri\<T Nuye. where 
on »!,.• ev<ninL' "f March -J'.Mh h wh..le l.attalioii 
(■Diceiit rated. 

Th.- next <{.\\ the Tu.-nt v-.SeeomI moved nortl, to 
<.u\ene<inrt. and then to (. o tmehy. luil in the ixcnin},' 
1hc\- t'lok up a position north-west o! tin Moreinl- 
Deniinn road, with tiair rnrht tlaiik on the iA'^v of 
Moreuil Wood. H and ( I'oinpani's held the front 
with .\ compan\' m ieser\ • . 

The moriiin;: "f March ;Ust pass.-d (imctly. .\t 
noon a fnrioiis hondiardmeiit opem d and tifteen 
inimites later tin (iirnian infantr\ came ..n in ;,'reat 
nninheis. ficaw toll was taken of th.rn h\ the rilhs 
and Lewis :;ims ol the Twent \ -Second, hot thev 'ntercd 
the wood on the ri'dit and the UritiOi hne liad to <,'ivi' 
jrronnd. (apt. .\ . II. l{olis..n. who \,on a har to Ins 
Mditarv C ross. w,is liadl\- wo-nn! d as lie movt d ahont 
atnont,' his men <hirini.' th.' liomhardmciit and Major 
.1. \h Mitch-11. awarded the I )ist in::iiisli( d Scrvicf 
Older, was also hit. Uiit now, m coiijnnction with tin- 
ca\alry on the riudit where the s.:rvi\'ors of tfic KIcventh 
Wire still liL'htinj:. an advance of .".OO yards was made 
and the position consolidated under licavy I'ire. 

'I'licie was artillery and air activity on .\pril 1st, 
l>!i! no infantry attack. On the followinir day the 
French look over the line and the Twcntv -Second 
niarchcl Lack to i<lil. No less than •_'.'< olhccrs and 
Mi'.l others were l'\ this tune killed, wounded or ?niss- 

The German Offensive, I'MS 

ii!f:. Atiioiij,' tlir fallen wtTc Caijts. A. \V. H. Cooke 
and 1{. 'riiwaitrs. Liciits. H. (,. Lrj,'>.'r and J. Stirlaiid, 
and '-'nd Linii. J,,liii Srott. 'I'hr Nth Dimskhi had 
I iiua'.M d Hints of riL'htcrn diff< rent titiinan di\ isions. 
(af)t. 1{. W. 1'. ars(.n. K.A.M.C.. tiic intdical oHIcit 
<>i the Tucnty-Sccond, was awarded the Mditary Cross 
Imt his devoted .'are of the woumied. He was alily 
--ec;, tided liy his orderln s. Lanet -Corpl. Fred Arinsf roii;; 
md IMe. I''red Syk.s. Tli.- ^'allantr\- of the sfretelier- 
Ixarers. Ptes. A. lha|inian, .1. \V. (.ilihons 
.Old H. Sharp, iiad prevented many wounded falhn^r 
into till hands of the deiniaiis. Anions: others who 
--hoiihi lie reiiieuiliered for tliiir del lis of \alour were 
l.ieiifs. J. A. ( rutehley and M. i'llliff. -.'nd I.ieiit. 
Ilossaek. Sei^'t. l{oliert Mlaekett. IMe. (Aetllij: Ser<:t.) 
.1. I,. Maekie. and IMe. H; rry I'e.ui. a company runner. 

The N'lnitetntli eaine south from the ^"pres front 
on Mareh •_';'>rd and in,i\- \«- sai.i to h.fve entered tlie 
lattle just north of the Soinnie n\er as the siirxivors 
of the Fifteenth withdrew. The injt!i Hrii:ade w.-n* 
the last of the ."."tli Division to arrive and tluv coii- 
eetitrated round Maneoiirt. in reserve, on Mareh "JUh. 
'idle Xineteenth dttniiiied at ( orlue that inoniinir .'ind 
niarehed to Sadlvde-See, vvhere l.nse> took tliem for- 
ward. In tile afternoon tiny occupied a liin tUH) \ards 
I ast of Marieourf and liere an uneventful niLdit was 
passed . 

rile .'{."(til Division now iield tin- line from Curiu, on 
! he .Somine river, to Tlones Wood and hefore S \.M. 
on Mareh '_'"tii eaiiie a (leterminiil altaik alon<,' tlie 
wlioie front. At noon the Nineteentli were riiovcd up 
to support tile lOilth Hiii,'ade on the left, wlio were 
involved in de>.perate .■•nd confused liijlit ini:- At ;< p.m. 
ihf luH ahont I'avien s Wood, on the slope nortli-e;isf 
of Marieourt. l)e^'an to i,'ive way and tin Nineteenth 
were lalled upon to restore it. Two companies weie 
scut fo'-ward in succession under iierce shell tire ,ind 
after advancini.' I.nno vards a halt was inadi- and a 
slroiit,' assaiiltmL' line I. mil up. Tlic otlier conip.anics 
followod in snjiport .md rcscrv*- and Ihc Durhaur. 
tluMi went on and fore d I heir way into fiie lost trt'iiclit's. 

riic Durham l*orccs in the Field 

l.cwis pill firr wrought Iihnoc ainonj.' the ntn-atiii},' 
(..■niiaiis. wliDM' nsistaiicc lor tiic tunc was lirokeii. 
ami llif \iiict(ciitli ()ccu);ii(l fur tlic ni^-lit a position 
aliout '-'(Ml yards in front ol tiii ohi iiii'-. (apt. Kinf,'s- 
1< V Smith, who was in coinniaiMl oi \hr two leading.' 
(•oin|):!!ii< s. w.i;i lii^ Mihtary ( ross m tins siicrfssful 
r.ffan-. (asnaltus iiicliicird -Iml i.i.ut. K. Walton, 
killed, and l-u'ut. \V. (;. I. .-'at and -Jiid Limis. U. K. 
M. Cokc-I^arwv and il. .) . Woina'k wounded. Lieiit. 
I-'.. \. I'a.rke, ;ie!iii;,' adjutant, .iiid -Jnd [.lent. H. H. 
Cunliif'- Wire aUo wounded Imt n ni.ain' d al duty. 'I lie 
hitter, who led hi'. |)l.di;on witli unat resolution dnnnt,' 
the eounier-attack and inllieted iie;i\y loss.-, mi tin- 
eiieniy. Was uwanicd th'- Miiita.ry tn-.^-. 

Diirini,' the iiiirlit liurniiii,' .hiiups :,nd aeioiiri'iurs 
j.i.inte.l (.> an..lher ntneineiil a;iil orders leaehed th.- 
NiiieUenth ;:t 1 \.-'. on Maieh ■Jiilh. 'Ih. resrr\e eoni- 
paiiv .nel.'.i a-. |. .",r;:uard to tiie l(M;tli liri^-ade ;M«.d did 
not iiio\.' till neaily '> \.m. Half th:s eoiupany i;:o-cd 
haek strai</ht across try .in.l Uiirclied down the 

main road to Cariioy. ilher half r. aehii:i: that place 

ie.' nioviiiLr down Ihc valley. Tl'c i'^ttal'^n weiii on 
t,', r.ray and rejoined flic lOlth Hr-r,:d.- th.t". takini,' 
lip a posiiioii .aionL' tlic Alliert roa'l. Th.' Itariiiii of 
Mie whole ha.tlalion was sph'M.liil. I>nt I'apt. If. Heaton. 
M.C. •-•lid l.ieuts. W. (;. Dver and H. H. Cunlu'f.'. 
Covpl. \. Hurt. T-ance-(orpl. .Mars.l. :i. ami Ptes. .! . 1?. 
How.liteh. A. Hi.hile and J. Sott had ii' en specially 
proiiiimn' for ;;;illanlry and c.xilness. 

Or.lcrs for reiircMciil acnrs the .Vnere were iiow 
issued, tlioii.'li for t'ie riionien* tl,'- front was clear of 
the eiiemv. liut ratasps and u it.r. uhie'i were alleired 
to have dump.- i further wp ih.- .VUierl road, vcrc 
hard to tiiid ,-iiid ammunition could not he replenished 
.•is all transport w,;s vitlidrawim; h.-lTuid the river. 
There wi-rc no mean-, of ^.'cttinu ih.- wounded away 
• smi the troops w.r.- footMir.- and wiary. At <».:«» a.m. 
I he lirst (i.rmui shell (-anie uvt r : then niouut. d scouts, 
followed hv uifantry, were seen on the h.Il'. to th.- 
ciisl. No puns snpiiorted tlic tlefcncc j'.nd at "_'.:!() I'.M. 
the o.itpost line was with.lrawn as tlir cnpmy located 
Ih. Hi it id. positions and came forxvard more con- 


The (jcrmaii Ottcnsi\c, U>1M 

fiiiriitlv. Vfiv shiKiily. iinilri- l;.:,\y iiiaclniic-yuii iiikI 
aitiiUr^ lire.' liic n-liaiiifiu Ih-an. 'i'\'V \illa^:f of 
Morlaiudun w.t> clu-kul with civilian tarts, ^'inis, tanks 
anil tirc(i iniantrv inakin<r f'.r llw Ancio crossiiijzs. 
hut at ^ i>.M. thr Niiai; nitl. r(Mv!ic.! tlir.r i.. w position 
at Buuv. Ill Ihf c.ntrr ol tlit- ltu;h Bn^'aiit^ Ilriv 
tlic v.rp- [ouikI an.i a iiot u;. ;,1 i.ut new hW 
into the nun. i vso conipanns held in.' road riuuun^' 
NMst from tl-.f Miia^rr, whilo W ar..'i X conipanifs %vcTr 
thrown [oiv.anl to li.'Li tin- r.iilwa^- lin.. I lio lu^'lit (Hiift. 

At 10 A.M. next (la\- X c: 'mpany ( rossrd tin- 
rivi'r a<',ain and occnoa d 'Tr. nx. with platoon on 
thf h\t:h ^Toimil to tiic soutb-tast of the villa^i' and 
,,n.' philoHn on its .astern (iutskiris. Tlic {.erinans 
attacked fin t her north, hii! luyoiid ii' avy shell in;.' 
* the Nuieteeiitii were left alnn.'. 'Jnd Lieiit. T. W . Hams 

was reported missing' on this day. 

At dawn on IMh the Cierni.'.ns tiud a sur- 
prise attack on Treux. atteinntin.r to i stahlish tlietn- 
selves in the wn.xls to th-' south of the villa-,"'. Z ecin- 
pany came forward and V eoinp.uiy followed as re- 
scrvV. and 'lie position was niaintained nn<ler heavy 
shell lire, though tiiere was little artillery supp,ort and 
the eneniv infantry delivert.l tlir.e attacks. 'Jnd Lieut. 
\V. (i. Hroail was mortally wound. 'd. 

Aft.r -lark I'ame a relief, the Niiiete. nth handing 
over to the l.'fth Sherwood Forest, rs and withdrawing,' 
to a support position in a quarry outsi.h- i'.nire. Heavy 
ruin fell all nijilit, I.ut the next tiay passcfl without 
incident until tlie evening,' when th" l.attalion reliexed 
the 17th Roval Scots aluii^' the railway emlmnkineia 
between Hnire and Dernaneourt. the centre of the 
hrit^ade line. Tliis i.osifion was le'ld all next day,^ with 
posis tliro\Mi forward io the line uf th.r ri\tr. There 
was much shell li;e. hut it dul little harm, thoiu-h one 
,,f i.ur hatt.ries was id.ntitied us sliooting shor' . At 
ni<dit the Australians arrived to take over and the 
Nineteenth marche.l Imck to la Hussoye on the mam 
Ainiens-Alhert road, where March .'Hst was spent rest- 
jntr in billets. CasuH!tic<; in the ranks dunni' the*.- 
operations rrnchfd a total of 160. 



'I'hc 1 )Lirh;ini' l-oiccs in the Mcid 

Mill ii(ul\ aiiivtti IriiMi It.iiv. tin- Tw.iitirlh limi 
liiiii tmif for s()iii>' traiiuiif;, and wen- iii . \(il|i'iit ffttlc 
when callid ii|)i)ii td iicar tlirir part iii slcininir.f:; tin' 
(icrriiaii t'jli-. Tht y arnvid at AUnit l>y tram on 
tlif iiij:iit of Marcli 'Jlst ami tht uniniry was ci/iitiiiucil 
umiiT loiij,' rail},'*- artillciN tif lo ,\( liict-lc-draml. This 
\ilhii:i uns reached at '_' ihnI iimriiiii;,' and a thri'- 
lumrs" .iiareh liroiij^'ht ihe 'I'wtntieth (o l^'asicuil. 'iln' 
rjUli Hrif,'a(le Mceiipied at liiiee a portmn ol the 
■' Arin\ '" hne north-east of Heu<.'natre prepaiatorv' to 
relie\irij,' a drijiade of the (1th l)i\isioii. who weri- tij,'ht- 
\u<^ doj,'trc(lly as ttiey retnatid from the Candiiai front. 
'I'lie afternoon was spent liy the Wtarsiders on work 
upon the trenches which wire none too j.'ood, tiiouj,'h 
the wire was i>[ satisfactory strent^th. Sounds of the 
stru^'j,de m pro;.'r<ss iit \'aulx-\ raueourt . harely a nnh 
away, could lie phiinly hearii and. as tlie afternoon 
wor<- on, the \sear\' mfantry of the titli Division caiiu' 
slowly hack. By the evening' the PJith Hn;.'ade had 
no Hritish troops in front of them. I'atrojs of the 
Twentieth were active durim: the niyht and the (Queen's 
came up on tin' ritrht of tin Dniiiani l>attali"n \\ho 
had sustained Iti (asiialtns. 

.\t s \.M. on March ■J.'ird a lieri'e lioinliardineiit 
opened on the trenches of tile I'wtntK'th and masses 
of (ieinian mfantry ailvanced. They were reeei\('d li\' 
the W'earsiders wifii deadly nt!c and Lewis uun tire 
and those who survived were forced to withdraw. 
.\f,'ain and a<:ain the attack was renewed with unfail- 
iMi,' fouraj^e and resolution, while the Ctcrman jiuiuicrs 
redoubled their ixertions and derm, ii cavalry advanced 
in rear to lake advantage of any success which mi;rht 
he 1,'ained. lint the result was alwa\s the same. ,\i!e r 
six enemy attem|its the Twtnticth still held their line 
intact and the fori most (iermaiis lay dead u|)on IIk 
wire. I'or tills da> s vvoik I.uiit.-COl. .\. \. .\. 
(iay<'r. D.S.O.. was i.'iven a liai to Ins decoration; 
Lieut. II. (Joodley, who orf,'anised communication - 
under the liomlianlment , ri'eeivcd the Military Cross; 
Lanco-C'nrpl. K. Foreman, of H<amisli. an intrepid 
Lewis ijuiiner who took toll of the advancinij enemy 
from an cxjxsscd advance position, wun the Disliii- 


The GLrman Oftcnsivc, 1918 

(juishcl Ciin.iuct Mnial. 15 cuiiipaiiy wire iistmii- 
tlk' road from \ 'aul\-Vraucoiirt wlurf tlif ti«;lit was 
licncsl ; tluir coniniaiuKr. Capt. .1. H. Ivtsoii. was 
killid. -Jiul Liitit. H. H. Kay al •. f.U. •.'na Li.-ut. N. 
W . Tuniiiull was sii;.'litl\ woiiiic I aii>l losses iii the 
ranks amounted to .'sii. 

Tilt- ni;,'lit was (|iii.t and patrols of tlir Twentieth 
wtr<- a;:aiir active. In tin- inornin;.' Ix'avy tijihtint: was 
heard In pro;,'ri ss ,iway on the ri.L'ht where Hritish 
infantry eouhT he seen m retreat. To the nortii tlic 
view w"as limited, hul enhlaiie shell tire seeirnd t() m- 
dieate tliat tlure also tlu' hue had ^iveii j,'rounil. Com- 
Miunieation to the rear had praetieally ci-ased and the 
Tw.'ntieth hfld on Mndt r a heavy and inert .isint; 
lH,nd.ardment. .\t :> I'.M. came orders to U" 'i'>'l I| 
companv went liist m older to cover the retirement of 
tile niiiamdcr of the liattaliou. Tiie withdrawal was 
ovir stranj,'e <,'r()niid. I'Ut was accompllslied m splendid 
order. thou;.'h lidts of wire {,'no.l wir- with no treiielies 
heliind it W( rt encountered on the way. (itrmaii 
aeroplanes <lid Iheu- Inst to the iiKAemeiit with 
their maelimc-^nuis. hut the <,'rey infantry nia<le no 
attempt to press on. The m w front of tiie l.n^ade ran 
W. st of Favreiiil and. the Twentieth hehi the left of the 


Losses (,n March 'liXh included -Jnd Lieut, A. Hrowii, 
wounded, and .")() otiiers killed, wounded, or iiMssiii<.'. 
The r.'Mh Bri^Mdc had not been so heavily eiit,'i «,'ed .'ii 
this da\ as th^ otln r tro,,|e, of th.- division who. on the 
ri>.'ht. felt the el'f.el- of th. vigorous enemy tlinist 
towards Hajiauiiie. 

It was tins pr< ssiiie to tin' south that caused a 
further withdrawal in the v. ry earlv hours on 
March -'dli. The Tw. nti- th arrived south of ^apiiziiics 
and lieuaii to dii: m at once, lint tlie (.erman-^ soon 
r. achciF ,iiid occupitd the \illai,'e and In '•» a.m. the 
Wear-xler-. one.' more r.tired }i>,'lit inj,'. tirst to a position 
aloiii.' the i{ihucourt-Sai'it:nies roini. Tlic ciu niv oceu- 
iJicd^Hihucoiirt eaily m the aft<rnoon and the left Hani- 
of ttic hattalion was also threatened, so the retreat ron- 
iiniud t,, a iiii'- oil Ihe lever-c slope of a nd-re m front 
of Aehiet-le-t;raii(L Most of the di\ision had already 



I'hc Durham I'Orccs in the Meld 

rraclird pi/sitioiis in llns \iiiiiity ;in(l ikiw tlic t'Jntl 
Division look o\(r \hv front. Tlu' \V('aisi(itTs iiunt'd to 
Ivoycast Wood in the alti rnooii. hut at 7 r.M. tlic line 
vsitluii'-w aj,'ain and llir tiitd Tucntirtli inari'licd to 
(ioinnirconrt wIkit tlif iiij,'lit was spent. 

(apt. II. Wilkinson. M.C. and '.'nd Luiit. T. S. 
Duddy, D.C.M.. wfic woundi-d on this day, Lieut. H. I). 
Muiiro was nussint,', and there were ^0 casualties in the 

l'>arl>' I'll the nioriiip;.' of the "Jiith Ih.e t<attahon 
occupii'd a j)art of the old (.ernian front line as it 
existed liefore the I. attic of the Soinine in I'.lKi. A re- 
port reeei\cd ahoiil 11 a.m. said that the (ierniaiis were 
HI Ilehiiterne, liut this proved to he a false alarm. There 
was some hosiile shelliii;.' and casualties eomjjrised 2nd 
Lieut. A. 1). Parsons, died of wounds. •Jiid Lieut. .T. 
Carmichatd. mortally wounded, and .'50 others. 

I'liroutihout the tijjhtmo (.apt . A. S. Davison had led 
his eoiiipany with exceptional courage and skill, as had 
■_*nd Lieut. IL Waters, D.('.^L, who replaced a fallen 
conipany commander. "Jnd Lieut, 'i". .S. Dudd_\'. 
D.C'..\L. anotluT capahle leader, carried out a valuahlo 
reconnaissance under heavy lire. These ollictrs received 
the >Llitary Cross and Lance-Serfft. W. Fowler, of 
( heslei-le-Street, was awarded the Distiii<,'uislied 
t'oiiduct .Mtdal ftir ahle handling of his platoon. 

On >Lircli 'JTih the Twentitth went hack to Hieu- 
^illers to rest, n-ortranist and. so far as possihle, rc- 
c(iuip. At T.'.W A.M. on the 'JSIh tlu' Wearsi<lers were 
warned that I hey would iiave to move up aj,'ain and m 
the atternoon they came forward a. id occupied a suf)- 
fniit posifiou east of (.iimiiieeourt . Patrols were sent 
out at iiiclit to 1,'et in touch witii the troops in front and 
to e\f)Iore P.ossiijiiol \\'ood ujion the rij.'ht tlaiik. All was 
(piiet. and casualties were few. On the nifjlit of 
March 'J'.Uh the lialtalioii moved into the front line 
aijam. oei upyiii^r hiirh trroimd in front of Hiicciuoy. At 
this point the (icrman attack liad now spent itself, hut 
there Will many casualties from shell tire durinj: tiic 
last two da\s (>f the month, mchidiny Lieiits. ('. F. 
Hulili tind J. liiack, hoth wcr.mdtML The (ierman 
^uiiiHTs were less active on April ist and at nigut th" 


The (icrinaii Oli\-ns!\c, 1*MS 

Tv,i'iilu-tli utic l<iif\c(l hy tin 1 Ttli I.aiK'iishiiT 
I'll MlitTs and witlidrcw to Hioiu ili- i >.. 'I'lu'ir task m tins 
part (if the liclii was now ended. (.( iitral Lleinson. 
their new hri>,'a(htT, said, in a letter \n Coloiiel Leather. 
'■ They were siinj)ly spU iidid . . . aiid no pr.iise 1 could 
write woiihi l)e enoHf,'h to half desenhe my ov. n feelini.'s 
about them.'" The ".tiird (Army) lJrii,'ade. '!.I'..\.. also 
expressed its admiration of the eontiuet of t!ie liattalion 
wiujse total losses aniounti-d to 11 dtlieers and ahoiit 
;<•-'») men. 

The Eij,'hteenth. ni lullets at l$a|us and I''n\ illeis. 
attended a eereinoiiial paratle on March "21 st to take 
leave of their divisional eommander. In the <-veinn^ 
eaiue orders to mo\e and the i)attalion marehtd out at 
T.l.") next iiiorninj,'. liiises took them tlirouj,'li St. 
Pol to Douilins and tht nee up the .\rras road a lon^'. 
hot and dusty lourney. Ordt rs to hillet at Pommier 
were eancelKii in \iew of the had news from the lini 
and tiu' [iroeession tuiiied off at Heauiiiet/-|cs-l,o^'es for 
iilairville. Here tht Ki{,'hteenth were deposited at 
a.hout ;• I'.M.. hut afttr <;ettin<,' into tiyhtinfj order the 
buses Were hoarded aj,'ain. The ;ilst Division were r( - 
placing the .Utli Division in the battle front between 
Mory and C'roisilies and the Eitrhteenth ali^'hted at tlie 
'• Army *" line of defent e near Hovelh -,. All was (juiet 
here and the battalion oceujiied a support position 
astride the rnilway in front of the villaije. 

Tliere some hostile shellinj^ on March '.'.'{rd, but 
tlie Eifjhteentii only lost "2 men wounded. In the 
evenin;,' the wIkJc of the '.».'ird Bri/,'ade moved to the 
right, the Diiiluuns repiacinf,' the "irid Irisli (iuards of 
the 4th liuards Ri'i;.'ade astride the .\rras-l]apaume 
road. Later the whole battalion moved east of th" 
road and lust wt st of the \ilh!i,'e of St. Lejier. A 
further readjustment (pf the line early next dnv brouL'ht 
tlie Eii,'hteenth still further south to a position in front 
of Hamelineourt astride the Hapaunie road. 

M'lreh '-'tth was a critical day. On the front of th" 
'.♦Hrd i-ripnde the (Jerniuiis attnckc'! at 7 a.m. nftir a 
heavy boml'.irdment of the front line. They w<re re- 
pailsed v.'ll. heavy losses by artiHerw rifles aiul 

'Ihc Durham l-orccs in ilic l-icld 

iii;uliiin-i,'Uiis. 'lius was n litiitnl at aliuul _ 11 a.m. 
uitli lii.- same rcsull. Tli.ii caiiK a Uw hours" nspitr, 
l.uf sunn alter thiv.- in tli-' aft.rinH,i; tlic (ii.iiiy rinnr 
oil a^'aiii 111 t,Mfat si rtiij.'t li only to Ix- driviii olf oner 
iiior.C Commiiiiu-alioiis to the iorwar.l hat tali. mis 
iiiidtr the lire of liostilr iiiaclmu-tiuiis < stalilislud 
of St. L<'t,'ir. aii.i It was impossil.!.' to yet th<- woiiiuird 
away l.cfor.' dusk. Aft.r dark tin- Mtuation on the rif,dit 
li.cauH- serious. Tlie (.eruiaiis uiteied KrviUers from 
the M.utli-east at ah(.ut lit I'.M. and he^'an linn-.' on the 
ti.iielies of the Itli (.Hard-, Uri-ath' tlu' riiriit l.riL'ad.' 
uf the division from the rear. Kr^lhrs was rtlakeu 
durimr the niL'lit, l>ut the enemy had reaelu <i (iomucourl, 
now a"nd a wiMnlrawal of the whole line was necessary to 
avert ilisaster. The Ki^dite.ntii were tlarefore ordered 
to move hack on March •J'-th to lake up a jiosition east 
of C'ourcelles alouy the railwa\ in touch with the '.fJnd 
Hriuade upon tiie ri^dit. The Diitlianis moved south 
of Hamelmcourt. dii;.' tlie new line, estahlisiu'd outposts 
and setthd -lown h.r th..- ni-lit. 1) e,,in| mi\ captured 
an eiieniv i.atrol, luit a (..rman otiieer. from whom 
valuahl.' ' iidormatioii mi^dit have he. n -amed, was kill-d. On this day th. splemii.l sliootm^' 
of the Untidi arliUerv smashed .very . one. n'ratioii of 
(Wrman m front of the '.Kir.l an.i th.' Ith 

At s.'M) \.M. oM March •Jf.tli came hclat.ii ..rders lor 
an..tli''r with.lrawal. This wa. r.n.ier. .1 necessary l>v 
tli<- (ierman advance to tli.' s.,uth. tli..u^h the jMt,ditceiith 
,,t l.eiiH' nresse.l. Tlio retirement was intcn.led 

were not lieiii..' press. 

to take place hefore .i.awn hut n.)w had to he earned 
out m h.roa.i davhuht un.l.r lieavy h.)stil.' sli.dl hr.'. All 
w.nt well, h.iw.ver. and soon after H> \.M. t h" 
Ki.dit.cnth arriv.'d m a support jiosition h.himl th.' 
i:M"h York aii.l I.aii.ast.vs. wh.. held Moycniieville. In 
fn.nt .Ml the riish\ . th.' W.-st Y.Mkshir.s were m 
t.Mi.'h with th.' h'ft ..f til.- '■••-'ixl HriL' The Mil 
( HriL'ail.' now in divisi.uial reserve. 

The (..rnuuis w.r.' evidently re..r^'aiusint: hef.M'.' 
r. Mimin.' th.'ir advance. Imt their ^ wer.' active 
whil.' \hv Diirhams .ia-i m on th' ir n. w hu.'. Col.-m-l 
Carter and Capt. C. B. Staffuid were wounded and 


The (icrinan Offnisivc. 1 *M S 

(.a[)i. L. A. Dick took lomniaiul. >(H'n afti ru^inls 
oniiTs arrnrd for a ficiitral ntirciiniit tu tlic AdiiiftT- 
Ficliciix line. Tlif Kij,'lit(fiitli CMiinni lie. (i t.i uitluirau 
III f'oiijuiictii.ii witli th. York and l.aiicasl. is ,,ii tlic h ft. 
two platoiiMs of ( ( oiiipaiiy tovcniij,' tin iihi\ < iiuut . 
Xotliiii^' uas seen of tlu' WVst Vol kshirtiiK n. Thr two 
liaftalioiis |)ass((l tlic ri</ht (lank of tin- (.iiaids Division 
and thtii. wlim witluii tlirt .-(luartiTs .f a nulc of 
Adinft-r, fn-sli orders were rtccixtd. Tin- rttinini'iil 
appears to have lieen an error of the liri^;ade-!iia |or. who 
was suffering from s!iell shock, and an attempt liail now 
to he made to rei,'am the .Moyeniu\ lile position. This 
was a \ery ditlieult operation as the (icrmans were now 
in .Moy(nne\ine and commanded all approaches to the 
\iila^'e from the ]\\ dusk the (.iiards' |m< was 
prolonj^'cd to tlie rii:ht and when darkness fell the 
Ei<,'hteeiit!i and the \'ork and I.ancasters moved forward 
in order to <iitrench as near Mo>emie\ille as possihle. 
Few tools were availalile and daylit_'lit came liefore a 
delensl\<' line couM lie est ahilslnd. so doth hattallolls 
Were forced to witluh'aw aj:a;n. Hut 15 companv of tlie 
Ei«.dite. nth. under Lieut. A. A. .McConnell and 'Jiid 
Lieut. 1{. 1{. Turnlaill, turned to nood account sonic 
fxi.stiiin; trenches r,tH) y.irds west of .Moyenne\illc and 
held on there. 

Thiy found tluins. l\vs (,n the left rear of the 1.1th 
West Vorksliirv- Hit,''-. \^iii> occupied a rid^e south-west 
of the vilhi<,'e. The \'orkshir( men liad rteeivid no 
orders t(j retire and. thoui^h uusupport. d. had held 
their own all the pre\ ioiis da\ .md muht a^^ainst 
treint ndoiis rxlds. Perhaps the lull sti:r\ of their heroic 
resistance will some d.iy he written. It wa-- the pri\ile<,'f 
of H company of the Kiirlitcentli to take their share of 
tlu' uncijual stru-.'i.'lc durmt: flic davli!,'ht hours of 
March I'Tth. when, m th.- face of rej.eated .attacks and 
the ticn e tire of the enemy. retiieiiK n) impossihle. 
At dusk the surviNors foueh! their \\,i\ t .ick. Fe\. of the 
^'orkshiremen were left and 15 com|);tn\ of thi- Kii.'ht- 
ceiith liad lost over 100 killed and wounded. 'I'lie two 
ofJ'u'crs survived and each receiveii the Militar\ Cross. 

Meanwhile (apt. Dick heen alisorlwd h\ the 
brigade .staff and Capt. F. d. Stone .^ucceeiled tu tlie 


* j 

■|Ih- I Uii liain l-(.rccs in ttic l-icUi 

(■(;ii iiiiiiKl of tlii i,.r,taii'<ii iiil Miijdi- \.. i>. i.uv.f, mX., 
arrived l:itri in liu .iav. The other tlirtr coinpuni. s of 
111.- Kiyhlc.iitli \y.:'\ IM). hrvn ill in-tioi: Mild losses fn.iii 
sli.ll fin wcrr iMit luavy. At i.i;.;lit tliv hri^'adr fiui.i. 
was li«ld l.v i!m- V.'ik ;,ii i i,aii<Msf' rs with A (•(iiiii.a.,y 

of the KlJ,''hl.fllth Ml close slipp.Mi. t!,e lllie rU!UIIl:,U 

north-east of Ayette village. '1 h<- remainder of the 
Durliani iimii diij: and occupied a siipjiort position 
astriile tlie Hoii\-SI. liietnide-Ayelte road. 

The ni^hi of March 'JTlli was uuiei l>y ncNt 
inornini,' the Ayelte rid^c position consisted of a line oi 
<,'()od tranches. ' Two attacks u. r< dehvered on the fn>nt 
held hv tlie (.nards and York and Lancaster IJeul., and 
ahiioin^ii tiie line was entered at one j^o'iit t'le en. !ii\- 
was unnu-diaieiy ejected In' 1) eonipiii.v of ih- 
Eij/htttntli. (' company alt. rwards came in on the Irfl 
of'the (iuards to stren^'theii the ti<,'li'iii^ Iront, C and A 
conipanies ihiis iioldinu tiie line lietwein the Irish 
(iiianls and the York and Lancaster !{» trt . H and I) 
companies, reinforced liy a eonijiahy of an Kast \ ork- 
sliire hattalioii, dii^' cover for theiiisehes in ttie dry hed 
of the I'ojeiii river near llie Doiahy road. The tia my 
sliell tire continued and then' were r.wny easiialiits. 

On the niornin.u' of the -JUth the Eii-hteentli sidr- 
stcpped to tlie left and took over part of the York and 
Lancaster hue, hut early on the .'iotii the rrh.f of tlie 
hri«.'a(ie was effocttah 'J"he harassing' tire of the .neniy 
liad iV'id down liefore tliis and t!ie Ei.litei nth reaehtd 
hiUei.^ at ' "UvilK;-. without trouhle. though the out- 
skirts of the \illiiL'e were si,. lied next day. On 
April 1st the battalion marched to IverLMiy. north of 
the forest of Luelie!l\. Losses ihllill',' the March iil'llt- 
iii" aniounte.l to :VJ(I killed, wounded and iiiissiu". 

(ifAPiKi; n 

DuRINc A.inl ne.irlv all th..- ^er\iee Laltahoiis of the 
Count V then in Iraiice weie en},'a<reu in the fi.'htinf 
which hrou^iht to a standstill tlie German offensive on 
the Mritish front. The operations extended "v. r a large 

The (icrman Offensive. l^MS 

[iiitioti of tlir iinr. ami it \vill In- most cLiiNciiit lit iii thi'^ 
I .!.sc- to liil (lie story ot each hattalioii iii onlir of 

Of ; iif Kli-vuit li there i-^ not inuc'ii to it rur<l. lamt .- 
Col. (t. llayrs and several ollur otlieers rejoiiiti! the 
liattalion al (Jm vavllkrs, ulirrc a la!i,'c reinforct ineiit 
was reci ivtd on vimiI Itli. Allrii traiiiiii;.' at \ari<)Us 
places till iOlivciitii KMilied Fi^villers. near the lyCiis 
iiiitiiiiL,' ilisliict. (Ill Apiil l-.tli. On the previous day 
('o'oi)fl Ilayi -, iiad \aeauil tli'- eoiiiiiiaii<! ovMii;; to lU- 
iiealtli and was siicei i ded !>\ latiit .-Col. K. E. Hoiiltoii. 
K.O.\'.l,.l. lU tils tniii draft'- anointinu to II- 
cineers and ."iT.s oMitr ranks liad liroin^dif the tiattfdion 
almost up to stnii^'tli. tlioULrh ^<'> uiitit men liad l)e« n 
-1 nt down to the liiisr. Training.' a:id ii>p-(-ef ions ociii- 
pii d t ill- i( -.' of tlw- Micntli. 

'Ihe 'Jlst Division ut-;it to liiiiideis at i. > > ''i'lj; 
of .l])ril. the I'ifli .'ntli entramiii',' al .\iiiiens on tl ' 

of th.r i::ont!i. They arr,\ed al lloupoiitre next e 
ini,' an. I tiavdlrd liy luis to Im-.Is at Loere. Here dralls 
amouiitliiL,' to KiS men wi r<- reecis'ed and on .\pril Mh 
I Iii- liaUalion rein ved tlu' .\iistralians in fie- line. Two 
e. inpiiiii.s III the I'"i!l<'enth and two of the ttfli 

K.O. V.L.I. 

the fnMit. whieh was south of Holle- 

l;(ki' on tilt low f;r()iiii'l ht yond Ihf Mt ssines ndfje. 
After a iinn t lour the I'lftitiitli rtterm il to I.oere on 
the rth. 

It on Ai'm! '.'th that tin t nt my ad- aneed and 
.whthiifd the Portiiiiuese at Hois (ireuier. Imt ■ ast 
of Yjires t!ie Hritish positions were as yet uiu'han;,'ed. 
'ihe tUth Hriqade nlieved the liri"_'ade m resir\f heliind 
the Poldorb.oek line on the 10th and tie- Fifteenth 
moved up to dleneors!- Wood. Hut the (iermaiis 
launched tlieir attack n|)on the Messin<-s rid^'e on this 
day and the Kifteenth liroUL'ht 1-aek to Lankhof 
Camjt. aliout a mile ami a half south of Ypres. on 
.\pril 11th; the enemy won a foiitini,' on the ridjie 
and the (Ulh Hrit'iule v.cre now in supjiort to the '.ith 
Division. The Fifte^ nth. after iin!\ iiil: h.:\ik to Rid<,'e 
Wood, came into the line on .\pril l.'ith. the left of the 
hattalion front of two eompniiies joining' the 'J<)th 


The Durliani I'orccs in the 1-icld 

l{ri},'a'lf at al.dnt llir sDiMli-wtsi riid ni tlir Danmi 
Stnissc. On th< ri<:h! w.ic tlit Kt Kast Vdrkslurc Kt'c'- 
N'othiiii: n\ iii(,miiit lia|>[)tiir(l till April K'.lli wliicli 
was an aiixKni'- <iay. At :> \.m. a fuMuii'' Imstiif 
Itonihardiiitiit ptci i(ii(i a tierce atta.'k uliieli earned 
llie v(lla.i,'e nf W'vts'-iiaete. staiuliiit: "ii lui^licr ^M-ouii<i 
til llir -.Diith iif ilie D'liliain^. A ii(itii^i\<- tlaiik was 

forilieil faeilij; -.iilltil aernss the slope lietweeli the 

N'ierstraaf ami St. Kl.)i mads. Here the support eoin- 
paiiy of t!ie Kifleeiitli t'aiiie into tlie hue with two 
phitooiis of tile reserve e(tnipaiiy in rear, .shortly after 
midday the S.()..S. si>,'nal was sent iiji hy the '_'r,th 
|{ri;,'ade holding the Dainin Strasse. (lennaii iid'aiitr\' 
were seen in the woods in front and later the line of the 
Fiftfcntli was threatened. Imt no attack devclopi d 
thoiij,d> a territic lioinliardinenl \isilcd the British line 
and caused many casualties. .\l niizht Idlonel Molroyd- 
.Sin\th was informed thai lin- dtfinsive must lie 
In Id at .all costs. 

lull rise shelliii},' had ai;ain In lie ( ndured on the 
iiuiiiuiij: of .Xpnl iTth. It lasted for over two hours 
and then, at 7. .'id a.m., came a ^jcncral advance of the 
yioy infantry. The Ikitisli >:niincrs alil\ supporleil (he 
lire of tlie men in the trenches anil tin' (.erman los- , 
wen ternlilc. Imt weight of numliers told in the t nd and 

the hreak ui 'he line .it \\'ytsehaete was widened. 
.Seiner l'"arm. on the extreme lift of the defen^l\'e (lank, 
was taken, Imt the Kiftecnth >till held North Mouse 
.liic no'-lli of Wytschaetc. Tlu n came a jjap m the line, 
Imt loii'-h was olitaincd with the South Afrnans of the 
'tth DivisioTi on the other side of flic 
ihis position was held all day in spite of two more 
attacks about four in the afternoon, hoth of which were 
repulsed hy artillery, rnaehuie-j.'iin and nth iiit witii 
further heavy loss to the enemy. 

.At live on the nioriun^' of the IMli A com- 
pany attacked Soincr I'arm and a trench in front of it. 
The trench was won, Imt the fiirm lmildint.'s were too 
full of iiiaehino-yuns to he rushed. M nieht nniforee- 
mcnts reaelu'il the trench an<i liie line was limdy 
estalilished and joined up. Diinnji this li<,'lilui!,' "Jiid 
I, lent. I). Tyrie was killed .in.r.'ntl Li.ut. .1. I> W . M.Ks 

The German Offcnsixc. 1^1 S 

UMiiihltil. The mxt ila\'. wincli was tiiir ami <-iilii \\\ [» 
(irvjisiniial sliowtT'. of Miiiu. saw no fiirtlicr attack 
tlioii^'h ptTsistciit slicll lire liad to \«- ciHlurcd. Tin r<- 
was an ilarni on 1 1ncx inin;.r nf llic •.'Otli \\ Ikmi tlic S.( i.>. 
signal was si nt up to the ri)_'lit of tiir Fifttfutli an-l 
hotii the Hnt'sli ;tn<l tlu- (it-rmaii Iiat1cn<-s cpi nnl in 

Tlic Diirhains ninaintd m tinir trtnclir- innlrr a 
stcaily I'nniliardiuiiit till tli-' nii^iit nf t!ir -Jlth. uhrii, 
on relief l)\- the :>tii W. st VDiksime Hecjt.. the lial- 
tajmn willHlrr\v tn eainp near Dick- Imseh. lanit. W . 
(iow anil 'Jnil laeilts. C \V. Licence, (i. V"\\ aiai I'-. I-. 
W aiL'lii liaij all hren wounded. 

At •_'..'!(i \.M. the enemy drenc|,ed the liack areas w ith 
•,'as siiidl .and the I'ifteenth had tn lea\e eanip and 
(>ccup\- shell hnles fintlnr ui riar. At dau?i came the 
{,'rfjil (.irnian thitisl xvhah '>i"k Keniim ' Ilill and 
diove the few who snrvived to hold the titiii Hrijiade 
line liack lieyond \ H-rstiaat . The I'lt'teeiith were sent 
for liurnedl\ :iiid occupied trenches behind ('hea|)side 
Hoa<l. north of Keiiim<'l villaee. one company t."""!-' f""'- 
ward tn hold a u'iip iu the front. Tiie iidintaiit. C'a|)l. 
M. \\. I'case. uas wmuidcd on thisd.iy. 

The next da\ tlnTc a (gallant tack hy 
th' '.tth K.O. V.L.I, who. on the iiulit, reached the 
Keiiiinel- \ leistraal roail. 'I'ln Durliains niovid u|> in 
snppoit. hut althoiif.di prisoners were captured tlie 
•.'round gained ciiiild not In- held, «'\p()S«'d ,is it was tn 
entiladc macliinc-i.'un fire from hoth Hanks. At und- 
niLdil on April .'•'.tli. ail that was left of tlie two hat- 
talions alioiif Inn men of each were hack in the 
C'heapsi(h^ trenches wIht'' s.uiii of the Tnidv Cordis 
strengthened I la' line. 

On the niotrow tin llh \oik ami Lancaster Uent. 
n lieved thi' Kiftienth who marc lied hack to Ihisse- 
liooni. mar Oiiderdom. A day of rest foihiwed. Tlien 
on the iiiLdit of the "JSth ca!ne an alarm and the hat- 
taiion turned out. Init were not recpiired to move. 

Tile I nei!i\ att.ick on April *J'.tfh liroutrht the 
Fifteenth up to Oiiderdinn. hut flic dt rnian advunei 
was now he'd. The hatlahon reaehetl Steerivonnh- thi- 
same iiiL'ht and rnarclied to camp in the \'olkerincklio\ e 


The Durhani I'orcc^ in 'lie I'icld 

;ii.a oil Apri! aotii. Casualties in tli.- ranks (iuriiij,' tli 
..piTatiMns aliioiiiilfd to •2'M), wiMi '.» oH'ucrs killed or 
\voMini>'<i. T!if other liattalioiiv \i\ the hri^'aile Mifferc; 
more, inil the I'llle, p.t ii had tiecii lh<- we; 'st in 
liUMihers at tlie iujiiniiin^ of t!ie l<atlle. 

!)uriii;4 this month the medieal oHieer, ('apt. .J. W . 
Watth. v.s, M.C. awardid a i ar to his decoration: 
Lanee-lorpl. T. li. Waislrdi. M.M., r-ceived a har ti> 
liis nu-dai ; and tlie >Jilitarv .Medal ua^ ;,i\ni I" C'orpl. 
1{. Simpson. IM. . (.. liurtoii. and I't. . \V. H. "hid. I. 
These rewards were for •/i'llfnit ry duiuiL' ih' \iareh 
i( treat . 

'111. Kiohtriiith lell l\«r;4n\ on \|id -.'nd for then' 
lid 1. diets at Krevillers, where a draft wa> reeeivt d an<l 
Irannnt! was earried on. Snddenl\ on April UMli came 
orders for I-'landers and the liattahon !iio\id ojf m 
linses an hour aixl a half latei. Alit;li'in;.' at Vieux 
n»r(pnn the En^ditei nlli maiched on to Outtersteene, 
where A eotnpany jjrovided an outpost line to 'he east 
aiel south-east of the \ illa;re. This line was stren.!,dhened 
on th.' afternoon of Aprd 11th as the liernians were 
reported to he ill stren^rlh at la l?eeque. 

It was the (Jernian threat to Ha/.ehroiiek wlm h liad 
l.roU},dit the .'Ust Division so hnrri.dly into this portion 
oi' the line. The 'XU(\ Hri','ad« reeeiv.-d ord( rs to attack 
south-eastward and reeapturc Ic Verrier. farm «ln Uois, 
la Uose Farm, la Hecque and tlie line of the Stc< nwercke 
road hevond. The l.".tli ^'ork and LaiH'astcrs wt re on the 
ri;;lit of the Kiylitcenth, who asscnd)led aloii;.' the road 
in front of the stream called the Han du L<et on the 
e\enm^' of the lltli. C and D companies were in front 
with A and H coinpanics in siii'port from rijrht to left. 
A maetnni -uun harrayt had lieeii arrant;<'<i. l>nt the hour 
of th( .ittack was ,i!tered from 7 P.M. to 7.;i«> r.M. in 
old. r to permit tlie aridliry to co-operate. However. 
the \'ork and Lan-asters ailvaiieed at sevt'u o'clock and 
the Ki/,ditccnth follow. d -uit in perfect order. There 
was nn»ehine-(;nn tire from houses and farms, Imt the 
attack went in splendid fashion. (' ci nipany, on fairly 
open ground, halted at one point for nearly fifteen 
minutes to wait for th<- rt st of the advanee. Scryt . 

The Durham l-'orccs in the I-'icld 

(h!'(.-sj)ic took tin.- li-aii ill Mi^liiiiu' ia '^i%i- I-'aiin, and ".'lul 
Li' lit. lAjn<! i}\:\ 'Jnd Liriit. A. M. 1 rnr who won the 
Military C'- took la l{tc(|nc. J-lacli phuc \\v.\ a 

}rarrisf>ii o; (Jfrmaiis, and thrsc \v( :<■ all kiUi-d or 

cai-.tnrt'd. iwo !ij;[it niachini--^M!p . ■.\ir<- taken liy (.' 
coinjiany. who crossrii tlir Stt cnv, m !-. t road and d\\<s 
Hi hfVon'', A conipany {irol'inj/inj^ tlic hnr lu the left. 

I) cciiipany. indvint; dvcr cncloMd counlrv. canir 
iMDir sl' ul . liut iii'nc til- Irss •.iirtly. Nrar la I'rciiuc 
lirii'. S<-\;nonr found a?! aliandnncd iiiacinnf-^iUii 
\vlilch he fiirni'd on thr ciimiy. Toiuh on tlic left was 
iililaincd Willi lii'.- 7Mli iJiii^adc, liu! these troops re- 
lived soon afl( r\vard> ::'.\t\ the Ki^htecnlh extendi d ami 
did their h( sl to e"\tr Ihe <:ap. Pte. 11. Mitchell won 
the l)islintrni-li( d C "iiuiinf Medal duriuj,' th.e advance hy 
rnsliin^ a troiilijesoine inachine-^'un and lia\ (in< ttinj: 
tliree of the leani. The losses of the hattallon 
ncfi' not liea\ y and hy dawn of the I'JIh ihe line was 
well dii^' in and paliols weic aeti\c in finnl. The l,")th 
West ^'orkshl^( s had now eoiiie up on the h ft. 

."sooi! after dayli'rhl on April r.'lh the enemy could 
lie seen cone nt rat m:,' for a jjeneral attack and. thoUi:h 
the Mritish ailill'iy opened on him with !j;n at effect, 
by S A.M. all tluie hatlahons wer«' hard press<'d. The 
ri^ht ol tile hri;,-ade line was m the air and fell liaek 
lirst and then the Ki^'htecnlji j/ave ^nound slowly, in- 
flielirij,' liea\y losses. 1) company on the left were the 
l.i-^t to u'o. Ti.e line of the farms captured on the 
pievioiis e\cnini,' was Ihe next position to iiolii and this 
was onl\ possiMe for a shoil time. 'I'lie hattalion had 
now lost "270 in( II and it was i;ot loiii,' liefore the whole 
l)ri;.'a(h- were hick on tln' line of the slrcam, wlicre the\' 
eaine under the lire of Ihe liritish tjiin'^. Kniilade 
niacliine->_run tire from the ri;.'lit soon caused a furliier 
ritirenKiit. Iml a sl ron>,' point at the ccrnelery was 
stoutly held. 

The (ierman skirmisher^ were now coniin!,' on ui 
swarms, supported hy liyht mortars and nmehine-;;uns 
and skilfully employed artiller\- lii''. On tlie roads 
cavalry ami cyclists could he seen and enemy lialloons 
were close eiionuli liehind to see every inovenu'iit of the 
defeni e. Tl was ddllcidt to <:< I ordeis to tlic scattered 

The (icrman Offensive. 1918 

groups .still tii,'litni<,' di spiralrly. Thf coiiiiiiuiili r uf 
1) onuipiiny with 1.") m<ii lulil oii to thf K;iu dii Ltct 
liiu' iiorth-Wfst of Maison Uliinclic ; 15 ciiiiiaiis cmi:- 
inaiKliT with a few of liis own nun aii<l soiuf V* est 
Yorkshires made a --taiKi n<ar tlic cciiuttTy and 
sijci'fcdfd ill holdinir up tln' riunix a.ii\aii(f for a tiiii<- 
afiir tlu' Rail ihi Lvv\ line had Ihcu varatrd. Tlif rai!- 
wav south-east of Outtfrsteciic was the nt\t pMsition of 
(lifcnce, Imt it proved to lie little more tha:i a death 
traf). There was dead ground in front and no con i r for 
the firinj,' line, while from the west eanie aeeiiriite 
enlilade maehiiie-;,Min tir.-. Here the Kit^hteenth found 
t'liemselves on the h ft. liiit units mi.\e<l and t!iv 
whole hrii^'ade were cmly aliout tun s1rouj». 

The l.Vth West ^'(.rksliin s. now on the rieht, retire<i 
lirst. Then Colonel Low.' held on wiili the riu'lit half of 
the l.ittalion. while the ailjutaiit withdnu the left 
throu^'h close country and thuk hedt!( s until he found 
another place wher<' a stanil eoiild he made. In this way 
tlic Hailleiil-Outti r-teene r^ad was crossed. There was 
no communication with hri<.'ade headiiuartcrs and liie 
remnants of th.' three ha!talioi> the We^t Yorkshires 
were lost and found a;.'ain fell hack until, midway 
l)rtwecn Hailleul and Met. r< n. they caiiK- upon the Isth 
Middh'sex Re,f,'t. The KiL'liteenth. with the l".th West 
Yorkshires ou the rijjht, now tilled a lm]) ui the line 
here, faciii<r south and east h. twteu the Middl-sex iiicn 
and another hattalion coverini: the southern ap|)roaciies 
to Metercn. There were onlv rille }iosts to occinty. hut 
no time was lost in ccinverlin^' them into continuous 

\'cry |)rwi!iiiicnt in the r-trrat had Ih , n Actmir 
l{.-S.->i. K. ()ldri-!:,'e. of DarliiiL'ton. Twice he was one 
of the last jrroup to withdraw and lie handled his int ii 
with 'jrcat skill ami <oura(.'e. C.-S.-M. W. Henneworth, 
of Sunilerlnnd. conducted a v<rv ^'allanl reconnaissance 
and did i:«>od work in helpinj: to cover the rctircincnt. 
rtc. .1. Atkinson, of Newcastle. ha<l volunteered to tHk<' 
a mevsau'e to the front line under deadly tire and did so. 
thoii'.'h "wonnoeil twice <m tlie way. All th.'se were 
afterwards awariled tiie DisI iuijuislied Coiidu! I Medal. 
At in o'clock on the moriiin'_' of tlie l.'ith came an 



'I'he I )urlTani l-'orccs in the licld 


liiiur"s ticfr, iH'iiiliariiiiii'iit iind iii tin- aitcrnnuii thrt-t 
lid'irs (.1 ii(!i\ V ^Ik'11 tir< hail t(. I-- < luiurcd. 1) .•iiiiiii;i!i>- 
ilni cxcrllriil p;ili(.l \v..rk ill inirlit. sfiirciniii: a wnn.l m 
ffdiit anil <--talilisliiii(_' lunch aluii^ tli'' wlidli- liiif. 

.\])r\\ 1 till was a (lay ol \uvcf sIk-IIiiil' ami rrpt-atcd 
mfaritr\- aMacks, whirh \v<-!r aluays rrpiiUrd li\- L< WIS 
jjmi arid idir \\v aai-'d i>\ tlr li.ld lialtciKs whicli 
cariir \u'k .icIiMii in th,- rarl\ iiiorniii;.'. l,i'-ut .-Cnl. 
('. W. 'ri!l\. \\n<< had r.rriillv hit tlif IJijIlirclitli l.i 
take (MniiiMiid Mf 111-- l-,i;, \\i st ^■()Il,-'Mr.■ 1?. ■<.'!.. uas 
killfd li\ a sill II s|ihiilri- (III ihis (lay. 

Ilii' the r.hcf (if the rriiiiiaiils of t h. '.Cird hn^'ade 
was i(iw [Kissdilc On the rally nit>ri:nii.' cf Aprd l.'ith 
(nh.ncl l.duc lii.'k ihciM liac!; to I'.orr.-. ihc :.tli l?at- 
lalion of the 'i'aiik Corps nplaciHL' tin- I'liiiadc m tin- 
line. At Hoiic the details of the luiL'adr wiic found. 
Thc\- had dm,' and In Id a lint- wist of Mt iiis on 
.\pril I'-'th and l.'iUi and haii liccii undir heavy shell 
tire till relh \( d ii^ t he .\tisl I'a h.aiis oil the fo||o\vin(.' day. 

\ Coinposile iiatlalion ahoiit I' ) stroiii,' was foiined 
from the snr\i\'ors of Ihe I''.;','hteent !i and West \ ork- 
shires and ("loni ! Loue assinned i onimand. lioiTc 
was hea\ii\' sjiclleij -n the ITlh win n this iiattahoii 
mo\cd hack to rilofland m nxrve to the ri st of the 
disisioi! w'lo maniH il a portion of the Hazeliroiick 
drfcnei ■. ( >n t tie follow in;,' da\ a hio\e was made roiinil 
lla/eliroiiek to le (.r.iiid H.isaid on tin- Ain- road. Uv- 
inforeenients ,irri\((l here and the Kii.'litcfutli were 
orL'anised as :i liatlalioii aL'ani. Twn da\s later the\ 
came under the okIms of the '.••_'n<l I?ri','adc and took 
o\cr a [lortion id tin front ^oiilh of th" Ha/elinnH ^ ■ 
SIrazeele railwav. I) eomiian\ , with a di taeliineiit of 
the 'I'aiik I orps. tilled a jjaj) helwt eii the titli .Australians 
and the lltli East ^'orks|lires ; the remainder of the 
liatlalii'ii were nsponsihlc for the series of posts which 
formed the support li.ic. .Much work was done mi the 
defenees diiriii',' the foljowim,' days under a htavy firr 
of t'as an<l Imdi explosive shell. .\t niL'ht (iortmiti 
aeioplalies elinie o\ . i and opened tile with their 

\! t.l'i \.M. on April •_'iitli ,111 oHicer and '.'(i mhm 
Weill lait to lr\ and i iish a house reported oeenpied hy 


'|"1k- Grrman Offensive. l^^lS 

,1 iiinrliilH --un. 'I'Ik Urri-,h lianani liil Im.. i;ir ii;ttk 
iin.l m thf Cut (iI till-'.- iiia(lmit-L;niis ;iii<l -rowui^' <lay- 
lij^lit 111.' tiitcriinsc had tu lie aiiaiMioiH <l. Karlv nn the 
iimnuiii,' iif tlic -JTtli a '^U(•<•l•s:■-lul rai<l I'V the r'.as, \u\k- 
sliirfiiit". , r-.iutzlit iftahatiDii. hattalimi hia(i(iuaitiTs 
ami th<- ai.l i.ost (,f the Ki-htt<nth ht iii<,' slu-llfd out l.y 

Thr 1st 15ui(Ur Uc-t. caiiic up in tli.' .•viniiif,' to r<- 
\iv\v the l.attahu!! wi.n u.-ir ahl.' tu ;.'.t away h\ thr 
<arh inui'Miii: nl thr JMh. It was a weary march to 
tt-iit's n.-ar Sercus and here ther.' \\as little rest, for ;5(lO 
men had to I.e supplied daily tu uork -n def.iisive jmsi- 
tioiis and trauiinj: was also earned out. 

The (.erniall attaeks south of tli< SoIllllH Were still 
eausiii;: anxiet\- at the liei,'innin<,' of the month ami on 
April Tth the Nineteenth inov.d up. to IJonnay to sup- 
port the Australians iiohim<: the line of the "ver from 
Auhi^jny to \aiie. On the followiiitr da\ -Jnd I.Kiit. ('. 
Mosley was (,'assrd, •_* nieu were wounded and ti W( re 
<jasse,| as a ivsult of eii.niy slxll tire. I'lehtm^ in this 
quarter now di.d .lown. On Nt'.i the l.atlahon 
move<i l.a<k to la lIusso\e, next dav t" (^uerruMi. thence 
hy I. us to AeheiiN and on to l.illets at UMlaiiville. On 
til' '.Mil the (.ermans shelled la lIusso\e with a hi^li- 
vcloeity t,'un and caused casualti lo the transport of 
the hriixade movinj,' throUt,'h the villau'c. 

On Ap'il I'.'th the Nineteenth came into the line 
south of Martinsart and s[)ent six days there. Hcfore 
relief on the niL'ht of the 17th the (.erman field trims 
aiul i.'l howitzers shelled Ihe trrnches persistcntlv 
hut few casualties resulted. The foUoWIIlL' da\ was 
'(■nf at Hedauville in the rain ami under the .■■(■.urate 
narassiiij,' lire of a (iermaii hi'h-veloeity <i\in. 'I'he 
hatfalion marched down to NVarloy on the I'.'th. 
casualties from shell lire incliid.m,' -.'nd I.i.ut. |{. Fish 
wounded. I men killed and ."> wounded. .Vfter two 
davs" trainini! in the attack tin Nineteenth took over 
11 portion of the lim- which ran across the valley south 
of Nlartmsart Wood. An attack uas |ilann. d for 
7.;{0 P.M. on April ■.'•Jnd. hut a ipiarter of an hour hefore 
7ero the eiiemv open* d with slirapnei on the support 


'I"'hc Durham lH)rccs in the I'ickl 

t ri'iiili- ,. v'.liili' Ills heavies j-nniid. il Mai tiiisarl Wnnrl. 
I''ortimalrl\- llu^ mily lash.i Iim' lui'iulc-. 'I'linc 
tuiiiulfs litforc till- ailvaiicc was tiiac'l In start our 
liciu'li iiMJitar laiia;,'c cainr (I'lWn uii Astliiy Wniiii 
wlmli uiir aiicraft \isit<(l with huiulis and iiiacliiiK'-^'iiii 
tire. At 7.."?0 I'.M. the Hii sli lidiiii) I'dniiht lic^'aii. hut 
llic NiiH !■■! •.i\\\ wrii- iiiji !, ii ti) \'.ait iur s( \i ral iiiimitfs 
in oiiicr to colli )nu lo tlic hana^'c W'licii tin hattahon 
Went lofward on a t \vo-cotiijiaii\- rroiit:if,'r th< \' wire nut 
li\' Ihr till- of t!i' (il rtiiaii iiiachiiK -;;uiis. W ronipaiiy 
on t'lc ri;.'iit ,L'-iii:-il ■_','() \ arils, hut wiir cnlihidiii from 
lioth thinks and snlim d liia\iiy. 'I'la- cotiijiany con;- 
niandi-r wa.s wouiidrd and im furlhiT i,roj,'rtss could he 
rnad:\ 'I'hc conij.any mi ;hr lift went foruaid nearly 
Kid \aids and were tlun hroui.dil to a halt hy tlic 
Urilish hanaj,'c. A! '.» p.m. it appcan d that W coni- 
pan\- on the rij.'ht wiie m touili with the 1 Ith I{oyal 
Weleh I'usiliers and that a lmji ixistid hetueen \V and 
\' eonipaiiies. X conijiany sent foruaid a plativm to 
join th-' line i'.nd Z company d'ld likewise to reinforce 
W, now \ery weak in nunii>i!s. On the lift 
of the l-.att dinn the latli Cheshire Heirt. had not heen 
aiile to make pro<,'ress and orders were issued later for 
troops to diir in as they lay. Hut Y company wfn in a 
I>osition untenalilc hy da\hj,'ht. so at |. a.m. on 
Apiil •J.'ird they wiihdtiw to the oriijina! fiont line, 
('apt. II. Hi alon. M.C. with \V and /. companies, lit Id 
the foiuanl posts 111! the iiiiht until relie\-ed at dusk. 
'Idle N'iiietcciith then mo\c(l into resiT\-e at Houzincourt 
for a few da\s and on April I't'ilh returned to the 
familiar xadey ticir Hi'dauville. Casualties in tins 
action amounted to 117 killed, wounded and <»as^ I, 
hesides (.'apt. (.. W. lirwi s and "Jlid iat uts. .]. \U \\ and 
A. ('. I'atiisMU. killed: _'nil Liiuts. W. (;. Ilayman. 1{. 
Hall, and ('. (iiummitt. wounded; and •_'nd I,ieiit. H. 
Hiehardsoii, ;,'assed. 

Heinfon emeiits of one ollicer a.nd l"_'t) men joined 
liefore the halfalioii Went into the line a^rain near 
.\\ilu\- Woiid on .\i>ril -.".tth. 

The 'Iwcnt.'li Were wanted at Vprcs early in the 
month. I,ia\ ;: Mieiwilhrs on AjU'il 'Jrid the \Vear- 

'I'hc German Offensive'. 191 S 

siders tia\cllc(l liv i'us fiiul tram and luarcli route to a 
ramp m tlir St.ciivoordc aiva. llrrt- two days wnv 
sptiit ill ahsorliiiij,' a draft of US younj.' soldiers. On 
Ai)ril 7th the Twentulli moved up to Vhimerlui^he and. 
the folluwui^' <lay. arri\ed m a r< serve jx.sitioii at St. 
Jean. Tlie (.erman jmssure now forced an abandon- 
ment of t!ie j/round s.) i)amfuily wow ilurmj: the sunuuer 
and autunm of I'.n?. On tlie m..'ht of April rjth the 
battalion were suddenly moved up and set to niakm;,' 
new stroni: points b<lund flu' front liii<' which crossed 
the Hannebeek stream north (»f the Vpres-Zonnelvk.- 
road. These posts \\( re mostly centred on old (.erman 
•• pill-tioxes." tnndus beini; du;,' round or near them 
m order lo aecommodale a ^';«rrison of any numiier uj* 
to a wlii)le company. .\t myhtfall on April 1 Hh a com- 
posite (ielaehment drawn from A and C coini.ames were 
left on tins line and tlie rest of the battalion moved back 
to lu'fiin a new defence system. Dijif^m;,' and wirint: 
oeeiipied the dav and ni^'lit of the i:)th, the men working' 
in four-hour shi'ils. Uehefs were then arrai>t,'e'i, whidi 
left all t: companv holding,' the new outpost tine. 

Ill the carlv morning: of the Kith the troops m front 
wiihdrew. according' to orders, and C company wi-re now 
nearest the t iiemy who followed up during,' the after- 
noon but did not Come witliin half a mile. Work con- 
tinued on the rear <lefences under some shell tire durintr 
the next few days. On the 17tli strong enemy patrols 
came out in daylight with tlie obvious intention of 
occu})yin<,' Hill •i'> 'in which t!ie Twentieth had a jiost. 
The (iermans were dispirsed by aitillery, maehiiit -^'im 
and riile lire. 

At :>.ir> A.M. on .\[)ril I'.tth about .'(l (iermans 
rushed Iliil li"). C'ai)t. Wild or>:anised a counfer-at tack, 
uhicli was delivered with spirit by two i)la1ooris after a 
six minutes" bombardment, and before 11 \.M. I!ill ;*■"> 
was once more in the hands of the Twentieth, liut there 
was f,'roinid on the ri;rht front where the en( luy could 
assemble unperceived! Some hostile shellm;,' followed 
and the maehine-<;un fire from tlie " pill-box "' called 
(iallipoli was lieavy and accurate. Small parties went 
forward in rushes to deal with this menace, but to of 
the enemy suddenly ajipeared on the rij,'ht and took the 

I li<^' i Jiiiliain l-orcfs in the Ticld 

'""^''"''i' "I ""■ li.iiik. l-;.lliiij; siiMvv riKi.l- il -htlKiilt 
'" •';';•'' "" li:::lil ",.1 -.'imI |.i,.„(. Oliv.r ;iihI si.iiir of 
the 'Iwniii, jl, u,.,,. snrrouiidcii. II. aw in;icliim-^'un 
firi' Ik. Ill (.aili|.(,ii and tli. .s..iniiir •■ jiill-dox "• swvjit 
''"■ <'"-^t n[ III,- Inl! ui,„i, 1,;,,1 t,, l„. M,.l,l,.,i t., th.' 
'"'■'">• -'"1 '-I'-iil. (.. i;. (Hiv, r \va^ nrissiiiu and -Jiid 
I.i-ul. H. .M. Hidl.-y uas Irlt h.lniid W(jin.d.-.l, althoimii 
Iwi. in. M u-.Tr hit m an[.l t., nri hini awav un.h r 
li<-.i\y Inc. iOinliic,.,, |;|,.|, r.luiiird \v..ini.l(<i "ami l;i uhn \v,-,v nusMn^' u, iv kui-d .,r lia.llv 

Il \\:is nut until th.' ni^dit ..I tli.- -Jsth thai tli.- 
';''""! "'■'; "'ii'V'-d and uith.livw t.. ti.ndi.s 
ri>lij/,. wliirli uviv t.. f.,rni tlir n, u Irnnt line. TIi.t.' 
\>-'^' """■'' ^^^'M. tM .Im liriv uhi', iIm^ (..inian shell 
'"'■ ^i' ^\ '" v.''nin.- and ,\t,iid, ,| ,\,n |.> railli.'ad 
al I'l-MNiri. 

'1'Im- Tu.-nt\-S.r.,nd. I.y wav ..f Sams-, n-Aini.iiois 
^iii'l Aill\. aiiivcil at l-'MMi<lnii..\ Ml, Auril •_'i!ii. Aft.-r 
a I'-'d ( Mild,' was r.a.-h.Ml iijinn tli.- Ith and In iv a 
'!!■••'[! ,,r :.-() ni.n uas iv,ii\.-.!. Tlifv l.>,,k.-d \n I,.. ,,f 
I"""' l'li>s;,|,|,.. 1,111 ih,. I.atialh.n s ,,„ had rans.^ I,, I,,- 
I""'"' "' lli<-in. On Aprd ath I. lent .-Col. H. (. 
.lain.'s. 1)<A)., In, in Ih.- -Jnd I).-v,.nshiiv iJ.-l.. assimi.'.i 
-•""iniaiul .,f llf 'l'u,nty-.s,,.,,n ; ,.,,,,] ., coincn h.-nsi\ ,■ 
liamnn: j>t":;rainni.- was at once put in lian.l. On 
April l.'lii III,. ■i'u.-i.ty-Sfcond cam.' iiiid.r the ,,rdtrs 
"I th.' I'.iiL-adc and in.)\<al t.. Huss\-I,s-I)a,,nrs. 
uia IV tiaiiiiii;,' was fMiil iiiu.-.l until th.- -.'nth. '["h. n. iii 
''■•"I'' "id:T. the l.atlaliMii march. d t.i I ;iaii<,'y-Tn .11- 
^ '"'■ ■""' '5 •■'•nip my p h.-., d a .'ninpaiu , ,f Ausiialians 
in 111.- r<-s,T\.' im. at Anl,lul|^■. Th.- Mh l)i\isi,,ii now 
l.arr.-.| th.- \\a\- t,. Ain;.-iis. h.-mu astn.l,- tix- main 
thai runs di,.- .a. I t,. .St. (^iifiitm. Tlu- .-oiupaiiifs 
..r th.- 'i'u, !!f\-S.-.-o!i.| w.-n- ma.i.- ui) t.. a sti-.-nuth of 
-"" ■■""! "■'■ "-^1 "f th.- 111. -11 work.-d f..r th,- timncllcrs 
<"i III.- foll.iwm.j .la\-. Th,- Aiil.i.jnv line was improved 
nntil .\pril •Jlth. v.h,,, th-- wla.le l-.attalion t,,ok up 
l>altl,- si:ii„,ns th.-n- u, Ih.- nii.Kt of a lieaw homl.ard- 

Il'lllt of nas sh'lls. 

'' ^'■•'•^ "" "lis nH.rnin;! that lia- (..rinaiis. l,y tli.' 


'I'hc German ()ffcnsi\f, I'MS 

use <ii siimki . ;4.i-. Ilamt -t liiiiwrt '. iiinl Link-, li>i.|. 
Villers-Bri'toiiiiiux ; dut Ihty idulfl ii"t didniK li fruin 
tlif villaj,'i- in fiU'f (il the 15ntr.!i tiic. 

'1 W(, hri^iiulfs (if Australians uric the unly frtsii 
troops available ami to tlnin was int insttii the task 
of rctakiMi,' the villaLrc tliat ni},'lit. 'I'lic 'I'ui n! \ -Sicoi;i! 
Wire to •• tnop u[)."" tiilfi'iii;,' \ ill' -i{i(tonniu\ tioni 
IIk- iiortli-uist httuctn tiw rail\va> ainl the Aiiliij,'n\ 
road, wiiilr th<' 2ii>l Nort liaiiiptoiis il;.! similar woik 
from till- south side. It was a hrij^'ht inoonl';,'ht m;,'ht 
and the wa\' of thr 'l"\v mt y-Stcoiiil la\' up a hare slope 
still swept \<v (ierinan inaehine-j.Mins, 'i'lie tirst atti in|il 
faili'd, liut sniall paiti.'s were aMe to j^et lorward up 
the railway line and in this \\a\ some of (' company 
aeeounted for two (•ernian maehiiu -^uns. At V \.M. 
on the morning' of the li.'ith the -iid l{o\al J5eikshire 
l{('j;t. came u|) on the left and toj^'cthir t!ie two hat- 
talions entered X'lllcrs-Hretonneiix and lie;,'an to rout 
out the dcfcnileis. It Was slow and dillieiilt U(irk. and 
tile |{elks|iire men were recalled at ten o'clock, liiii 
tliC 'rueiity-Seconil stiH'k to it Ulllll olllv a few (■( IMiaiis 

wei-e Inldint/ out in Ih'' south-easlcrn coinir of the 
\illa;,'e. The liattaiioii W'^rc tlieii withdiiiwn lo tlieir 
lorni-r position north-west of \ ill* is-Hii toniicux. ( )l 
the 10(1 prisoners^ captured in the \illat,'e t> otiicers and 
NO men were taken Ity the Twi nty-Second, as well as 
very many machme-i,'uns. 'Jnd Lieut. A. (i. Uowley 
Was killed and C'ajjt. K. W. I'earson and I,ieut. .s. (;. 
Iliijhmoor slightly wounded. These two ojlicers i.'- 
niained ,it duty. 

In the I'arU' hours of the '.'tlth the Pionci rs \^ere 
nio\i-(| round to a supjiort position at the soiiih-e.i^l 
corner of \ illcrs-Hretoniu ux. .\ and H comji^inies took 
u[) this line liehind the Australians v.lio faced soiiti;- 
east astride the lailway. (' eoin])an\' rianaim d in 

Twenty men wcri' called ujion to remf<ir<'e the 
nia("lnne-<,'un post of .mother unit just south-east of 
\'illers-Mretonneu\ and these were taken up under 
liea\\' tire liy Major (.'. ('. H. Hall wlio, for his iiaiidlini.' 
of the situation. recei\-ed the Distinguished Ser\ ice 
()r<ier. Lieut. .S. (,. Ilif^limoor was of yreat assistance 

The Diirhain i'Orccs in llic I-icld 

.iii.i \vi lit ii'! aiiiiiiiiiiit I >ii uikIit closc-raii;,'!' rilif tlrr, 
thcrclis %>■ iiiiiiiii,' th. MilitiMV ( n -. On this flay •Jnd 
l^irllt. A. J. Il.'S^ar!,. M.M., \ ,is im >it ally woMlliin! 
find '_'n<l l.inils. \'. \'i!ii< iit ami L. Ilickiiiiiii utir 


!{flirvt'(l l.y till Australian-. <>n the- UfXt iViiiiii^'. tlif 
'I'wciily Si'cij'kI irtiiMiid t,i liiaiitTy-Troiivillf ami 
niu\(<l Id Da'iiirs on April •JSlii. Tiic last thrust of 
tlic (iirnians for Amiens liad lucn paiiird at a tost to 
tlir lialtalion of I'dO casiialt ii s. Otiur lionoiirs won 
liy tin- 'I'wfnty-Sfcond on this occasion (•oni[)rist'd thr 
Military Cross, awarded to '.'i.d Lieuts. C. S. \Vilimer 
and ].. ilieknian ; a liar to the Militar\' Medal ;_'iven to 
Corpl. K. I)<.d<ls. M.M.. ami V\r. A. Kohiiison, M.M.; 
ami the Military Medal reeei\( d li\ l.aiice-Seri'ts. \V. T. 
Carroll, F. Ha;"|).r and .1. \Vni:ht', I'tes. A. \V. Stohbs. 
1'. Kdwards, 1''. (i. Harrison, !•'. Dinniiij,' and J. Snilivan. 


AmoNC the liatt le-\veary tlo<i|)s selected for a (juiet tonr 
of duty on the l'r< neh front JKiwein lUieinis and 
Soissons, Duileun was well n presenti d. The Fifteenth 
and the Twentv-Seeond \vtnt sDuth. in .-Miditioii to tlu' 
County Italtalioiis of the .')nth (\ortl'.iimi)r!an) Division. 
The '-'Isl Divi-ion had foii^dit as hard and often as 
any. holh on the S'liiine and m I-'landers. and orders 
for the nio\e were weleonied in Colonel IIolroN'd-Sniyth's 
haltalioii. Larj,'e drafts of yount,' soldiers were rereived 
at \'o!keriiiekho\ f and on May Mh tlie battalion en- 
trained at St. Onier. Uoiileusc was icm lied soon after 
inid-da\' on the (;th and the Fifteenth marched south- 
ward to i>illets in till- re';ioil of ()ii/,y et \'iolaine. In 
this Well-Wooded country of hills ami streams tlio 
Diirlianis received a warm welcome from our Allies, 
lioih military and eu ilian. Trainin;: was proceeded 
with ajiaee, for the French were aTixious to relieve 
till ir own troops as early as possilile and t!ic battalion 

BcVt^i«i-.J Mc^ pJ.^eV- 

•> 7 ■//^/ ' ■ V- 

7 X'^''<^^*'"y 



• s. 

ij Chapel!. il^l^.y .•: -^.iiO- ^ •• *7'^~V_ y ■ ^■ 

The DuiiKiiii I'Orccs in I he I'icld 

IS 1 

/■'■llslslrd l,|I-;r( 1\ of \i)llll;,' ■". '.'IS \M • 1 1 llu ( ' N | M fK 1. Cf 
of VMIlfarr. 

'I'lir "Jlst DuisKUl U( !■'• !') fiillll tin n;,flll nf tilt' 

Hntisli Corps and the fnn ! to \«- '..ikin o\(r i xttndfd 
li'iiii a point alii.iit oiic null' iinith of I>ni\if. on tlic 
Aisiir and Manic canal, to Hcir\ -au-lJai-. the innction 
With the sth DiMsion. On Ma\- l-Jlh. in iMautiful 
wiathir. the Filticntli went h\- In^ht rail\^a\ to >a\iijii\- 
ami niareiied across tjie ri\el' \'eslc to the little \ illaj,'e 
ol l'<\y. .\e\t inornint,' th<y leaeheii IleiiiiotiV die 
ami at nii^ht relieved the Ct h liattalion .if the •-".t'.Mli 
(Hayard) Friiieh IJetrt. ni the line, '('here u c- plenty 

ol oood Uiic. liut a perfect liia/e ol disused treliciies 

j)ro\ed ratliei' an eniliarras-,inent ; Mh enemx sho\\ed 
iiMle sii;iis of actixily ami, ir the wonK of the Kreiieh, 

till' whole li-'.nt uas tris iilhni. !n tll'ir shll t -^lee\ es 

the Innliaiiis \\i n1 almnt tlieir tvencli duti' s and hacked 
i!i the sun. (In Ma', I'.Mh a jiatrol i ntered the (.erinaii 
line. Init the enemy ran a\\av. 'I'wo d.iys later the 
I'lftcciith \vere i-clie\(d and withdiiw to a siip|(orl 
position Ileal the main road lo HIh ins (h'onte H). 
<>!) the JoUowint: 'lay they \\i\\{ into ris(r\e at a 
I'aiiip at ( lialonsde-\'ere;ier. 'rrainin'_' \\as done heii 
and a church parade was held on tin inoiniiiLr of May 

'.'flth. WarmilJ,' of the evpeeled attack was reeiivid 

the same (Acninj: and whtii. at 1 \.'i. on May I'Ttii. 
the liattalion tiinitd oiit i h(a\\ homtiaidmeiit of 
miistaici 1,'as she!) catne down upon the camp. '1 In 

I'llteenth mo\ed off ni lespllators thrm.'L'll the cielise 

fumes and reached ( auioy hy wa\ of woodl.ind tracks. 

The di fell; es of tile \lllai,'C colislstid of mail\ stroll;: 

points aiiil its weakness hay in the niiinlit r of disii^rd 
tieneiies wliicji rail hack frtwn Koiite II. 

.\t Id \.M. (■ eompan\' wire s.nt foru.,id to reinforce 
tlic '.Mil K.<).^■.I..I.. hut the Vorkshircmeii had had 
to i,M\c i"oiind ami tlie (icrmaii infantry wire already 
on tile main Tins company accoidnL'K reitiforc«'<| 
sonic of the lull Northimilicrlaiid I'lisiliers tioldiiii; tlic 
.\\ancie de CauroX". while H coinpan\ pushed out on 
the !ef! to hold the llo\aii di l,i .'^ommi. This pr<i- 
li el. ! the hft of the line and It was hoped to eel in 
t.iiu h u itli th>' I cieesfcfs of the 1 lntli IJrie.i.h'. k po, 'cil 


The (jtriiian ()ffcnsi\c, 1918 

to lit' Mt the Ifdnuht called C'ciltn' \':lul>iUI. I) CMtii- 
;)aiiy iii(ii[)Uil the slmni,' ])<iiiits lion dc la l'u\i-. Hon 
(if la l,a\oir. H( dmit Nord and Ufdout diitrai. 

'I'lif (icrinaiis caiiic on in dftrrinlncd faslnon. siip- 
poittil liy a Ik rif lioinliardMM'nt. and piisiicd 15 roni- 
pany hack to Axancir iir C'aMro\-. Tlir Duiliaiiis 
countct-attaikrd uiMi lioinhs anil a hloody st iiij/l'!'' 
Was \\ai."d III tlicsc trcncliis on the outskirts of the 




C.*>URO r 

Nulafji- until till (.(inian niiiiilitrs prf\ailtc|. Diiiiiit: 
the altiinoo;i tlir ( in inv oi'cnpicd part of tin Hoyan 
(If Htau Si'ioiir and lii^iiilxd Ins way into Avancif 
dc C'aiiroy. so that, m s|iilf of tlifir dcsiicrafc i<sist- 
ancc, \\ and C (onipaiins \\<rr forced liaik to the 
sniikfn road east of lie.loiif Mid. At .").M0 i-.M. tlie 
irih Field ('ompaii\. H K.. ariued from llernion\d!f 
and r. iiifoiiid the left llank on tlie li},'lit railvva\ we t 
of till \il!ai;e. Tw., hours later ciinif another on^i.iUyht 
III M\ ( 1 whf IrniiiT -tieii<!tli and the British 'mi" ^vas 



The D".rham Forces in the I^eld 

ubliL'cd to draw Lack to thr luad i.ihiiul tlir village; 
hut tlu- (;,Ttuans tried ,n va.ii to d.hourl, fro.n lauroy 
and d.'sistrd in att.inpts as d;Mknr^^ fc 1. Un 
tl.r rit;ht tlu' K.ft.-.nih still !uld s.,inr advanct-d posts, 
hut so..n afttr nudnit:ht .aim- orders to withdraw 1 his 
was .loiu- 1.1 tlic <lark;us. v.itlu.ut Imrry .t .oiifiisu.n. 
for tlir (.rrniaiis did imt si-, n. to l.r awarr of tlif 
r( tirtniint. , ,, ,^ ,, 

llcassfiiihlni^' at Tour Ar Houu.innut , tlir 1- ift.riit i 
made tlirir wav to a camp near I^utlK-rnay I- arm whx'l: 
%Nas r.a.-lu'd at al.oiit l.m a.m. nn May -i.stli. 1 lu> 
were now m l.ritradr .-.m rvr ; Init tlu- (..rmaiis madi 
rapid pro^rress on tlu- l.ft Hank aiul thr.-.- hours lat.r 
the Durhams w. r.- und.-r tire. .\ portion 
was liurri.-div takm up on thr .-ast.-rn end of the 
nd.M' which runs from tlu ChAtcau Hcrvcloii ^cstwar. 
to Mont.t,mv; hut hcf.ur thi^ was a.-.-nuiplish. .1 ( nlnncl 
Huln.N.I-Smvth was woumhd. Major ^. D. 1 horpc 
M (■ ■su.-c.rdcd hini. The (.crnians wm- at ackinf.' 
;„'f,:ont an.l a-lvancu.;.' rapullv roun.l Ihc I. ft llank of 
the l.attalion, hut llu- ti;:lo wa stoutly mamtai.ud 
\; l(-.iL'th the line withdr.-w .-,(•(> yards, hut stood last 
'then- until It hecame ne.-es.,::rv to retreat m or-ler to 
escape amulnlatu.n. The lu xt position in rear was 
alreadv o.-.upied hv mixed umts of t u- r.Hi 1 n^'. h' 
j„„l oihers. in conjunction with tin- l-.emh. It was 
on a ri.h'c exteiuliii^- from hefor-- Tnu'i.v on the n-ht 
to a pou.t south-east of I'rouilly. Not all the survivors 
of Fifteenth arrive.l hce. Ser.'l . S. (.aniett a 
Clushiic man from Dareshury. was last seen with a 
small partv. all liohtr'- d. sperately ihou-li surrounded, 
niherv of 'the hattahou came m durm- tlu' aft<-rnoon. 
The trenclies. situated on a forward slope, were very 
shallow, hut Ih.' wire was ^m.o.1. In front wo..ds coii- 
rraled tlu- mov- nu nts of the ,-iu my. hut on the hij.-.. 
..round hev,.nd l.-WL'e hodus of (..riran mfantrv ap- 
prar.'d to' threat,., atla.-k. A of ""■'•" 
Urserve D.Vls.o,, hloU-ht ... hv the 1- ,f t m nt h sa id that 
th. a. Kane,- uo-.ld h. .-, lu urd i.evt mor-um;. I he 
tn-.-d troops we..- assaded with hea%v si. Ii.e and 
(;,rman pal.ois w.-n- a.-t.xe. hut no fresh i.ifanlrv 
,,ttaek deMlojud llial daN. !u the eveuint; tlu- hrieade 

The (icrnian ()ltcnsi\c, 1918 

U( If (li\i(l;(i into Iwi) ill tiuliiiKnts. tlic ('> ntlir. r.s ami 
K) iJifH (jf the Fiftitiith %v!u) :i<r.v n inainrd Iciiif,' iii- 
chuicci ill iliaf (■(iiiiiiiaii(lf(l liy l.u iit .-(. HI. \V. N. .s. 
Alexander, D.S.O.. of tli.' East Vorkshir.- Hiiit. 

The Cicriiiaiis were known In lie in .jnm Ixiy and 
hffort- (lawn <>f May •J'.Uli the Init was l'roui,'ht hack 
to thr Mvir \"ts|c. 'I'lic j)iiihains tirst held tlw sdiitli 
liank west of Muizoii. and were tluii inovt<l to a 
supjiort i)osition. A titrcf cminy liond>aidnunt '-oii- 
timicd. III! at "J.."?*! i-.M. tlif I'lfttcnth wrrr rtlir\id 
1(\- Irftirli troops and ino\rd liaik to l{osna\'. rest- 
ing: for llic lULrld south of the \dla-.'i-. Mariaux wa. 
naclii'd n<\t day !iy way of Mrry Pn-nirrcv and the 
inarch cont iiiiif<i to lii\t)uars soufli of the ri\tr Manic 
in the forest of Kpcrnay. On the las' day of the 
i.ionth a nio\c was made to camp at Chaltrait. 

In the heavy t!;.'h1 nij,' o| May .'Tth aiui -.'.sth tne 
Kifteenlii had lost [:>{\ in.n m kdled. woimdi d and 
missing', the heaviest casnallies in the hntrade. Aiiioii^' 
the otliccrs tapt. C. S. Heihcrt. M.C. and I'nd I.ieiits. 
V. Hnrijt-s. J. CartiT. \'. (.. !)a\ies. .1. Dawson. A. K. 
I'oster, H. C. (inlteihL'e and !'".. .loiey were killtd or 
niissint,'. I-i'Ut.-t'ol. ('. \\. H. Molrox d-Sinyt li. M.C; 
Capts. A. Uolurts. M.C. and A. \. (lark. !).>.().; 
and '.'nd l,ieiits. .1. I)a\i<lsoii, W . Ilushaiid. J. Sim lair 
and U. Wlullis had lieen woinided. 

Major S. I), 'rhorjie. M.C. and I'apl. C V. (.rant. 
M.C. v.ere each awarded a har t > his decuratioii and 
•Jiid 1,11 lit. (.. H. Ahliott was ;M\<n tl Mihtary Cross. 
It \vas lar<,'ely owiiii,' to tiie effdits of tiiesr nlliccrs that 
the l''ifte<iith sncceided III ehickm:: the (iennaii ad- 
\aiice at CiUiroy and had foii:.'ht sii-h a spl. iidid rear- 
<,'uard action on the foilowint; da\ . Si rrt . (iarmtt \sas 
awarded the Dist iii'Miished Conduct Midal. 

The sur\i\<>rs (if the riflfenlh who coul.l still handle 
a rille were ealh d upon a!,'aiii. Willi thi help of tirst 
rei.iforeenieiils and d'taiK a eomp.ins w s (Utjaiiised 

t,, ,,,Hi the tilth Mni-adi' ('..'npdslte HaHinlon. th<- 

Fiftetnth pto\idii«',' lioth ( iiiPiiiandih:: otiiet r and 
;idjiit'int in til.' p. is,,ns -d Major I . II. M. usiield. M.C. 
n.C.M.. and (apt. C 1'. (;tan!. M.C Hv the ,v. nin;- 
df .Hill.' '.'nd this liattalioii were in the liiK' suiith o' the 

The Durham Forces in the licld 

uv. r M.nnr at TnM>.v. wli.rr tli.y n inaiii.d for twrlyo 
ihiys uikI.t sliril tiif. rv.iitu.illy ni.nnin^ .-n .Imir I'.ttli. 

Tlu' Tw.ntv-Sr.o.i.l Siilrux f..r Hi- s.,uth on tlic 
,i..,lit ,,l Mav Uli aii.l training' was rrsuiiud wlun t iry 

alTIVr.l at Vll|.s,,v,A,-. s,,utt. of tlir MVrr \rslr. 1 he 

Sill l)iM>iMii took ovrr the Imr in 111.' IJoucy Y''''',"" ,, 
|,,,:i, KriTv-aii-llH- tn a point al.out a mil.- and a halt 
n,,itli-,;i.t'.,f la Vili.-anx-liois an.l the I' then 
„,uv.,l \n Camp dr rOriii. . north ..f Mont i-ny-snr- 

Till ■|\\rnl\->'v..n.l cvcntuallv had one coini.any at 
(.rrnic.nit. on-- at a p..Mtion n-ar liois ,1,- linttfs 
.,,,,1 thr ivst nl th.. I.attalion at l^nilh-n. nux. lii-r.- 
was pl.ntv of uork. lint tii.- u.atlirr was iin-' and thr 
I,,,, .nn.t' nntd tin' rvmM.L' --f Mav •-''■.th w h.i, the 
(nips s, ,it a uarnm- in. ssa-c n^-ardui!,' 111.' (..rinaii 
..tta.k .AI...I..1 .arU n.xt m.-rnir,.'. Th.' .•ompaiiy 
,,| !> Hois -l.s Hutf.'s ivir on.-.! in position 
th.T.- th.' i-st .,f th.- hattali.m ni.-'d at ,,n.-.' t.. 
(..rni.'ourt uh.n ('..Ion.! .lani.s as.uni.-.i .■..nunan.l 

nl til.- ill f.-llC. s. 

•ri„- .■niupanv n.-ar liois .!■ . Hnlt.-s was .,n th.' 
i,„uai.l .d.',- .d th,' l.attl.' /on.', m -d 'I"' '^' At alM.nt a s.M. on May -Tth this l,at- 
,,,1„,„ an.l th. -.'n.! \..rthainpt. .lis w. r.' atta.k.'.l ai.. 

' ' -|s ( r. iss. .1 

ir,.,'.'.! a st,,ul r.'sistan.'.-. Th.'n tlu- (..'iniaiis .-ross, ,1 
,',. rncr' an.l assail.'.! th.n' .>n Hi'' niiht Hank 
..„„1 „i nar. Th.' Hntisli f..uirlit t., thr .n.l. '• I'-w 
of th.s.- hattah..!.-, w,T,' s.rn a^am. r.'i...rt..i th-^ 
d,v,s„,nal .'onnnan.l.r. Th.'ir fate was als.. th.' fat. .d 
,1„, .....npaiiv .d ti. Tw.nty-S.'.'on.l wh.. s,ipp..rt.'.l 

' "!|',;,. ,,,,„Min.l.T .d tlir I'.attali.m. with wli.m. vw r-' 
s,„n.- rr.n.'li T.rrit. .rials, ha-i suff.r.-.l a h.'av> 
,,,,dnu Id of an.) hit:h I'xpL.siv.- win.' i sw.'pt tiw 
t..rin.'ourt .l.f. n. .'s at oiu- oVl.>.-k m th.' in.,rninLV 
Th.' r.innants ..f tlw '2:\u\ Hriyad.- fn-in th.' l.ft .- 
,1,, l,n,. f. il l-a.'k a, th.- Aisn,. an.l 
r..i,ta-orl in th.' IdhuIs .d th.' - n.inv lud..n' th- 

I li.p. is.d. 11.' Ili'ii .■i..sM,i Ih. ru.r a Idtl.; t.- 

,),;. .,,st an.l .nt.r.'.l th-- l?o.s -L' (.. rn..'..n: t . I h.- 

The German Offensive, 1918 

(livisiunal rdiiiiiiandtT says: "•Details of the fif^litiii},' 
on tin- (itTiiicourf position are dillicult to ol)tain, l)Ut 
/ipparciitly this position was turned from the south- 
west, for the eiKiny t:ot into tlie IJois tie Cieriiirourt 
and tlieii east throu<,'h Hois Popeux,* and {,'ot round 
the defenders. The {,'arrisoii . . . foUf.'ht well, hut were 
surroundei] and oxerjxiwered."" Hut many of the 
Durlianis fou^'ht their way out and s'.ayed m support 
lielnnd the rij,'lit of the hue wluii, early in the after- 
noon, the 7.')t!i Hrij,'aiie froin the 'J-'ith Division had 
ahsorhed other fra;,'inents of the Sth and were holdmj,' 
a line throu<.'h Houllit;nereux, Honey an<l Coneevreux. 
Some of the PiorutTs. with men of the 1st Sherwood 
For sters and MaehiiH- (iun Corps, were still reported 
t(/ lie fiiilitini,' in (iernieourt at this time. 

The reir'at was continued towards the Vesle. {,'oin;,' 
south and rather west to keep m touch with the .lOtli 
Division on tlu left. Hut no stand could lie made on 
the river line and liy the evenini,' of May 'iSth the 
survivors of the Twriity-Seeond appear to have Ix'en 
in position south-west of Hranseoiirt, in supjuirt 
to frai,'ments of the "JJlrd Hri<:ade, with French troops 
on either side. Twenty-four hours later the Durham 
men held the line soiilh-west of Faverolles, hetween 
two hittalions of the .ISth Hrifjade. The trans[)orf 
{^ol away saf< ly in t!i<' retreat. erossin<,' the Marne at 

On .lime 1st the heachpiarters of the Twenty-Second 
was at Moslins, and some men were eontrihuted to the 
Composite Battalion formed hy the Kth Division and 
sent up hy bus on the rui,'ht of the '2nd to help to 
hold the line. Casualties in this last hattle, or seriis 
of hattles, amounted to l'.» ollicers and no less than 
\'M other ranks, .\nionir the fallen were Major C. C. H. 
Hall and '.'nd Lieut. V. Vmeent. F,ieut. C. '{. V. 
(irimshawe was included in those who wire niissinj;. 

Althou{;}i the fiyhtin",' strentjth of the Twenty- 
Second was •_':$ ollicers and tT4 men on .Iun< •_".tth, the 
I'ioiieers recei\i(| no more draffs. They had arrived at 
Fnancourf , on t!ie I'Vencli ; ^>asf. a ft w iiiili from le 
Treport. on the I'ard. The shHtt«'r(d units of the ."iOlh 

* .\(IJoliiinp Rots (Ir r.rrniripiirt. 

r 803 


The Durham Forces in the Field 

(N()!tluiin»)riaii) Division w.-r.' ni-uprnitiii-; m the 
viciiiitv and carlv in .lulv t!u- Twrnty-Sccon.l were 
iit.sorlH'd i.y thr 1 Ttli l)nrli:tin Li-,'ht Infantry 

Tluis tile cMsii ncr of tlif y()un<:(st Service Hattalion 
of Durliarn <':inic to an <'nii. Tlir County niav well 
l.f i.roiul of th( in Ih ^t of'. and lust of infantry, 
as the occasion dtinandcd. One may r<j,'rct that tlicre 
weif no Twentv-Second to participate m Hie final 
frininpli of the 'Hriti>li amis; hut if they had to h)se 
tlieir identity it was ^ood that thev shoidd iner^e witli 
the Tirntorial Pioneer Hattahon of Durham. 



u I 




On M;iy 'Jnd tln' KlcM-iitli Itfl Fri'villcrs. inarcliiiifj 
to the ( iiatiaii lie la Hair, \\(st of Al)l;iiii-.St . Nazairc. 
The '.'Otli Division were now rclicviiif,' tiic Caiiadiaiis in 
tlaii- |)osil;oiis round l-iiis and A at;d \i conipaniis 
<if tile Pioneers tllovi'd U]) to I.ii'\in. 'I'lic rest of the 
liattalion wtic located at ('ai(iie\. There was tniieh 
Work to do on eonininmeatioii trtiielus, stroiii,' points 
and ni w defensive works in I'lliroiidelle Wood on 
the lii^li i,M-oiind nortli-east of (iiveni iiy. 

A j,'reat deal of ;,'as was liberated during' May. The 
l)ij,'}.'est operation of tins iiaiure took place on the 
■_';<rd, when nearly the whole of the Klevi nth were 
eny;af,'t d in j)Ushinj: up to the front line 7.'> trucks, 
each containing,' •_'! i^ns eylmdi rs. The I'loneers worked 
in parties of ■_'(> and two traniwa\ lines were used. 
Ill the front trench tlie ".'as was discharj:ed without 
retnoviiiji; the e\ liuders from tin trucks uhich, as soon 
as the operation was over, were pushed hack again. 

Hetaiiation foUowi d a few days lalir and was 
only too effective. On May • and .'Ttli Lievin was 
drenched with mustard <:as and all work had to he 
sus|)ended. The Kleveiith lost (apts. V. \ . Kcnij) an<l 
A. Philip; -Jnd I-ieuts. T. A. Atlav, H. Conacher. (.. F. 
Wood. K. \{. Ilarhron, C. Cam, (i. II. Ault and .1 C. 
Hatcliffe; and I'J'J iik ii ail <,'assed. tapt. Kemp died 
Liter and there were 1 1- other casualties during' .Mav. 

.June was a month of hard and nionntonous work. 
On .July :{rd tlie (■ennaii {.'as shells claimed l!t more 
\ictims anion;,' IIh' KI''\en(li uho ' iil a certain satis- 
faction tell days l-iter m pushiiiL' up the trucks for 
another larce j,'as attack. I.i'.ut .-Col. '!'. M. Carlisle, 

D.S.O., M.C.. who c.imc from the !{.!■',.. succeeded 

Cohiri, 1 Hoiiltoii in command of the liattalion on \ iijust 




The Durham Forces in the Field 

IJtli. At this tmu- tlu" finth.r south, 
tlir IKW lll'.r rxtriHiiiiy fr<'iii j'i'-t IlDrtll of Ficsiioy to 
Avioi'. In spitr of tliv many calls upon thnn the 
Kl.v.nth \v<rc <:ivin^ uit.iisivr traiiun- to three 
platoons (hilly l.--fore the . nd of the month. 

Till June aid Itie hea(i<iuaiters of the Kift.enth ro- 
mame.l at fha.ltrait . \\ som. stra-^lers ivjoined. 
\ draft was sent to join tiie Comp-site Mattahon hefore 
movin<' to eont,'v and on to les Kssavts. %vtierr no 
Ikitish troops had stave<i hefotv. A furtlier r.mforre- 
uient was disi)ateh.'d to th-- C' Haftahon on 

Juni' <'ith. , 

On the Utli the hattidion heiKhpiarters went In Ims 
and tram to .MovennevUle and the journey was soon 
,.„„tinu<<l to Viilers Campsart. wlu r.' the eompaiiy 
from the (.omposile Mattalion rejouied. an<l hir<:e drafts 
amount nm to C, otl'ieer- and UVl men arrived from the 
Uas<'. IJusy davs spent m reor^-amsation and trainmu interrupted hv another move before the did id 
the nu.ntii and earlv m .lulv one more tram journey 
brouj,dit the rifteeiitii to Puelievilhrs, ne.rth of Amiens 
onee more. 

Ou .lulv ITtli the Durhams. now lit for tlie lield 
ai'ain, lH.a"r.le<l^s whi.h took tliem to Aeheux, on 
the Doulleiis-Alhert road. In the evening? they w.nt 
into tlie line, ndievin- the Drake Battalion (t«rd Divi- 
sion) m trenches west of the river Ancre and near 
til.' rums of Hamel. Tlief was little activity here 
i,nd easualtiis oidv aiuounttd t,. 10 .luring' tlie tour. 
Hefore the end of the month <ame news of the award 
of the FreiK'h Cniir <\, Ciinr,. nv, r /)(i/nm . to Major 
Housli.dd anil Private .1. Hace. 

The Fifteenth came out of tlie trenches on Aupust 
1st and spent a week in reserv.'. Duviuf- tlieir next 
tour more line was taken over on the left. On .\uK"st 
nth the Cermans evacuated their trenches north of 
th»' Ancre, New Zealand troops reached the site of 
the \i!!a<'e of Serre. and Heaueourt was found to be 
f,.,. of the inemv. On tlie If.tli the wore 
irlieved 111 the new advanced line which they liad been 
iiuldmj,' and went back to buoiiaes in Aelieux Wood. 

Holdinjy the Line, May to August, 1918 

(HI tluir way to hillfts at Uaiiichvval. I'cxir days later 
tlicv caiiie vip aj;aiii ami moved to a position cast of 
Mailly-MaUlct on tlu- foUownifi; niorninj,'. 

T!if tid- of hattlr had already turneii. Early ui 
the month the success before Amiens was the |)rehide 
to the tinal victorious advance m which the Fifteenth 
wtre now to hear their part. 

The Eij,'ht(cnth wire at Sereus until May Itth. 
Arrangements had hecn made for hrcakm^' u|) the 
.'Jlst Division, hut tlicsc were canccilcd 'o the ^Tcat 
relief of everyone conceriitd. 'Ihc next move, mad>- 
partly hy bus. hrt)ii<jht the Durhams into support 
[)ositioiis north-west of Metereii, l)etween Australians 
and French troops. The trenches were poor and most 
of the sector was o\erlooke(i hy the (iermans in the 
remains of Meteren and on the hijjher t:round north 
of the villa<;e. After a tour in reserve the Eighteenth 
went into the front line, where i)atrols were active in 
the thick mists of the early mornings. Helieved on 
May '-'Itli, the battalion moved back to C'ampagne, 
abdut ten miles south-west of St. Omer, where train- 
ing and recreation were somewhat interrupted by an 
e|mlemic of inlUieii/a. Sergt. \\ . Siddle, of Suiidei- 
land, who, as transport sergeant, had done good work 
in March near the Ayette ridge, further distinguished 
himself during May, when the limbers bringing up 
rations had to run the gauntlet of persistent gas shell- 
ing. He was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal. 
The Eitrhteenth moved forward again on .lime l.')th. 
,\fter a few days" work on a defensive line east of 
Morbec(iue they' relieved the 1st Lancashire Fusiliers 
of the '.".tth Division in the reserve ' ue at (Jrand Sic 
Hois, near N'ieiix Herquiii. On .Jun-- •."_'iid the front 
line, whicli faced the stream called Plate Hec<iiie, was 
taken over. Patrolling was dinicult under the liright 
moon and m the face of an alert enemy, but on the 
evening of the 'J.">tli No. tt platoon estal)lished and 
wired tw.i fi.rward posts on the riglit. at a cost of 
T) casualties. 

On the next nit'lit i and 1) companies jrot nut of 
their trenches ar.d lay up behind the parados while 



'I'hc Durham I'orccs in the licld 

iiiiK' jil.itiM.ii^ (li the i;itii Vurk ;<nii Laiicastfi's ciinir 
tlirout,'li ti) iiltack Aiikh- Far. 'liinc was iio prc- 
liiiiiiiai> lioinl.anliiMiiI. \<u\ li. .i(i\aiir.-. iiM.lccU'd 'iV 
ail cxcVlNiit liaiia<.'c. •■ari'ifil the lanii ami a m-\v 
furwai.l line was cslalillslicl al.iii;.' 111.- I'late Hri'(|Uf. 
Mcanwlulr No. it platdon, umlir •Jml LhiiI. \V. Alll>fury, 
with a (l.iiihic l.iwis i;iiii sr(liuii. had followed the 
sccoikI u:i\.' nl atlacktr^ and ^i^cupiid llu- posis lui; 
on the pi(\ lolls (Vcnint:. \\'-'i,: linn CMninifiicfd on 
othtis lo link i.i» tlir niw loiu.^ <l lim- witli thr old 
front tKiirh.s to tiic south. (■■ nnan nia<liiin-^'nns 
opciii'd at ( los,. raii^'c. luit wdr tacklrd !)> jjartiis 
of Diirhains Ir.i l.v Lapt. H. K. Ilitciim. D.S.O., M.l'., 
M.M.. and --'ikI i.unl. \\ . Alll.riir> . Thr (..riniins 
thnw honili-.. Imt dtiiiiifti a hand-to-hand ti<:!it. Irav- 
MifX oni- <:mi anil ."i i)ris(iiitrs in (lie liands of tlic 
Eil'htciiilh. Shortly afterwards C'apt. Hdilnn was 
winindrd. hut 1 A.M. the dc'-nsivf Hank was 
(■oinpl(t( ly ( stalilishrd. I.osscs in llir ranks only 
aiiionntrd to 10 and --'1111 Li'iit. AlUn ury nrcivi-d tin- 
Military C'ros". lor his cool and skdfnl leadership. 

I, ate on tin c Acnin-,' of tlie '-'Tlh '.'nd Lieut. A. 
Everatt, with part of .\ coinpan)-. took over the new 
defensue Hank while 1{ (•oini)any and two platoons of 
I) reliev(d the York and Laneasters in Ankle Farm 
and aloni; the line of the stream. Karly next morniii<: 
the l.'th West Yorkshires had to advance to the line (if 
the I'late Heeipie further south and -.'iid Lieid. Everatfs 
people were to souii: forward to the line of the stream 
and tliiis eoiii|.|ete the nc w front. As the enemy posts 
west of till Hectiue \sere too near to lie dealt with liy 
artillerv. t'olonel Lowe arran^rfd to harra^e them with 
rille trrenades and niachine-tznn tire from tlu' factory 
liuildm^j ju-t north of the N'leux Her.iuin road. 

.\t t; \.M. on June -.Nth the advance lie^'an. -nd 
Eieut. K\eratfs KKii Went forward in small columns, 
mcetin;' wii'n lillle opposition. One post which showed 
li},'lit so :)n d.-alt with and small ^jroups of (iermans. 
evidently tak' i, !■> suri)ris' . lied southwards. Others 

Were shot or iiayolli tted in tlu' shell holes tlie> oeelijpi- d 

The Durham men were on the line of the stream m 
•• few mmutcs and started to dij; m, while Ser<:t . II. 


Holdin^r the Line, May to August, 1918 

(;ol(Miiin»ui,'li, (if l{i-.l!<iii AucklMiid, iiiui I'tf. A. A. 
Taylor, of niMiiiiii.'liitin. cross. ■<! the lUccnir with a 
Lewis j,Mm team and stalk. d a [.arty of (..iiiiaii niaeliiii.'- 
guiiiiers 111 the staiuiiiij,' eoin luyoiiil. 'I'lusc were 
killed and their «uii was .■ai)tured. On the l.ft two 
more iiiaehine-j,'uns fell into Ih.- hands of \\\r Kiuhte.iith, 
who had only sustain. -d •_' easualti.s in the a.han.-.-. 
The i)ris.iners taken ininihered IW. 

'_Mid Lieut. Kveratt was awarded the Military Cross 
and Seri,'t. (.oldsli.irouizh and I'te. Taylor each ne.iNed 
the l)isf~in;:uishe.i Cmduet Medal. C.-S.-M. H. Dolan. 
(if Thornal.y-on-Tees, won the same d.corat i.n for 
supervisinj,' the distril.ution of rations under tire lufore 
the advaiie.- heuan and •zuidinj,' ammunition parti. s to 
the new front line through a heavy (ierman liarra;,'e. 

On the ni^'ht of June '-".ith the Lit,'ht.'enth nli.'Ved 
the l.-ith West'Vorkshires on the ri^'ht a ditheiilt opera- 
tion earrie.i out under a storm of tras and hif,'!) ex- 
plosive. The new position e\t«nded southwards from 
la liee.iue and was suhjected to heavy slull tir.' until 
the Durhams wen- relieved on July 1th. 

The 1th Cuards Hritrade now left tlie :Ust Division, 
and were replaced hy Mie troops mostly dismounted 
Yeomanry froiu Palestine who formed the r.-eoii- 
stituted ittth l}ri<;ade. 

After a week's trainiiii,' near Morhcccpie tli.' 
Ei<;hteenth took over the line immedia'ely south of 
their previous i)osition. While li.r.^ a '.)st machme- 
{Tun team of the Ki'.'nd (;erman He^'t. w.rked mt.) th.- 
arms of an \ companv jxist on the ri^'ht ami on the 
eveiiiiif,' of July i:Uh a corporal and '2 men aeeount.-.l 
for a trouhlesome (;.rman maehine-<:nn winch they 
hrou.'ht in after killing' on.' of tht team. 

irelieved on July 1 Uh. the hattalton mov. d t.> re- 
serve i)ositions in the forest .)f \ieppe, wh.rc A an<l H 
coropanies indudini: many iiewly-join. d m.n traine.l 
ff>r another ent.rpris.'. nsinjr a puhI.I of the .iieiny 
positions. On Julv l^th th.' 'in.^ south ..f la H.-c-jue 
was tak.-n ov.r and an operation des!<,'n. d to hrinc 
the whole l.riRade front up to the Plate It. c,,ue was 
fix.d for the f.>ll<.wini' iii.irmn!,'. TIhtc was no tim.' 
f,,r reconnaissance. 1 ut the outi,'ou>Lr troops r.'p.)rte.l 




. ! 

The Durham I'orccs in the Meld 

the (icriiiaii luu- \viaki\ lulil so a l)arraj.'i- was (Krincil 
unnecessary. South of tlie farm huilduin known as 
hi ]}ee(]ue A and li coinijanies of the Eij/hteenth were 
to advance with the West Vorkslures on their rij^dit. 
At 7 A.M. on July I'.Uh tlie attack was hiunclied, small 
columns with sc-outs in front creepinj,' throu^rh the corn. 
H com|)any, on the extnine left, were soon met with 
niachine-fjun lir<'. North of the road was a ruined 
lnujilm^ inclosed hy liedj,'es and a Liwi-, j,niii team 
advancing' aioiifr the north iied^e were all killed or 
Wounded, '.'nd Lieut. Turnhull attemptrd to rush the 
place with a s<ction of rillemeii, hut all Ins men were 
hit. This otlicer made another attempt from the rear, 
lint accurate maclnnc-ijun (ire rendered the enttrprisc 
impossihie. Lance-C'orpl. Adams had triid to co-operate 
fiom the west side. He f,'ot his Lewis ^'uniiers thrnu;.di 
the hed^'c and enj,'a<,'ed the niachine-jjun lirin«,' on Lieut. 
Turnhuirs party, Imt a platocju of (Germans at once 
left the liuildm^' and liomhed this ;ection out. "Jiid 
Lieiit. Lant,'ley reached the south-west corner of the 
encljsure and shot a (ierman machine-<,'uniu r, hut 
every attemj)t to f:et further forward failed. 

The men on the extreme rij,'ht of B company had 
j;ot beyond the enclosure alony the road to tlie south, 
'i'aken in rear l)y machinc-{,'iin lire, they were then 
compelled to withdraw into line with the rest of the 
company, now (ii(,'!,'inj,' in about 10 yards west of this 
enclosure with tiie idea of tryiiij: ajrain at dusk. 
Snipers in the trees were now acti\e and bursts of 
macliiii! -{,'un lire visited every movement. 

■Jnd Lieut. \\ . L. Henderson, on the left of A 
Company, went hirward until th' stream was visible 
(>nly NO yards away, when his |)latoon suffered 
heavily from the (Jerman machine-^uns and sni[)ers. 
The otlicer, with Ser>,'t. \V. Harknr, of l)arlinf»ton, 
oecii|)ied a shell hole into which they had drawn several 
wounded men. Suddenly about Ki (urmans rushed 
up and Lieut. Henderson ;,'ot •_' with his revolver. The 
n'mainder fell back and thrtw bombs, but Serj^t. Barker 
threw one lionib back before it e\|(!oded and killed "_' 
more of the enemy wiio then tied. Tliis platoon was 
isolated, but hunj,' on until ordered to retire later m 




'■"Ik- Durham I'orccs in the I'icld 

;iii iimrDiii;;. Till- plati luii l.illnuin;^ '.'uM Liciit. Ilfii(K-r- 
sdtTs in^ii Wire ciicckcd further liack li\ iiililii(ic tirr, 
lliciii;,'!! s.iinc III; til! riL'iit !iiaiia<,'((l tti j,'ft forward, 
'.'ml I, nut. W . Itriiwii. wlm l<il the ri^'lit (if the 
Ki;,'liti(iitli. inailc ^nidd pruf^rr^s at lirst, hut cNriitiially 
Ills platodii siitr(i(<l lira\y casualti-s. In atttiii|)ti!ij,' 
to dral suij^li-liaiidrd with an * nt in\ post this otliccr 
fill hadly woiiiidid and was not s( cu a;:.ii!i. .*>trt,'t. 
W'liittiild If d up llic rtar platoon with jjnat nsolutioii 
to thirkrn till liiK lure, liut hi' was afti rw.irds killcil. 
Mariv oiliir <,'adaiit deeds W( re done ill tlii-^ coiifiised 
li^ditiii;,' on llie iij,'(it, where the (.eriiiaii inaehnie-^'uns 
inaintaiiied a deadly tire frmn tjic willows alonj: tiie 
strtaiii. I'te. \V. ilarper. of .Sp( iinyiiioor, and I'te. 
1{. t'owliiii,', of Doneasit r. stalked successfully two 
enemy po^ts, ;,'eltui;' ~ lilts, uicliiilint.' a (lerniaii otlicer : 
t'ori)l. f. l,lo\(i. of Iloii;:litoiidc-.<prin;.'. went forward 
alone, shot '1 (.erniaiis and sihnctd a niaeliine-i/iin, 
thoii^di he was uouiuled 111 so dn'.ii;,'. St rj,'! . Harkcr 
an<l thise Ihrii' men received the l)istinj,Miislicd Conduct 
Medal; I, lent. Ileiidersi.n was awardtd the Military 

'IIk troops on the ri<;lit of the Ki^htccnth '. r»'- 
tiiriied to their trenches afti r siiffi riu^' liea\\ lo > and 
the jiosition of \ conipany. who weri' on that (lank, 
hccaine critic. il. It was dilliculf to coini\ orders for 
a withdrawal and in sonic cases small j,'roiips of men 
ele<'ted to riliialli to protect the wounded. 'I'lie only 
wav to retire was liy crci pin^' backward carefully 
tliidUj:!' the ( irn and some of the Kii,'htcciit li did !iof 
t;et 111 till l.n o'clock at ni;.'ht when C iiihI D companies 
look o\( r tfi>- liie. I.ieiit. ('. I.. W'elford aiid 'Jnd laeiif. 
\\. \\. I,.ini:le\ Wire woumled and losses in the ranks 
amounted to KKi killed, woundid and loissni^. Tracer 
hulhts ami liiilli Is turned l<y tin standiii;: crops mtlicled 
nasty wounds. 

War do;,'s were iiM d as iiK ss<n;:ers duiin<,' this opera- 
tion, hut with in<lilferenl siiciess, One man and Ins 
doi,' were kilh d lofthcr; another man was killed and 
his dor returned at once to lnu-adi- heaili|uarl< rs ; oiiK 
one aiiiinal liloUuht in a m. ^sj.jt . It ua^ unfortunate 
thai an i iiemv n In f had lirom.rht intu tla line tin I^Ttli 

Holding the Line, May to August, 1918 

Cicnnan Ktf,'t. wIh) were not uiily of iimcli htltcr 
lif5litm<.T spirit than tlitir pn ilrcissors, hut also htld 
tlif strtain and posts in trout of it in such str(ii{,'tli 
tliiit an advaner without artilUry jinparation %vas 
duonu'd tu faihirf. 

No further li^'hliiif,' div. lopi d litforc the EiK'ldt-fntli 
wen- rt'hivfd on Jul\ 'Jiiiid. After spending a week 
near Morlieeciue tlie liattuh(Mi eanie info the reserve 
line liy (.rand See Hois, where W(irkiri<,' parties were in 
demand. Diinnj,' July they lost ."J ollieers and men 
in killed, wounded, niissir.j^ and siek, Init these losses 
Were more than replaeed \>\ drafts and hy men wlio 
rejoined from hospital. 

On Au},'Ust 1st tile Ki>,'liteent!i eanie into the trenches 
ayain opposite \'ieii\ Hcnpiin, hut took over t!ie f)ld 
line two ni<,'hts later under incessant hostile sliell tire. 
On tlio fith ti(H) drums projected aas into the i-nemy 
lines, C and 1) eoinpanics heinj,' withdrawn to eiiahle 
tliis to he done. 

Humours of an enemy withdrawal were now rife. 
On the afternoon of the Ttli two snipers reported to 
C company that the enclosure of evil fame had heeri 
evacuated.' '_'nd Lieut J. (,. Perry, with C'orpl. F. 
Wright, took out a small party to investigate. Near 
the western hedge they came upon some (Germans who 
made signs to the Durhams to surrender. Hut the latter 
had come to taki' prisoners, not to yield themselves 
as such, and ••ventually returned under tire without a 
casualty, hringing m no Ic^s than It l.ermans an<l a 
light machine-gun. Hy this ( \ploit •2nd Lieut. Perry 
won the Militar\ Cross mil C'orpl. Wright the Dis- 
tmgiiislud t'oiiduct Medal. night the front line companies advanced their 
line 'Jno yards and this new position w,".s dug and wirt d 
without iiiucli enemy interference; hut patrols found 
the enclosure re-oeeiipied and dew 'iiachiin--gun fire 
from the direction of the stnam. 'I"hc haftalioii were 
relieved on .August lOth and nturned to Morhec(pie 
once again. •' .{jst Division haiidm',' oxer to the Kith 
hefore refiia ig the '.iMi Division in tli<- .Metereii sector 
further nor ii. On llie •J'ind tin- Kightcenth passed 
through Hazchroiiek and after a l-'Ug. exhausting 




The Durham Forces in the Field 

iiiaich uciit into trenches north-east nf Meteren which 
was now in British haiuis aj,'nin. 

The Nmetctiith came out of tlir line near Avehiy 
\Voinl on the eviinn^' of May 1st, withdrawinfj to 
lledanville and then to Toutenconrt for trairnny and 
recreation. Some work was done (jn the defences run- 
mn>,' through Kni,'elhehnt r and JSonzincourt . known as 
\\\r " Purple ■■ Line, The ItattaHon went into the 
tntiehis a<,'ani on May '29{h, hasin<,' lost C'apt. (i. 
.Inhnson, the (jnartermaste.', .md "Jnd Lieut. T. \' . 
Corkui, wounded by shell lire in tiie valley at Hedauville 
two da\s before when there were also 7 casualties in 
the ranks. 

The hri;,'ade held the north-western j)ortion of 
Aveluy Wood, the line runninfj thence soutli-west to 
Martmsart. In the early morniuf,' of June 1st the 17th 
and isth Lancashire Kusilitrs made a valiant attempt 
til char Avehiy Wood of the enemy, hut were too much 
iiainjxred hy the thick undert^rowth and hostile 
machinc-^iun lire. The Nineteenth, in rtservc, had no 
casualties in this action, ttiit witlulrew to the "* Purple " 
Line in the evening; and were shelled nut. with a loss 
of <; killeii anil I'nd Lieut. H. H. C'unliffe and :A others 
wounded, at dxwn on June 'itid. 

On the 17th, when the last tnnr of the liatfalion 
ill this part of the line ssas drawinji t^ mii end, a raid 
Mas mailc upon the enemy. Two paitus entered his 
trenches. Imt found them empty and on the return 
lourncv S casiialtu-s were sustained from mai hine-j,Min 
:ui(i tren<h-mortar lire. The division were now at>out 
til move north, hut the Nineteenth stayed for nearly 
a fi)rtmi,'ht at neaiKiuesne, where Colonel (ireenwell n- 
liU(|Uislied the comniainl an<l was succeeded l)\' Major 
IL l{. M(( iillatrh. 

On .Fiil\ 1st till' liattalion marelnd to Doiilleiis and 
iiitr.iiiied for .St. Omer whence they nio\t(l to lnlIeK 
ill Tiliiui s. Three days later they took ovt r n -erve 
hillets from th«' French at Hoesehcpe. in the Locre 
seelor. now a (|inet part of the line. The !ir'«t tour 
HI front CMinmeneed on .Inly I'Jth and • .iriy Tiext 
nioriini;; the (ierniaiis attempted to raid a po^t. They 




lowtd (|Uitf •_*() oi 

Holding the Line, May to August. 1918 

wt'ie ilrivrn off without nnu'h trouhlf. "i of tlic Diirliains 
iHinj,' \v(niii(lo(l. 

On the iii{,'ht of July 'JTtli a raidiinr party of -JS nun 
from \ .'ouipany, uihUt Capt. Smith, MA'., iind :!'.' 
from Z company," l(<i by '-'ud Lituts. \V. (.. Dyrr. MA'., 
and Jordan, acVompHshid a very successful enterprise 
under the direction of Capt. H. Heaton, MA'. Heavy 
arti'.ierv, field {^mns. Stokes mortars and machine-},'uns 
ail coiitril)utcd to a i)erfect harraf,'e on and around 
the (iermaii trendies oppositi' Loire lIos|)iee. A 
linii'^alore torpedo was placed in ihc (;« rinaii wire 
hefore the zero Ixnir and just after ll.;5it cm. the 
enen\y line was entered at two points. Kitht r the 
(;«rniiuis were fornuiif: up for an attack or a relief 
in pro;,'ress, for tlu' trenclu s were found full of 
In the fierce hand-to-hand strut;«le which fo!- 
f the enemy were killed. On the left 
Cai)t. j". W. Hyall h'd a rush upon a maehine-<:un post 
and, thou<,'h seriously wouiided, saw the team killed, 
after which he i.rouj;"!:^ in the pun with the assistance 
of his servant. Prisoners were hard to f,'et, for the 
(lormans would not surrender and although four were 
hauled out of the trench only two reached the Hritish 
lints. No one of the Nineteenth was kille.l. •-'nd Lieiits. 
H. \V. Jordan aixl W. (i. Dyer were sli.^'htly wounded 
and there wcr«- -21 other casualties, fc.v of them sci.oiis. 
C'upt. Hyall and '-'nd Lieut. Jordan were t,Mvcn the 
Militarv Cross. 

After another turn in reserve the Nineteenth went 
bacli to Terde<,'hem, about two miles east of fnssel, to 
refit, but came up in lorries to lioeschepc apain on 
Au<,'uvt .•ird and nt xt evenini; buik over the front 
tr<'nches. The enemy was suspected to In- retiring to 
the lull of Kemmel "and a patrol penetrate.! his line 
to a depth of HO yards on the niyht of the hth, tindiny 
III. siyri of him. Next day the Nineteenth rt turned to 
Terde^hem where musketry was made a feature of 
\h traimti^'. 

Thr Twcntuth were '.till holdini.' (• '.cclor of the 
Ypres <lef.nccs uii May 1st. K.'ist of th<- -ity the Hritish 
line now ran thn.Ufjh Hell Fire Cormr. where the 


If ': 

The Durham Forces in the Field 

HouliTs railway crossed the Mi'iiiii r(j!i'l In the even- 
ing tlic liattalioii were withdrawn to \'hiriiertiiighe, in 
reserve, and worked on the line of dcfenee there. On 
May llch eanie another tour in the front line north 
of Zillelieke Lake. Tlie weather was fine and the 
Menin road was aetively pali illed, a wounded (Jerinan 
of the l.l.Sth Hef,'t. heinf: hronyht ui. When not in 
the trenches there was innch work to lie done, for 
there w<'re successive lin<s of defence in j)re{)aration 
west of Vlaniertintrhe, throuprh Tirandhoek and throujih 

The last three days of the month were spent in 
training f)arti(M:larly musl ry near VIamertin{;he. 
Durinj,' May 41 men Iwk oeen evacuted sick but 
there were no killed or wounded. 

Most (tf June was s{)ent in the ."Second Army train- 
ing area, a move forward commencing on the '28th. 
On the evening of the last day of the month a French 
battalion were relieved in the Scheri)enberg sector, 
about due west of Kemmel village. Water in the for- 
ward art a was suspected to be coiit -muiated, so tliat 
all supplies had to be brought u[) from the rear, and 
there was niuch Work to do on the freriches. The 
Twenfieth were n-lievcd on the night of July .")th and 
came int») the line again two days later. There wore 
many young sodii rs in the ranks and while in support 
and rescr\f positions trauiing was carried on in |)laces 
free from ene?ny observation. The CJerman artillery 
fire was considerable during tlw nuMith and the bat- 
talion lost (apt. J. T. Saunders and 2nd Lieut. A. 
(iraham wounded and :\ men killed, to wouixlcd and 
r.l evacuated sick. The last six days of Julv were 
s|>enf III reserve near Hcninghclst. 

On August 'Jnd the Twentieth were organis<>d with 
the 1 lOSth Americans into two composite battalions, 
A Itatfaiion consisting of the two \ a!i<l \\ eompaiiies 
and M Battalion of the (' and I) companies. In the 
rv( ning ;he A Hattalion relieved Americans in the front 
line and H Battalion the •JCtli Hoval Fusiliers in sup- 
port. During the following ilays and nights the 
Americans learnt miieli of trench duties an I patrolling, 
while the (lerman guns continued fheir aefnity. On 


Floiding the Line, May to August. 1918 

August Ttli tlif Twentieth liecaiue or. hattiilicm again 
an(? after a tour in the support line went hack to 
lUtiinghelst wher.' work was done on tlu' SeherjH'ulxTg- 
Diekehuseli Lake hue. On August '.".ith tlie Wear- 
siders wrre again in support. Casualties during the 
month amounted to T(». meluding Lieut. H. S. >Lie- 
kinlay. wounded, hut more than half were through 

On June T.ttii at lirnokwood, Surrey. th< traiinng 
cadre of Ww 2 7th Duke of Wellington's Hegt., which 
had returned from France, used to form the 
nucleus of a n<w haitalion called th-' -".tth Durham 
Light Infant rv. Tht \ were to form, with the a.'Jrd 
London H<'gt."and th. ISth York and Lancasters, the 
Ust Hri<'a<le of the n instituted 1 Hh Division. Lieut. - 
C',1. F." S. Thack. ; ly. D.S.O., M.C.. '-'nd H.L.I., 
assumed command Mid to join his otliccrs and .*)() 
men came a draft of lo;{ of the W'.st Ridings, foll(*wed 
))efure midnight hy MK) nun West Yorkshires.^ East 
"S'orkshires, NMrlliuuiherlaiid, K.O.Y.L.L, 
York and Laneastei --. Duk • of Wellington's. Durham 
Light Infantry and Cyclist Corps. None of these 
answered to liioi • than ttic '" garrison duty ahroacJ *' 
standard of titness. The next (hiy. which was dull and 
wet, saw the organisation of tlie hattalion and the 
fitting of ((piipnirnt. Training wi's hurried on during 
the rest of tlie mruith and the men improve.! rapidly, 
their muskctrv luiiig particularly gooil. Over ;»(M) men 
were found to \n unlit, lait a draft of lOd from the 
•JTth Durham Light Infantry were rcceiv<<i. 

On the night of .Lily I'nd tlic Tw.iity-Ninth entrained 
for Folkestone and e'mliarkcd at s \.m. on the Mrd. 
The liattaliou left Houlogne next ilay and spent tlie rest 
of the month in training, liist at Fiennes. then at 
Moiille. On the ITth a <lraft of 1(17 wns received from 
tie --'sth Durham Light Inf iiitry. At the end of tlic 
month with Maji i IL W. Hidl.y. M.C.. now in com- 
mand, as Colonel Thackeray \ ac'ing hriga«lier 
( ame a ino\e to the St. Sylv.stre Capp<l area, hut 
on .August l.'tii file Tw.nty-Niuth .ntraiiied ;it Steen- 
voordi and mo\ed Iwick to SI. Moineiin. nortli of St. 


'I'hc Durham Porccs in the licld 

OiiK r, and stayed at N'icmlct and Zudrfive until 

AlI{,Mlsf "JOtll. 

'1 lien cHinc another train journcv, tins time to 
I'rnvcn, and on the '.'Tth tlir liallidion rilicvcd tlic 1 4th 
t lifvliin. l{ciri. ,,, liiiiradr rcsi rvf at Hriclen. Major 
Hidli V was now coniirrncd in tin- coniinand of the 
'rwriity-Xintli, Licnt.-C'ol. Thackeray retnrinn},' to his 
own reiriiiient. The hattahor) moved into "S'pres on the 
•JSfh and jirovided workuij,' parties whil.' tlie oilieers 
reconnoitred the front line. 


( i 



Tni«: LAST CAMFAKIN, 1918 


I UK liJlttIc 111 Irollt (if AlMlcIls ;ill(l slllis((|ll<-llt slic- 
cissfiil (ipcr.itin.'is had madi' possihlr flic j/rcat advance 
<>i the Allied arrnie,-, whieli liei.'aii on Aiii,Mist -.'Mrd, 
I'.n.s. and ended in victory. Must of mir S(Tvi<'e Hat- 
talions fnu^rlif ,„ Flanders during tins period, hut the 
Fifteenth l)(ire their full share m the series of battles 
which rolled the eiieiu\ hack tuuards Maiiheiijie. 

1 he\- nunt'd at noon on Auf.'iist -Jlst through a 
^hu-ni of {,'as and hi^'li explosive to a position east of 
Meauniont Haiiiel and on the evenmf: <'f the followintj 
• lay rejjiaeed soiii-' Yorkshire Territorials in a ravine 
north of the rums of Meaiieoiirt. Between Heaueoiirt 
.nid St. Pierre Divioii the Cl-th Hri^'ade. having: already 
lirid<.'ed the Aiiere, passed some troops across the river. 
I'iit the (iermaiis were still on 'I'hiepval ridye. 

Now the hri«,'ade were yucn the task of seizinj,' the 
liij:h ^M'ound soutii of Miramnont. Few tools were hi he 
earned, as cMstint; trenches and shell-liohs could he 
;idapted for defence wluri the ohjective was wr^n and it 
was <'ssential that the tidoj,- shouM he liijhtlv ecimpped 
fiT the difiiciill advance. The Fifteenth cVossefl th.- 
Ancf hy foot-hridL,'es at II i'.m. on Au;,uist -.'."{rd and 
h'Tined uf) on the south side under considerahle fire. An 
h'nr later the hriu'ade advanced m artilhrv formation 
with the Dmhams on the rij.'ht. It was dith.'iiit to ke<>p 
direction and touch in tln' darkness, for the <;i(.iiiid was 
i'llt.d with shell crali IS, seam.'.l with old tivnches an. I 
intersected hy .|,,|, .Millies. The Hritish harraye was 
meffeetnc, hut the t iieiny appear.-d to have little idea of 
what was liajtpenin.;. Some (.eriiiHiis fout'ht .ihstmatelv 
m Hatt<T' Valley, west .if (;randeourt. hut the York- 
-^liMis and Diirliams <iro\.' ah- a.l i,..;':' tli. K.O.Y.F, I. 

The I >iiili;iin I'orcc"- ii'. ll;^' l-icld 

n\,rr.iii (.r.iiHicMiiri ;iii'l thr iill;ifk n in'hfd I'.ic (iriiiiil- 
courl-Couict lei ii ii'i'l. Hi IT 111'' iii;r wa-. rr(ir,i,'anisf(l, 
llic r< sciAC coiiip.'ii'.y (if ciicli liat t.iliiiii fii!!..;iit' a (iffni- 
Ni\r tlaiik Id til' n-lit. It \sas :;.:!!. \.m. when t!i<- 
.hIv.'Iicc was iisiiiii' .1 ^.iil>' ■'.n liniir tn (;a\li;.'ht and a 
mile :iii(l a liali tci <.'o. 'I'ln iinii sciaiiiMi'il upward and 
iiiiuai'd. liic ;,'r('un(l mi tlir l<lt was i iiskt, so that the 
i\.().^■.^.[. arii\cd liist (III llu tiiial olijci t ivc. Imt the 
I'lltcculli were liar( !> Icii nnimtcs lichiiid th( in : iiiost 
(>1 till Kast ^'(irkshiri s liad hist ioiicli and rcinaiiH'd on 
ilic wcsti-rii ((!/(■ of li.i.'Mi Ha\!n< \>liicli. over liaif a 
mile 111 rear, lan d.ix'.h [o tlic iiwi iiid. 

Day was liicakiii;,' as t!ic h'llalioiis !ia(!:(il tlu-ir 
L;oal. 'I'lic (icMiiaii i;;ailiiiic-<,iiii lire uas iua\> luit 
Int^li will!.' tic line was tstalilishcd fatan;,' noitli-t-ast . 
with till- left lli'oWM lack io confront .Miraiuncnt o' tin- 
north and llic ■.\'A<.\ aUi drawn in as a defensive tlaiik. 

(iciicral !i. A. Met inloch had hecn wounded dui...^ 
the a(!\ancc and I. oloiu I IIolro\ (l-Sin>th, .M.C, 
assunifd coniiuand nf iIk- lniLradc wim u ■ re now in a 
\(r\' [iiccarious position, almost iiitiKly surro' iidcd li\ 
Ihc <ncm\'. (icrinaiis came out of IJooin Itavn.e in the 
rear and si'jnalled to the British to siurci.der, Imt they 
W( re soon dispc!s((l hy ntlc !ii( . At N a.m. an attack 
\\as launclicd from Mirauniont across the ri\<T, hut 
failed hcforc the Lewis ijuns :ind riiles of the Flftcflltll 
and tlic K. O.V.I,. I. Another attempt from Hoorn 
Ravine uas dealt with in similar fashion, tuit the enemy 
niachnie-j,niiis. snipers, and inoitars maintained a hea\\" 
tire uliieh eaiised many casii allies. 

Later a l^ilish aeidplane tiew o\ir Hooni Haviiie. 
lull came no fiiiliier. I'Iltc'iiis lilierated hy fl'.e l)ri<,'ade 
111 the early mornim,' only r( aeli'd di\ isional head- 
(jiiarters in the afternoon and k ports sent hack hy the 
1st East ^'oiks'iiire Uc','1., vest of Moom Ravine, yave 
he impression that the adsance iiad halted there. 
I'reparat ions \'.( re put in hand to attack the ravine and 
the ;,'r(iund hcyoiid. hut the woiiiah d hrioadicr, who had 
started hack at .n.:u» \.m., i Mutually made matters 
char. I'he linu.ide-m.'ior als(> [(turni'i with a rejiort 
and th( llOlh Ihi-^ade llu n .idvanccd to s(cnre the ri;.'ht 

The Last ( ianipaiuii, 191o 

^.•' lllf IlKUIllIi;,' \\,.if oil .,11(1 the l{lltisll t|(M>|,s 
fiiitJKi s(juiii alsci madr pn)f,'n's.s tlic ciicniN lire 
sla<k. ii,-,l, M) iliat the l>'ift<fiitli and the <»t!i K. O.V.I-. I. 
v-.rc ahic t'. iiinvc alu.uf iiion- freely and do suiiiel liiii;,' 
iMwaiU stnii;,'lheiimj,' their |.(,-siti,in. To the north 
Muami Hit fell to the H'nd Division „iid the crisis 
passed, llioiijrji it was iie.irly niifhiiuht when the 
I'lfteenth withdrew to liouni Ha\ine. now eh'ar of tlie 
■ neniy. 

Ci-loiHi |: .lroy(l-.Siii\th. :\I.C'.. was a. warded (he Dis- 
liii},'nishe(l ." rviee Ord. r and tli.' d;\isi,.nal eon.iuander. 
HI a eon,<,'ratulatory order, dtserihed the <\|)l()if of the 
<!ith Hri^'ade as •'on, of the hiiest deeds performed li\- 
any hn.rade in tlie" Lieiit. \V. 'I\ved(h-ll. M.f.", 
V. ho had led his men willi irreal skill and eoura-,'e until 
h.' was wouiKJed. was ^'ranted a hur to Ins deei ration 
and ■2iu\ I.ieut. \V. Jackson, a'so anionj,' the wonnded. 
won the Military (.'ross for his <,'oo(l and (,'allant wo-k. 

Xe.\t niornin<,' the other liri<,'a(i<s of the '.Mst PiMsion 
continued the action and the Fifteenth rested on the 
scene of their aeliieveinent . Tliev moved forward to a 
position south (.f Pys in the eveiiin^'. Colonel Holrovd- 
Smylh ritiniiuij: to the command. The Hritish advance 
continued to he {)ressed with uicat eiierfjv and on the 
niorniii- of .\u!,mst L'tlMi the filtli liri;,'ade assemhled on 
the s|)i,r .if h' .S;, to drive the (i.rmaiis from tlie 
sunken load ruiiniii;,' south from l.ij,'ny-Tli!llo\ loLiiisen- 
hof Farm. 

The Fiffenith .-ii- on the rii,'ht did ;he wa\ led 
past the rums of .<ars. -outli of tiic IJiitte de War- 
leneoiirt and then up o\er tlie hi^di j,'ronnd. Thi- 
ilistance lonj,' and iuaeliine-i,'un (ire lashed the 
Durhams when at last tlie\- d.'S( emit (i the slope towards 
the sunken road. Only a few mui reached it. for the 
advance had not hecn ahle to keep uj) with tin harruKC 
and Li:.'ny-Thil!oy was still in (ierman hands. Diiriii},' 
th- evenim,r a c(uiiiter-attaek was repulsed hy the 
I'lf'eenth and at '.t \.m. on .\u{_'ust '.'Tth two platoons 
pusheil forward and mana<,'ed to estahlish posts in tlie 
road north of the farm. 

1'!ie hattahon w ;,■ r. hexed tliat ni -lit. h.i\in<» lost 
1 I olhcers .•in.; -.'(is men sinc<- .Vujiust I'lst. Amo!r<,' the 



Tlic hiirhani idiccs in tlir I'lcld 

f,ill( II urrr Lit uK. .1. Hri(il\ ami W. (.. t li.irltnii, ;iii'l 
-'ii'l l,i< Ills. ( . W. iJcdiiiiiii an<l W. JiK k .Ml. MX. 

1)11111!;,' the <i|H liiti.iiis I. Hilt. 1-'. \'. 1'. I'crr.'ll Ii.kI 
|»rrfiiiin<(l iii;iii\ (iariiiL' n <('iiii;ii'-sinH( s :ui<l ;i((iiiii<(l 
imifh v;tlii;ili|i' iiiforiiiatiuii and mi Aiitrnst •_'(ith •Jnd 
Li'iit. A. I{ai- lia<l iiisliii;:iiis|ii<i hmi-rlf m tlif attack. 
hdtli tliisc ntliciis ri(ii\i(| the Military Cr<i^s. 

.Vftcr two (la\s" list the Fifteenth ninxeil up smitli i>f 
I ■ MaiNiiie \n \<t\r\ .lead and clear the iiat I lel'ieid. while 
the advance |in-,^iii d.i. Heaiilene. airt fell ti> IIk IHUh 
J{ri<.'Mde mi Se|itenilier 1st. hut the Durhams were in 
(■(it[(s itservc and dii| lint enter till' iiattle aj:ain till 
hiter. 'I'he\ niiiMd uji I ast .if Maiianemirt cm 
Se|)tenihcr Till and ass.nililcd ne\t evening,' fur an 
attack on ( hajiel llill. jiisl nurtli uf the scene (if their 
successful counter-attack at the lie;^innin;: of the Maicli 
retreat . 

Kast and slio|il|\ nmlh ..| the Mlla^ie of Heiidiemirt 
were tu.i cupsi s ahoiil ."iiMi yards apart lallcd (.<miiii 
Well Copse Nil. 1 and No. •_'. Tlw attack was to lie 
laiiiiclierl from the cast, in idee of the latter. ■■ if clear 
of the eiiein\ ."■ hut as the l( adiiij; emniianies ajiproaehcd 
the western siih in the earl\ nimnin;,' of Scptetnlier '.Hii 
they came under iiiachine-i.'uii tire. 'l"hc miK tliin;,' to 
do was to halt and form up where they stood. 

Cliapel Ilill was defended l>y a redoiilit and C'a\alr\ 
.Support 'rreiich still known hy its old Hrilish name south-cast from it across the rai!wn\-. T{oueIil\- 
jiarallc! to this line and from ■_'(10 to .■{oo yards lie\ond it 
was the old t'avalrx 'I'rcnch. (' and I) emnpanies of the 
l''iftc<iitli led the .idxance up the expnsid sidjie and 
forced their wav into the lirst line despite the sfmi! 
resistance of the (iermans. Heavy niaeliine-<^iin fire 
inadi' further pnnrress iinpossitilc fur a time, liut the 
Durhams were readx for another attempt at half-past 
live in the e\(niii<,'. Then, after a shoit hut ftloody 
stniM-irjc. C'a\alr\- Treiuli was wmi and a counter-attack 
which followed from lliapel I'rossint:. ii<irt!i-east of 
I'liapel llill. was llun;_' hack. Hut ttie (.ermans came 
a^am in the ilarkiiess and the I-'iftecntfi were forced to 
wittidraw to {'a\alr\ Support. .\t 7 \.m. next da\ 
alioiit ;!(• of the euenu' siiddcnK' limnlied their wa\' in. 

The I. .1st ( , iinpai'^ii. 1 '>! S 

liiit l-alicc-t Mi|)|. i. |,.il(llt\ lii;iil. (1 an atlmk ulihli 
Iniik tlittii III ll.'iiik and didvc flu m dff. \\{ was 
auanicd tlir hislin^ruisliid ( midiict Medal. 

The Fiftttiith were rtli'Vfd that nij-lit and sMtlidnu 
t(i liivoiiac at Elsoni Copse, east of Manaiieoiirf . 
Casualties aiiioiinted to 7 otlieers and '.'TO men and in- 
cluded -.'iid I, lent. K. J. Miinkwortli. died of wounds. 
Six days \\( re now s|)ent in reor;;anisat ion ami traiii- 
iiij,' and on Septeinher Istli the liattahon nio\iii .it 
l-.'i(> A.M. to a |)ositioii for an attack upon the trciiclus 
defeiidiii<,' Villcrs-Ciuislain. I' eoiiipany were to follow 
llie (J2nd Hii;,'a(ie and the r<st of the hattalion iiio\cd in 
rear of the J<. O.V.I,. I. and East Yorkshirts, coiniiif,' up 
between them as tile advance proj,Mrssed. The attack 
was lauiielicd at ."i.lo a.m.. and soon afterwards I.icut.- 
Col. C. K. H. Holroyd-Smyth, i).S.()., M.C.. fell, 
se\<rel\- Wdunded. Capt. C. IV (;raiit. M.C., assumed 
command of tlie hattalion. .\ company, on tiie left of 
the East Yorkshires, carried tlit> Ixtt factory on liie 
1*< izieie road and so(jii after nine o'clock tlie lim was 
reorf^'aiiised. |{ company coming; into position astiiiie 
this road lietwcen tlie two Yorkshire liaftalioiis. A 
<omi)an> were withdrawn soon afterwards, .\t noon 
H company sent patrols into Villers-diiislain aiui dis- 
covered tliat tlie (.ermans wen holding' the north-eastern 
side of tile villa<,'e in sonic strciii^'tii. Four hours later, 
after an enemy concentration iiaii liecn l)roken up l>y tlie 
Mritisii j,'uns, I) company moved up on tne riij;ht of the 
East ^'orkshircs wliere, m the trenches and sunl-ceii 
roa<is, they foiii^dit the enemy witii lioiiilis. Tlie com- 
pany conimaiider. Lieut. C. .Slepiieiison, h il his homliei- 
III person an<i did well to maintain the position, as there 
Were no Hntish troops on his nuht. He was awarded 
t he Military Cross. 

\ and C coinpaii. . were now in support jmsitioiis. 
liiit early on the I'.itli A eom|)any were liroii^'iif forwani 
and t>iok over Meunier Trencli, liuc soutli of fiie viliai^e. 
On tlie rij,dit a raiiiinj,' party from 1) companx 
attempted, liut failed, to rush Derliy Post in the sunken 
ii'ad leadiiii* soutli-easi from \'illers-(;uislain. Duiinj,' 
the mornini,' Eancc-Corpl. U. >!itcliell, of Eellinf,'-ou- 

'l'\ lie. ^\.lll (he i )ist i Hi' 1 1 islir 1 1 Ctilldilct Meij^d li\- all act 



'ilic IJurhani I'orccs in ihc lickl 


of ainlaiiniis luavtry. ll<' was loukiiij; fur w .t d 

hrtwccii the Inns wiitii lit- iioticfd a (;{Tinaii ti if- 

j,'iiii ptist. (^inttly ((.llcc'iiit; sdiiic liomlis wine .■<■ 

I\ my aliDUt lie riislicd iii siiiylc-liaiidcil. killt-d d (,< u, h - 
and Iproujilil IIk' t,'nn in. altli(>nj,'li In- was s<\r,.ly 
Wounded ni the Ic^'^. 

Ahold ".».;{(» i-.M. !lic Fiftci nth wt If t(h<\ril and 
!• tnnifd incc inoic to KIsoin Copse. Septeinhei 
l,slh and llMh had e<ist 7(> nun killid. wounded ami 
inissuij/. and losses would have heen heii\iir if I la- 
troop'- had not had an excellent liarra;:e and kept elo,e 
to if duriiij,' the tirsl advance. I 'nfia tunatel\ , Colonel 
llolnivd-Snivth .uceuinlied to liis wotnids ; a ver\ e.dlant 
otlieer and a tine soldier, he was a t'leat los, to the 

.Sextral da\s were spent at Klsoni C'o|ise anil 
Leslxeufs where a drall of ;}(»(» null joined the liatlaiion 
an. I l,.eut.-tol. II. II. Neevcs, D.S.O.. M.C.. lieeanie 
coniniaiidiny ollicer. The Mntish ailvanic continued, 
hut the Fifteenth reniaiiK d in reserve until Oetoiier .■)th 
when the C.Uh Hrii,'ade nioverl forward oner inorc. The 
l)urhain> crossed tlie .'>t . (^iieiitiii canal south of Han- 
touzelle, passed throu},di troops of the IKHh Ih'.'iade in 
the Hindeiihuri,' sysfeiu and in the evening oe( ujiied 
the le Cafelef-Naiiroy lini- in readiness to attack. 

The Henurevoir defensive system, well wired and 
stroiif,' in ('(increte iiiaeliine-i,'un einplac( iiieiits and 
shelters, was held in j,'reat streiiKtl' I'V 'li<' (icrinaiis wh.i 
also occupi-.'d Montceoiivez Kami and other advanced 
positions. The assault w;is deli\(red without artillery 
support at r. \.M. on ()etoli« r f>th, ssith the Fifteenth on 
the ri;,'ht an<l the Kast Yorkshires on tlie left, in s|>ilc 
of inaeliine-f,'iin tire flic Diirhains piisheil on witli j,Meat 
lesolution and liy 1 1 .;UI a.m. one company had carried 
Monfecouve/ Far!ii. while two coiii|ianies. after hard 
li;.;litin;,'. were estalilished ill the road nuinipy south-east 
towards the He.iurevoir line. Hut the hero of the d i\ 
was -Jiid Lieut. F,. Houjjhley. who irmned a footnii.' with 
his men in the front trench of the main svsti in. lie won 
thi- Militarv Cross. Durhams also held a trench runiiiiii,' 
li.iek Iroiii the hefore-mciitioned road to Mortlio Wood. 
.Ml these yams were laid duriii'r the T!h aia! al 


The Last C:ampai}in, 191H 

I .\.M. ..11 the Mil. UM.l.r ;i li.avy Ijarni'.'c, Hu' Fiftn'iitli 
went forward iii tlif darkiuss. with the K.().\ .L.I. on 
llifir left, and hurst into tlu' Ikaurcvoir di-fcnt-.s. 1 lif 
(itrriian n-sistancf was soon ovcrconi.' *'>''"i-''' '""" 
inafliiuf-fiun post liild out for a tunr. Ca|.t. K. 1 urvis 
and -Jnd I.U'Ut. A. A. Tuffs w. iil on to Ant,'l.'s tliatiau 
and took It with its jiarnson of :'.<> (..rniaiis. Ijut otlitrs 
hirki-d in the woods around tli.- huildini; and ihrrr wrri- 
no liritisli troops on th« Manks of tins party of Durhanis. 
who now nutnlK-rrd no n.or.- than -M. 1 h.- 
jud};rd It i)rud.nt to withdraw to a sunk.n 
road whfr<- rnnforcni.nts .•vntindly r.aciR-d tliiin. 
At ti \.M.. aft.-r allot htr stru^'.,df. tlic » was o.cii- 
pi«-d a.'am. hut thi- -K.unds wnv n.intd an.l rfp<'ii«;'" 
'■vplosi.,ns conipfll.'d a s.-'ond ritircni.nt . Later nxihr 
n.ornmj. .• thr !inal - ^pturr of tli. huihlmf; which 
was thni hdd as tlic ri};ht of thr Hnr o.cupird hy thf 
Kifttcnth. l{oth lapt. I'urvis and -.'nd Luut. luffs wore 
.iwanl.d the Military f oss. . , , ■ , , 

On Ih.' .vnin;,' of .hr .sth thf Last \orkslnr.s took 
Warh.wourt and th. IJntid. Im.' was push.d still farth.-r 
forward. so that on thr inth thr Durhanis w.rc hil.rttrd 
„, this villaj;.- wh.ich was ahnost untoiichtd hy sh.-il hr.' 
and (•..ntain.d inanv furnislu-d hous.s. Thr hrrakin^' 
,,f thr H.aur.voir Im.- had cost thr Kift.-.nth -.'i:* 
rasuaitu-,, h..sid.'s Capt. Purvis and •■i'>'l| ''<•"<;>• \ ]■ 
(_uthh.rt. 1). Hark.r. V. W. S.hnudt. and ( . I . M.t.air. 

all woundrd. , 

The last of the elaborate defensive /...nes 
hv the Cerinaiis had now heeii won, an.l heyond lay 
..pen. rolling', eullivated country well wo.xied and 
watered. The ITth Division ha.l passed throuuh int.. 
this promised lan.l an.l f<.r nine .lays th.' lifteentli 
stave.l at \Valine.>Mrt . Th.n th.y ni..v.d north-east- 
ward t.. M..ntitrnv m th.' tra.k of th.- advane.- an.l so ..n 
to the snuar fa.'t..rv ..n the Canihrai r.m.i hel.-sv In.liy. 
The hattah.m arrivV.l on (). t..h.r •-;•-••'< l"''' •""^•'•.•' 
nut (It .-. P.M. 1.' th.' '.Mh Duk.- ..f Wellinutons 
Hr.rt.m p..s,ti..n east of Am-rval. h.y..n.l th.' Slle river 
The K () V.L.L were t.) attack ..ii the n^ht . tlie Kast 
Y.,rkslnr.'s ..n th.' hft- Two .'..inpani.s .f Durhanis 
vv,.,.- In follow th.- n^.ht hattah.^n to th.' s. .■ 1 ..hje.- 


The I)iirli;nn I'orccs in tlr: I'icld 

ti\t iiiid llirii i\|.ii.l and l.ikr II |)i>rliiiii I'i lln' tlurd 
olijcctivc winch uas tlic loiid inmiiii},' soutli frmii 
\'(II(lcf,'lc-ail-H(ils. 'I'llr ollirl I W u (iim|)allMS wen- t(i 
assh.i Ihf K. \f VnrkshiM'iiiiii \i\ •' iii(>i)|)iii}' 'i|. " llic 
village (pf OvillriN, uliicli la> III ii liolliiw. and wt if tliiii 
Id coiiii- forwa'd and join tlir rr>l of tin liattalmii. 1 li*' 
IKttli Hri^'adc. un tiic lift .d lln- •i»li. wirr laflur 
heavily sluilfd diinii;,' thr ass< inhK , hut all was (lUiit up 
the ri^dii. At •_' A.M. on Octuhcr •_';ird the infantrs 
.iltai kid and the I )iiiliani'~. lullnwinj,' hard on the heels 
(d the Kast \'ol ksliires. Wile sooli in Ovillei's. Ht yolld 
the \illa<,'e the ^'(pI■ksill^l ini II hailed, as aliaiii^'ed. while 
the l''ift.entli eios>ed a small stream :ind were tij:litiii<,' 
their wa\ into \'eiidei.'ie-an-Hois Ik Ion- half-|iasl se\en. 
Theri' was Mime <'lose wmk llele hefoie the (ieinian 
resistance wcakc!ied. tiut . \t nlually iiiaiiN id tiie eiiemv . 
ilielmlinj.' a iei;iiiu ntal coinmandcf ami his staff. \ icided 

thclIlseUcs )>Ilsolie!s. ||. th< limlscs w . ic f.nilld IliallV 

of I he I'Vciich mhaliitaiils. 

'Idle I'lfteenlh look oV<r tlic whole of the litl;^adc 
front (hiring IIm moriiiiij,'. \sliilc tanks wcii- jnislnn},' loi- 
ward. the other hattalioiis Imminy a dchnsivc Hank li. 
tlic riyht where the advinci' had not jiroiiressed s.. far. 
The (I'-'nd hri^jaiji- s.,on ( ame tliroiii,dt the Kifticntii in 
order to c uiA on the attack and hy the cvi nm;.' ihc line 
was t stalilishcd north-east id tin \illaL'<'. Hea\\ 'inii 
and niaciiiiie-t.'un tire i)re\cntcd aii\ lurtlie'- movement 
that d;i\ . lint i .[hi at n ills \m re rcsiiiiM d on ()cl(iiier '.'Itli. 

The K .( ).\'. L.I . were a^'aiii u|ion tin riijht and the 
I'lftieidli on tin Icjt ii.incd wil'i i In i.-Ji.d Mri<.'iiilc. 
\N hill asscndiliMu' lor the attack !_'as slielU caused man\ 
casualties, lint in Imk \ \.\i. tin Inn went forward iiinlei 
a liarr.ii,'e \shicli did not cii'.v the (I'iniaii maclimc- 
tiiiiilicrs. 'I hcsi were tackiei! with tin l.a\oint and the 
Durhams sW( |il on. ( ,i|it . .John Sid^'^^nk. M.C.. leadim 
hi. mill with i.'reat U'tHiHit ry and n -. .Iiit nm. Tin 
ciicmv loUt.dit iiird ill tile villane of I' ii \-i |ii-\ord .Hid 
lieri I ololiel \iiS(N was Wtinndid. (apt. .Sedi,'Wlck 
wh.i Won a In ins Cross siiccecdi d him .snd. thoiiyh 
tin host lie --hcii tri was inerea.Miiy. tin \ illace v ,i-» iaken 
liioillni- \Mth (trtsniHTs. .\ (.crmaii liittcr\. 
tuiii;; o\i I .p|)cn sti'hls. eiinilMiied wit!; ti !;iln - 


Tin- I.;ist Campaij/n, I'MS 

;.Miii lilt let pitNcnt fiirllitT itro^'ii ss. It w^is unu iHurl\ 

II A.M., iiiici lii^'h cxpldsnc and f»iis slitll'^ sti« aiiit'd into 
Poix-du-N'ord, slau<,'lit«rm<,' and tmluiiiiy inaiis' of tlir 
cnilian population. .\t four in tin- afltrnoon the KasI 
^'orkslu^^•s cainr up on the nylit and thr wliolc Inir 
went forward ayain. 'Ilitii' was no furtlur cluck and 
the (.lnssitrrucs-Ent,'ltfonl amc road wa^ rraclud that 
t \f.,ni{,', tlioni»li consider. iliU' casualties wi-rr sustained. 
■Jrid Lieut. \.. \{. C'hapinan. ulio liad done part iciilarU 
well durill},' tile lif^lltinj.' of tlie pre\ loii- da\, v\a-. 
wmindfd. lait ied Ins platoon until tin • nd and siipi r- 
\ ist'd tile <'onsolldatlon of the line hefore yiMUy up. Ill 
was awarded the Military Cross. 

Before ilawn of the ■J")th the liattalhiii had j^ieatK 
strenj,'tliened their position and at ."> ,.m. > tierinan 
counter-attack uas repulsed with loss aloiii; the uliole 
front. In tin- evenint; the linth Hri^'ade came in and 
the Fifteenth withdrew to \'eudeme-au-Hiis. Casualtic'. 

III the ranks anioiintrd \>> JMl, and 'Jnd LmiiI V. Ilodkin- 
soll haii lieeli killed. LlcUt.-Col. II. II. NeeVCs. 

D.S.O.. .M ( ., -Jnd Lk uls. I.. \V. I.iiml. H. I).. for<i..J.('. 
Kit/siiiinmns. and \\ . |{. ( ha|.iinaii. M.C. were all 
wounded, and •Jml Lieut. K. Kriiikland was wound' d 
and inissinj.', Scrj;! . 11. Oslidrnt. M.M., and IMc. .1 
Horan wire lioth awarded tin Distinyuished (ondiiel 
Medid .iiid the\ Medal was v\on liy .Nerj/ls. W. (.. 
{{..wiiiv and K. ,1. M,!j.'ie ; L.ince->eti»ts. (. ()\ford, t'. 
Mannard, ,tnd H Tax lor; .md IM,- T \\ Klhott, I). 
Hardv, and ,1. \. Wilson. 

The Kifteeiith nio\ed to Ihrhv for ti iinint; and i. - 
lU'Lianisat ion on ()ctolii r "JCith ,ii,d three da\s later eanie 
up to \'< nd<M,'ie-au-Hois ai,'.iin. Ileie Litut.-t'ol. A. 
( . Harius, D.S.O., arrived and assuim d cotiuu.itnL 
while drafts received aiiioMiilel to II oUii ers and I ,'»K 
men and included (.ipl. .\ NL Lascelles. \'.( ., NLC. 

.Vfter- ten da\s" rest tin I'lfteentu foHuVwd up the 

iJrilish adv.incc. On NomiiiIui "dli I Im 'lattalioii 
iiiovcd eastwards throu^jh the forest .if Morinal, wliefe 
llii- C.-Jiid Urii-ade had met with iio opp<isition. In the 
larh inornut},' of the 7th tin Himt .Saml>re w;is crossfd 
l>y a pontoon lindt;e at lierl.iiinont and the whv Ihrn leil 
thrmi di Aiiliiov. indnnliant T' t "" I, |'n„|.r! ' ' 


I Ik- Diiriiaiii I'orcfs ni the i-ieUl 

|„ ,„ clLrk.-.l iirailv half a .nil. ursi of tl.r sir, ain ial!.-.i 
|{an (.ritn..ur, s,. III.' iMP.-cnt li .!< pin;, .-.i l..iim(l oiif of 
t!,r I.Mrcsl.T Laliallnlis af A.V. all. I. Wltll t llf 
l':ast V..rkNliir. -. ..ii llic n-lil. :'.<iv:Ui< ■ .1 In the attack 
ii.arK hah an hmir lat. r. Aitill, r\ aii-i, 
.iispiil. .1 ih.' a.UaiiiT uiM.h v.a-. - iili!:;.!. i! ii"i;i Ihf left 
uh.-i.- Ml.- IJntish iia.i u..! yl ina.!. ; ""l th. . -..s--- 
i,i..s .,1 till- Saiiihiv. Hut titc Fift.. iitii |)ii^>v.T.'.l ;iii. 
atUr r.|.iilsin^' a . ..iini. r allack ..ii tli- !.tf tlalik .lusst-.l 
ilu- -^tr.aiii a^ii.! ap|>r. .a. h.-.i th. u.-lMii outskiits '»f 
laiM.iiit-FuiituM..-. Cap!. A. K. Owl. ■> won lh«- Military 
(los-, f.,r his j,'alla::l l.a.l.rsiup aiui Sci-j^l. (.. Il.-llioin. 
.,i Miiiil. ilaiiil. wh.i l""k .uiiiMiaii.! <.l a CMiupaii) wh.n 
Ins ..Mi.'.Ts iia.l lall.n.! th- ! >.st rnK'UNla-.i 
CoM.iiict Mtiial. 

Ill thf afl. in.>.)ii. \\h.ii it uas .i'.-iil.-.l '..' takr 
l,iiiioiit-Foiilaiii.' aii.l Ih.' hi'_'h«r ..-n.iiii.l l.ry.)ii.l. Hi-- 
Kiftf.'iith ha.l llh K.(>.\' i..I. .>i! M^hl.^ Th.' 
Mritish ^'Uiis put duwi. a haria^'f an. I th. \ .iik'-hn . s 
all.! DiiHiains st !. aiiifd into th.- \ ilia>,'r. whcr.- 
Ih.-y h)ii"ht the (i.iiiiaiis haii.i P. hand aii.l n.'il' d t!u-iii. 
•Jiid' Li. lit. 1'. \Vaikin,'tun. D.C'.M.. wh" h'd his ni. n witii 
^ .lash, wa ^ ..n.c siii r.)un<!.<i l.\- tli. . n< my in his 
Ta.MTncss to ;,'.f fdiAsanl. \\v uas a\.anl. .1 tli. Militar\ 
(rnss an.! --'n.! I.i.ut. A. A. Tuff-, M.C.. \v.)n a har t.' 
his d.cMrati..n. lir hd thrc' plat....ns thu)tii.'h th.' 
i;oitii.Tn pari ..f Ihi- \ ilia},'.' and f..; v.ard ->v.t tlic^;,'r.aind 
iM-y..!!.:. -.vhtr. til.- \sli..!' lin. was (-v.-ntuaily istr'.hsh.'.l. 
Dt'oi'ipanv. in.i.'.'d. .mil.i. a.i.i n'..ii!,l. liavc |,'..n.' ..n 
liirth.'i. hut w.-i'c i-d tn ^ fast f.T n-lii-f that 
III. .lit. Karlv n. \t ninniiii',' 'li. I-'iiPciith v.ithdr' u t.. 
Ma.'h.-.nt aii.l 1{. rlaiiiu-nt . Tti- hattai!..n li.-.d fo.i!,'lit 
tli.n- last l.attl.' in th.- war. !..sii..,' l-'l m'-n most of 
III, •in \ (»f th. ollt.'.rs I apt .\. M. l-as,-<-llfs. 
\ .( .. M.(.. an. I la.ut. Ix. ('. ^\. (i.r w. r. kilh'.i and 
•Jn.l l,uiit. A. I{a.\ M.C, va- uoiiii<i. .1. 

Mihtarv M.dils w.'i-.- won !.\ S.r^lv A. W . 
H.-ah'. an.i .1. M.-r^'an : Coil-I S. F. Harrison : an. I TLs. 
.1. F. Wilhams. \V. S..ll.-tt. .1. M.Mali. .n. U. (..-isoii, U. 
.Icnkiiis and .1. Hurnand. 

Th.' Fift.riith w.-n- stih it'iiiia.Ml uh.n on 
Nt.v.nil" I I III! .am.- 111.' n. ws ..f the Vimislici'. 

The Last C^ampai^n, 1918 

Till I'llUi iitli takr pnilc of pl.icf m lliis story of tlic 
filial r;impai<;n sft.Mii>,' that tiny startcii in tlic udvniicc 
from the Ancrt' in August and were in action until tlu 
I iid, i-ncoMiitcrin},' a full sliarc- of the stoiiffst opposition 
o|fcn-(l hy fh.' (icrinaiis in rflrt'at. Hut the 'riiirt.-mtli 
arrived from Italy in Iiiik- to hear an lioiioundilc and 
arduous part in lliis drive nortii-tastuard towards 

On the rtiiiirtion of infantry Itriyadts to a tlint- 
liattalion cstahlislmifnt each lirij,'ade of the three Hriti>li 
divisifjiisin Ttal\- sent a haltalion to France. Thi se troops 
formed the reconstituted -.'.".th Division. 'I'he ThirteeiiH. 
arrived at St. |{i(|iiier from liaiy on isth 
and I'.Mh, iiiarchiiij.' to 1. diets at Mi!!aiiconrt . The hat- 
talioii. with the'.Mh \'orkshiri- Hej^t. and 11th Sherwoitd 
Foresters old comrades of the -JMrd Division now 
fotnied th<- TIth l{ri<,'ade. Training jiroceedeil in rather 
iiufavoiirahle weather until -.'Tth, when tlie 
Thirteenth went by tram to Albert and. eventually. I>\- 
way of liilu'iiiont, Maricourt, and Moislaii.s. reached 
liolissoy on October Mrd. Oil this date the -irAh Divi- 
sion replaced Australian troops c.i the t)attlc front with 
Ihe 7Mh liri<,'ade in siijiport to the Tth. The Thirteeiitii 
oiilv halted for iialf an hour at !{onsso\ , niarchiii<.' on to 
Mont St. Martin, south of le C'atclet. when' they ,.re- 
part-d for liattlc. TiieH' were 11 casualties from sheli 
tire >n tliis dav. 

On October Jth the Tth Hrij.rade attacked the l,ij.di 
^'roiiiid north of Heaurevoir as a preliminar\ to the 
capture of the \illaj,'e. but could make no impression on 
the elaborate defences. At 1 o'clock next niorniiiL' th- 
Thirt<enth moved up to assemlily positions be;, ond 
Prospect Hill, east of Ic t atelet. and live hours later the 
TVth Hri^'a.h' advanced to tin- attack. The Thirteenth 
had the \ .rkshircmeii on the riu'ht and the Foresters on 
the left. In sjnte of the artillery preparation heavy 
maclime-Kun i< • met the ;ittai'k and caused many 
.asualtics. 1-i.ut .-C'-l. D. 11. Clark.. D.S.O.. M.C. 
wn.s soon badl\ wounded and (apt. 1 M. tireeiiw.»<Hl. 
M.C. succec.ied him i'l ( .unmaiid oi the battalion. 
Fver\ effort was madt to |iush on and the Durhatir. 
d iiie suiiken road nmmnL' from ( .iii-.Mncori t 



The Durliam I'orccs in tlic licUl 

1 i - 



I 'i 

Li it- 

Farm soiilli-raslwaid <)[ H.aiiii-v.'U. In fioiil was a 
ma/.c of tr.iiclics wliicli gave (•(.iisid. ral)l<' troiiM.-, IhH 
, vdi tlusc uric captured and the Vill.r's-OutrrHUX road 
was (Ioss.mI. Thf Tliirtcnitli now found thcins.-l\.s 
furtluT forward tlian tli.- oth.r l.attalioiis and uiid.r 
iitTcr siirapiul and inaclun( -t,'un iirc Tli. posiliou was 
unfriialdc without support on lln' flanks an(f tlit-y witli- 
drew r.luctantiv to the sunken road. Heavy luaelunt - 
.'Uii lire eoinpilled a further retirenieiil and tlie hal- 
hihoii eventuallv (hij,' in al-out V()(t \ards forward iroiu 
Ih.' old front hue. Thev had lost heavily, especially la 
..ilieers. I.I. Ids. 11. P. Ilart .aii.l W. (;older ; -Jnd Lu ut-.. 
V. (.. Sniitli and 1*. DodiU were all kilhd. (apt. ( . l!. 
Chapman; la.iits. .\. E. llules, K. O. fnlt.r. ainl V. \.. 
V l{e.s. M.t. ; an.l 'Jiid Lieiits. A. K. I'orr. st . \\. W. 
l{.,l.ins.,n, \. n. Willis. M.t'., 1{. T. .Vik.iili. ad. 1. 
|?olloii and .1. I). Iiielus wwr wounded: and -Jn.l I.i-ul. 
(.' .\iidas wa-. niissiiiji. 

.Maueliesters of the 7th Hnt,'ade. with two tanks, m-t 
ndo Meaiirevoir during' the day. I.ul could dear the 
Mlla^'c whwli fell to th.' Hriizade m the cv,; 
There was now sollW prospect of a successful advance 
north of Heaiir. voir and at i a.m. on Oi lohcr nth llu 
Mritish arti!lcr\ opened a heavy l.oiulKirdiiiciit of tin- 
(■eniiaii positions. Ten nunutes later tlu^ Thirlecnlh 
w. lit forward au-iiii with the .Sherwood Foresters on the 
1. ft. The latter sei/rd and luhl (.uisancoiirt Farm ; the 
Thirteenth k"' I'evoiiil the sunken roail from ViUers- 
(hitreaiix ami diiy in across the liiijh uTouiid facin-; 
suuth-easi. -Jiid Fields. 1{. \V. Dewar. \V. naniieriiiaii. 
and F. IF Fallow w. re wt.unded h< fore the l.altali..n 
ucre relieved on til.' . arly m..rnintr ol llw hth and. 
alth..U}:h casualties m this positmn wer. not num. rous 
.l.spit.- 111.' hostil.' sImI! tire, tli- loss, s .,ii O.toh.r 
had left Ih. 'riiirt.i nth v.rv w.ak Hut Ih. f 
was not much tun. t.. rest, .\fter reph nishin;,' iuittle 
^tor.s at I... mussel the hettalion manli. <1 up in piusuil 
,,f Ih.' still idvanciiiL' Hriiish lin.' during' ih. small h.-iirs 
of Ih. '.Hh. Or.lers 1.. aitiick were rec. i\..l on the wa\ 
.111.1 :t l.ri.f hall was mad.' at Serain Farm ..ii the cross- 
,,,a.l-, s.Milh-.'asf .d IIh Mllat,-- of Ih.l nam.-. Th.' 7:.tli 
U,,,,.,d.' h.d hIv.i'c. d m Ih. f— .n.i i...h.d M n. t/ 


'I'hc Last (^ainpai^n, 191S 

.111(1 the mad ruiiiim;,' sonth-ciist froni it. so it was tiuw 
tlif task uf tlif TUli to po throui;li and attack tiic liij:li 
•iioiirid iKjrtli-cast of lloiiiifchy. Tiic Tliirttciitli 
iiiaichcd tit'vcii unit's on tins nionnuj,' ht-fort' coniin^ into 
action, 'i'lif Sherwood Forcstirs led the hrijjadc and at 
hrst there was no opposition. Imt on approaeliintr 'i'e 
railway cutting,' south-east of Honne<'hy there came 
niaehine-},'iin tir<' from the nortli and east. The cutting' 
was s1ron{r|\ lieid hy tlic (•erinans, hut the tliree weak 
ii.'ittalioiis of the Tttli linj,'aile drove tlieni out and estali- 
lished a hue hehind it. witli the Tliirteentli m reserve. 
Cavalry had appeared and the enemy resistance 
weakened. Iiiil. niift>rt iiiiatcly , the Lewis f,M:n carts had 
not lieen alu.' to keep up on tiie march, so proper toll 
could not he taken of the (iermans in retreat. Tlic 
aiUance Wi, , now resiinnd and the division n'ached the 
olijeetive without such o|)|M>sit ion, thontrli tlie Thirteenth 
lost a jrood otlicer in Capt. I. MewK-y. M.C. who was 
killed diirinj,' the day. 

.\t .").;<(» A.M. on OetolMT U)th llie Thirteenth led the 
7 nil MriL'.idc 111 touch wdh troops of the T.'ith on the left. 
I'liin- was t:o harraj^e. hut each hrifjade had a field 
h.ittery attached. The intention was t(t reach tlic hi<,'h 
<»round tiorth-casi of Ic t'ateau. hut at tin o'clock the 
'I'hirtcenth were held u|> liy machine >,'uns soutii-west of 
th( villayc of .St. Heiiiu. The .\inerican troops ad- 
\ anciiii,' on 'he rij,'lit had heeii cheeked west of SI. 
Soiiplct. so the Tttli Hn^'ade were ordered to carry St. 
Heiiiii at once. Major I.. M. (.reenwood, M.C. took tlic 
Thirlecnth hirward tliroiii,'h a lieavy liostile harrafjc at 
■_'.;<(') r.M. There was some han,l-to-hand lit,'htint;. luit 
the vilhiL'c was taken in an hour and a line istahlished 
heyond the river Selle in touch with tlie Americans <pn 
the ri^rht. Diirint; tlie niL'ht the enemy liomhardcd St. 
Hemii and the valley to the south-west with yas shells. 
Iiut he was not so aitiM- next day. Orders to advance 
iL-am were cancelled and at niyht tlic I'nd Hoval 
Munstrr riisili«Ts relieved the Thirteenth who witlidr< u 
lo nonnechv. Losses -inc<' the hc^mmiit.' '>f the month 
h.'id reached the total ■: -M olVicers and $'.'.s men. mostly 
sustained in the lieavv titrht iiii,' at Heaurcvoir >Lijor 
(.reenwood. having' led the hattalion gallantly and well 




The Durliani Forces in the Field 

.1 „■< Oclohcr :.tli. was auanlf'l Uif I)istiiif;uislir(i Sn- 
vicc Order. Tlir Militarv Cross was won l>y -^ikI Lifuts. 
W. l)(war. 1{. n. Karricr, and W. Haiiiurmaii for 
yallatit l.-adcrsliip as coiiipaiiy coininaiidcrs and initia- 
tive III (IcaliiiL' witli (irriiiaii iiia(hiiH-t.'mi i>osts. 'Jnd 
I.iciit. Haiiiurnian had .•ontinued to dinct o|HTations 
aftiT Ik'.ii;.' woiiiidfd. Diinn-r tli.' four days" ti^litin^' 
many SA.O.s and nifii had done particularly dtvotcd 
and ' {,'allant work, si-rj^'eants. corporals aiul even 
privat<-s rcplacuij: fallen oliiccrs and directing,' the 
advance. L<wis j,'niiners, runii< rs, sitrnallers, and 
stretcher-lx an rs ar<- also rejiusenttd anion;,' C.-S.-M. 
T. Hanmioiid: S.r-M. H. Ileatherintitoii ; Lance-C'(.rpls. 
T W. Mai roll aii.l J. W. Sn.itii; IMi>. T. CrossUy. I.. 
Hnsseli. S. I'ou.ll. A. i:. Shelley. .1. Meatie, W. Horn.-. 
F. Dyei. .ind (.. 15. ws i.eipieiits of the Military Medal. 
I'ie.'.I. Clark. M.M.. was a st reteher-l'earer who won a 
liar fo his lieeuiatioii. 

On Octoix r l-Jth the hattalioii marched to i)illets at 
I'reiiiont. wher<- the French people, just freed from the 
(iermaii occupation. welc<,med the troops warmly. 
Drafts Win- received and the work of reorjiamsiiif; and 
tiainm',' went on. Major L. M. (;reenwood. D.S.O.. 
M.C. was removed to lios|)ital on the llSth. Ill with 
mHuen/a he had continued on duty tlirou^zhout the 
operations, refusing' to l.a%e the Thirteenth with whom 
!„• had served almost from the tune of their formal'on. 
This verv -'allaiit ollicer died of |)neumonia soon after- 
wards. Lieut.-C'ol. 1'. F. Hone, D.S.O., M.C.. arriv..l 
,,M OctoI.ei l<;ih and assunu'd command. I wo days 
later the battalion inovc.l ii]) to Maretz and then lo 
Honneeliv. where another hif,' draft was received an<i 
the comjianies were trained in open warfare. The Lewis 
.. miners were al.le to ju'el on tlie ran{:e here and tiie 
Thirteenth were m o.„,d fettle when on tlic ni},'ht of 
Octolier •.'•-'nd they moveil up and halted aliout a mile 
north-west of h- Cateiu readv to attack a<:ain. 

At l.'.'O \.M. on Oetolur -J.'^rd tlie 7Vth lin^'adc 
fallowed the rest of th. division, who had liherat.d the 
\illa.'.' of The dir. < tioii was still north- 
.•ast.'the wood <allc<l l{ j-Fn.-.i'" '""'i-' '" ""■ i'''"' "f 
ttic ad\;inc<'. 


The I.asi (lampaigii. IMIS 

lvr>t of If Catcnii in the v.ill«'y of tlir Iticlicnior.t 
slrciiiu tlie ihiirctiitli. with tlic Slicrwood Foresters, 
came iiiider s!it,'ht machiiu-<,'un lire. Still advancing,', the 
Durliaiiis passiii !lirun<,'li tniu|,s of the T.ltli l?rit,'aiic on 
the wcslcrii tdijr of the wood and. swiiif,'iM^' to the ntrlit. 
rcaclifd the road to the north of it. due west of Rue du 
I'ont. Here two stroll^' belts of wire eonfronted the 
liaftalion and tlie hrii^'ade lii:*' rested in the evcnin;,' 
aloii-,' the nnrtli edj,'e of the wood. "Jiid Lieut. C. H. 
15isiio|). M.C'., was mortally wounded on this day. .At 
four n< xt morning the attack was resumed, the 
Thirfonth on tin- left of !he Vorkshin s i.'i>m^ for t!i<' 
Hue du Ponl po^ninn. tailed hy the (ierniai>s the 
Hiuidini; Stellun;,'. liiissi -, \\c,c hea^y, for the (iernian 
wire was untoueln d Wy thr liritish artillery, lint the 
'I'hirti tilt h wei'e not to l:e ilenied and the line was 
takt II l>y half-past '-t vcii. In thi> li^ditinj,' Lieut. H .'^. V. 
Miteliell, M.C. who led his company with j,'reat dash 
tliroui:h llie (uTinan wire and la'.r was tiromiiient in 
direeliiii,' the eons. ilitlat ion of the eaptiireil position. wt>n 
a liar to his decoration. I,ient .-('ol. 1'. IL Iltnie. 
D.S.O., >L('.. wounded here l>y a while inakiny a 
p<rs;iiial reetiiinaissaiice. w;iv awanltil a har (o his Onler 
and '-'iifl Lieut. J. W. \Villt y, who was acting as adju- 
tant, n-eeived tiie Military Cross for his jjoimI service in 
prefiaririi,' for the resunii>iion of the .ittaek. This totik 
place at 'J P.M. liiitlt r a irtt|.int; l>arra<;e, the liriyadc 
makin;,' a sueeessfui atlvanee eastwartls throULjli le Faux 
to a line on the hi<,di ■;round heyond. The Thirteenth, 
now very weak in ii'.nnliers, were represented l>y two 
companies led liy Lieut. H. .'^. F. Mitchell, M.C'.. am! 
•Jiid Lieut. IL (ianliier ai'terwanls awarded th.e 
Mditan- Cross. -Jiid Lieu!^. A. Holmes and H. C. 
(ieipel were wt.iiniletl t«n tliis tj.iy and the fornit r 
tillieer died. .Mait)r IL d. Faher arrivtil to command 
the hattalion. 

The nth Hrieatle, with the '.ith Voik^-hires antl the 
Thirtetnlh in line from rij/ht to It ft . were now in enclosed 
coii'itiy tin the outskirts t;f i,ai:drt f'es. Movcruent ftir 
ward was dilitcult, for the (H-rmaii machine-t,'unner> 
comnanded roails, jiaths and j,'.ips in the hetlfjes and 
ohserveil the moveiiunfs of t)ur troops from vantage 

I I 


'I'hc Durliam l'\)rccs in the I'icld 

[K, lilts Mi liMUs.s. N,v.iHh1<ss. p:itn.K ^^.•|■(• liusy <lay 
,1,1.1 iii}:l.t iiiid ;i Lewis ^im post was .stiil.lislu'.l m i> 
f.vourat.!.' iM.sitinii. Tlir (nrinaii artillery eiifia^'ed iii 
a vindictive t,'as-sliellilij: ..f the Ulurat.d villages in rear 
raiisni" <-niel suffenn;: tu tlie uiiproteete.i l-niieh in- 
lial.itants. At :. a.m. ..ii Au^Mist •.-.(111 two platoons were 
pnslied ..ut on eucli Hank to establish forward posts. I,ut 
uKt with d.adiv ntle and iiiaeliine-f,nin lire. ()n tti«' 
I, ft the Duihaius wciv practically surrounded, bnt 
h.ii.rht their uav ha.k under -.'nd Lieut. T. A. H. Allison 
who had picMoiislv done ^o.mI woik. aixl was awanied 
th.' Mihtarv Cross.' -.'n-l l.iculs. W . K. Walker and W . 
Mannertnan. M.C. were wounded on this .lay. t.efur.' 
tl,c .•nd of whi.h Ih.' Shcrwoo.l Foresters ivh.ved tl.e 
■riurfetnth w'm. int.. supp..rt at Kue du 
I'ont. A fiMther advaiii.' was c..nt,Mnplated. hut .Mi 
Oct. .her .-Ust thi- hattah..!! ni..vcd huk to eainp near 
St. li.nm. The week's li-htinn ha.l -J.s.-. casualties 
,11 the ranks, most of them iiicurre.l in the f.r.vikmj.' of 
tl„. Ilun.hnj: StelluM}.'. Th.' Military Medal had he- n 
unn l.v C.-S.-M. (i.,n. D.CM.; Ser^-ts. 1. H. 
\Valt..M an.l .) . Killc-n : an.l Pt. s. L. .laekson. (.. 
l',.ult.r. an.l .). H..l.u.s.,n. C.-.S.-M. T. S. Hanunon-l. 
M M was awarded a bar t(. his ine.lal. 

\Urr r.stiiit.' an.l n.-r^'aiusiiif; Ih.- Thirteenth'hc.l r..rward to I'oinmereuil on N..vemh.'r Mr. . 
N.vt dav the Hn^'ade attaekc.l au.l th.' .Mh 
foil,. wed with the Sherw.x.d Foresters in tlu- van. Ill- 
Saml.r.' canal was .ross.d ah..ut MM) s..uth-wes 
,,f Fan.lrecies and at h.ur o'.'lock the l.rij;ade passe.i 
lln..u.'h the T.-dh. V lu.sifH.n was occupied astri.le t he 
Man. dies K.a.l with the Thirteenth m sui)F>ort t.. the 
Ivv,, l.attali..ns. A!.and..n. .1 hi- j:uiis an.! ti.'l. 
|,atteri.s WCIV f,.r the enemy resistance ha.l 
Ml last r.ach.d l.reakin-poHit an.l d ^^'''^,. '•"'>. '' 
..iirstion of i.ushin- him liar.l m ret.vat. When tlie 
.Mlvaiice xvas i.sumc.l at .i.i:. A.M. on N..veiiiher a 
Ivooi. ..f th. r-M!i l,an<'.Ts h'.l the way an.l .•yclisfs an.l 
,.,„!„„. .1 ,ars w,i.- Ill .■vi.l.n.v. S....n aft.T mi.hh.v 
II,.- a.lvaii.'.' -uar.l cross..l th, Vet-t.- Help.- river 
uh.r- ,,n.- was still mta.t. .■l.are.i Man.ilhs an.l 
n.a.lie.l Wur .In Faux, cast ..f that vilh^e. H.'rc s.,me 


The Last C;ampaijxn, 191 S 

;iiiMi|i> i.f (,(iin;iii iiiii(liirit-j,'Uim( IS (lis|iutr.i llic whs 
'"'■ H time. i'lic 'I'liirtfciitli wen- imt rrciu i.d for out- 
post (li;tj- and spent tlic nijilit in lull. ' iiortli of 

Oil tlif ('(til till- infantry of the a(lvaiic( -.Mianl were 
iliauii from flic '.itli Vorksliiris. 'I'lic laiKvrs were 
stopped l.y maeliine-^'iin fire wst ol Marliaix and the 
attaelied field l)atter\ had to co/ik into action heforc 
the advance cmld he resumed. Meaiiwiiile the 
Thirtccntli moved round throtijjii Taisniins to attack 
Marhaix from the north-west, hut the villa^'c was 
entered without much opposition diirmj: the afternoon. 
IMie outpost line for the iii;,'ht ran :>(»() \ards lu yond. 

It was the turn of the Thirteenth to jjfovide the 
advance {,'uard next day. Init the 7.")th Iki<ra(h^ came 
IhroUf,'!) early on Novemher Ttli and the Tfth concen- 
trated at Maroilles. The Diirhaii's had sustnino(l only 
H casualti<'s diirinj,' these four days. On the morrow 
they marehed hack to liousies. south-west of the for< st 
of Mormal. where work w's crunmenced on the repair 
of the roads in the \icuiity. Here in ws of tli"- Armistice 

A few more honours have still to he re(.)rde(i. 
Ser>,'t. A. ,S|.rl;r,.. M..M.. and Lancc-Corpl. I{. Hell each 
iecei\ed the Dist iii<,niis|ied (..nduci Medal and I'te. 
F. Malloy was awarded the Militar\- Medal. 

The Khv nth, working' in llu line which yripped 
l<eiis on its \vc«.tern and sonllurii sides and extended 
southwards to Fresiioy, conllmied their tasks diirint; 
Se|)temher. The monotony of laliour on tlu- communi- 
cation trendies in the forward ana was hrok^ii liy 
iieavy f^as shell liomhardnieuts, to which the Hritisli 
;;uns made adeiiuafe reply, while quantities of {.'as 
were proi"ete(i upon the (iernian positions. On Sefi- 
temlier tth and .")th Avion '111(1 its vicinitv was lieavily 
drenched witii mustard ^'as shell. Towards the end 
of the month the -Mlth l)ivision captured the enemy 
trenches south-west of .Acheville. 

When, on Octolier (it! the di\isioii was lelieved 
the Eleventh, wlio had ;dwa\s k- pt three jilatoons 
training, moved to p^stree (' oichie and did nothint; 







III 1.8 


'•4 iill 1.6 

^ 4r- 

The Durham Forces in the I'lckl 

,1s.. t,!l tlH- nHl wl llir nth. On tl,. .-Ust Uk 1-t- 

talinn rr;niM(l Fn niHMurt hy tn.iu. ami u.rr laUn 
|,vl,ustu(a,nl,nn. T w„ .l.uV ,v.t 1, ,llou, ,1 am tluM 
Ih.-v >nMvr,l uorih-r:- va..l m lli-tra.k nf tly a.lvam'.' 
tlnnu-li l^.ux. Mo,, .VnuM, >.|'nurus an.l .hulam 

,1..,, .„, t„ St. \Vaast-ia-\all,-. uIhT Hmv a> v. 
.,„ N..vcinl.rr '.Ml,. Th. -'0th DiMsmn ^^..r al-nut t,; 
,,,hrvr th,- V'Mh .1, Ih. h.n,- l.Hw.,.|. Mauh.u-. an'> 
M,,ns. I.ut n„ \.,v,.nlM, nth, uh,T, th.' liui„<r> Nv.n- 
,„;„rhMi;; ^.r^^^.l t,, F- ,; ...„,.■ Ihr "r;l' - , '' 
■-.taml fast ..„ th, hi,, rra,!,-! at 11 n.M- 1" 

KI.N.ntli w.i.l t" W'lk at ,.!ir. up-ii n|,aii ..! the 
Iliads iM-ith of Maiilxii:^, . 


K Ihr a.hatir.- Ihmii^ii Flaiuh .s in.i.i. \'^ Fi-mh ainl 

IM,nan t ps ami par. M th.- Hntish S, .nn.l Ar.nv 

u.Ml.r th.- snpnau, , ,.f 1- 1vm,l' -f th- 
H,.l.,;,i.s. th. Fii;ht..nlh. Nn..t,.ntl,. an-l 
■rw,"ril\-Niiith \s.!. , one. rn,-.l. 

|.-n'st <ani.' th. l..rm;.n uitlnli ..'.val r...m th.- Fv ^ 
..IhhI. Th. lin. lak.M -at 1a th- F>^'ht..nth «u 
Xu.'iist -11.1 .■..nsist.'.l h.r th. m.-^t part .>f a s. ri.- 
„f nil.^. aii.l th. Diiihams s. t t.. u^rk. nml. r ..-n 
,,nn.HH vh.ll In-.-, t, unpn.v. Ha .1. I. n. • - 7/ ''^.^ 
lat,-,- th, l.attahnn .n.-x.-l L' "i-' n;-rth. h,,,- 1. tank 
,„,, ,.-sln,. .,us, s,,uth,.l th. >t. J:n. stapp.-1-^nll.; 1 
,,,.,.1 W.t w.ath.r n..\v ,-,ius. .1 iiiu.h .hs, ,.inl..i t . Hi 
n.-hl ..f th.- Fi-hl.Milh uas nh, v..l .'i. .\u-ust 
uTn.'h h-fl a rr..i.t:,>i. ..f Iv^' .■..mpani.s ul,.,. ,M. I h. 
•.,,,1, stramht,-ii..l th. hn. hy push.n-: h.rwar.l am 
."stal'^. |..-t-. Mans hr.s ha.l h. • n ,,.MrN,.l 
t„h,n,l th,- (..-nnan hn. s ,-.,..1 it ua^- .- .natl-r f... 
M.ipns.- I., s,-,. til, .u.i.iv r. linn:.' at .lauii m-xt .la\ . 
rh.r.' ^^'■^ ilav U ^^ I"-"!'' u"n,s_n. a.ta.u ami th.^ 
l,V, h.Unss.-.l up uith-ut .lilV..-ult\ ,,f 
,,-,,„npanv nt, nn- .i.-M-rt..! ..! v^ h- i. niurh 
,(,,,,,,„/ I,:,. I !...,, vvr.m.'ht. On th,- M.ntl,. r.i .Mitskirts 


The- f.ast (^ampai^n, 101S 

111 liif town iiH'ii ij| A I'ninpaiiv ;_'()t in toiicli uitfi llir 
1-1 K.O.S.n. near tin- railuay statitm. (.' i(mipaii\ 
laiiir lliinnLrli and v.tri' unlrrcil to take Mont lir lallt . 
an isolated lull al>oiit 1 ..".(Ml ya.rds south-east ,,f Hailieiii. 
^ Inch hail In en attacktd tiiisiiccessfully \>\ a |)arty 
"I Border! Is earlier in \\\'- day. Maje.r 1). 10. Inee 
eoiidueted .i leeonna issaiiee and at 7 I'.M. the (d!n|iany 
Weill forward and oii'iaiiitd a fooliii;; on tiie lower 
slopes. Later III the eveiiiiiii tin whole hill was taken 
and ,1 l,( \Ms j^'un ree(i\ereil. (' eoinpanv diij,' m here, 
\vliile .\ and M (oinpan'e. pi'slied ahead on the ri;^'lit 
and I) eoinpaiiy kept to.ieh on the left Hank with the 
l"dh West ^■..•rkshlres. who had reaehid the hiintic 
.i--yhiin outside the town to the north-east. The troops 
I nioiiiitered various hoohv traps in du^r-ouls ami 
shelter- as th'V aiKalieed. Iiu! had hid u.irnui;,' of 
^^llat to e\pe<i and tlure wire no casiiaitles m liie 
Kij,'hte< nth. 

The '.i.'trd Mrii/ade had to take u|i a line runiiui;^ 
nearl\ ,i mile < ast of Mont de I,i||e and on the left 
the .'ttith Division Were to make ;;oo(| the hiL'h <,'rouii(l 
known as |e |{a\elslierf.'. which continues eastward to 
\eu\e K^'lise. .\ui,'Ust ;Ust da\Mit (I III ram and i list . 
I (oiiipaiiy of the Ei<;hteeiilh, on Mont de J.ilh , could 
see the troops of the .'Uith Division comiiij,' 
w.irds down the slopes of le Ha\ clslx r;,' alioiit half- 

p.isl vl\. 'I'hls .idvariee had s(|Uie/( d out the West 

^'orkshlres, and the Ko.'hteenth now held the whole 
I'lio.ide front. Ill loiieh on the ri^dit with the -Ji.tth 
i)i\l--loII who had experienced some ditllellltv with 
(.ernian maehint -;iuns near la Creelie, north of ,steen- 
\w rek station. .V and l\ companies of tlu Ki;:hteenth 
.iihaiiied m artillery forma'ion. with scouts ahead, 
and, althoiiL'li they met with some smpiii}; and inaehine- 
;,'un lire from houses .ind trees, they nai lied their 
allotted position and lio-z m with D companv in sup- 
port, h eotnpanv. on the rii:ht. had to form a de- 
ft nsi\e tlank until touch was obtained with the 
Morderers of the •J'.tth Di\ i'-ioii m the lAtiiin^'. 

Hostile artilhrv tire. Iioth shrapnel and liiyli ex- 
plosive, had now ijrow n m \oluine. Th<' Hiyiifeenth 
Were still in touch with the r<tr«atinj; <iieiny. wlio 


The Durliam I-'orccs in the I'icid 

,.,h:UUV of the .llMsiolls o„ tlir tlai.ks w;.s l-lll.-ln..- 

,,ul the '.t:5ni Hn^ AIm.uI nnMni-ht, ii. lyMvy raiiu 
ll„. 1.! l',..r.lrr Uf?it. I..'^;.n L- n li.v.- 1!h- h.-lit.n.tii 
who'.c ( aslialtlrs aillolUll <ii to rj. 

Thr DiirliMliis inovc.l h. rainp I- lu.rii M.ltnii aii-l 
HM.IInil, Nvlun- th.v lia.l to suiiply part us for i Irantit; 
.,,,,1 ni.a.nnir roa<h. On S. |.t.MilHT .--U. th<' l.attalioi, 
„„.Nc.l rasl of Hailltul. An ohvrvalKMi lu.ll<.oii in 
||„. of Ihis catni. attrart.d -lull tirr unirl, 
,.;o.M'.l tuanv .a.ualtu.. Winn tl.r K.^'litr-nt 1. inovul 
,„, In U-.VVVV positions sonll.-.ast of Nniv,. h-l>-'' "" 
S<ptrinlMr l-Jth. tlu' (.crinan l,.)nil.anlimiit caus.d llir 
.iisliit.nlion ..f 111.- conipaiiKs ov.r a an-, I) 
,.,.,ni.anv unr lo.atc.l al-oul l.aniprrnissr larni. Nvlnrh 
lav n. tnr .hr.ction of Ni-ppr. an-l on li.r ni^l't "t 
Srpt.nihrr l.-.lli a Innri.anr ImusI of n.ustani ;ias s ir K 
, audit III of thr sl.ri.iiiL' Mini licf-rr tll.\ foul.l in 
,„ns,-,l. fru pn-vci to hv s.-iionslv 
af|.-.'t..l. On isth tlir iK.ttahon ntiin,..! 
,., ,1,,,, ,,1,1 ,,„„p ,ast of liailhul «lHrc, on airiva . 
(■ conipaiiN sustain. •.! IS .asuallirs from an S-in<li 

'"on Srpl.nil..r -JTMi Hi-' Ki^-lil'rntl, L ft Hi-n- Iram- 
,n.' ami salvaj.'.- ^vork and took ovrv tin- ri^l.t of Hi-- 
•i-nd l<n"a(i« Imr. iiorlli of I'lot'^sl.-nl \illa;.'.. 

In tlu^atla.k nrvl .lav ts^,. l.attnlioiis of Hi. '••-'n'i 
\hii:-M\r w.r.' to rio.M:st, rri Wo.ul frotn tl.. P..rlli. 
uliilr the Ki"l.t,,nlli atla.k..) from ill- w<'^t I.. .ivhI'' 
a .iiv.Tsion aii.l niak.' wliat pr(.;;r(ss was p ^sit.l.'. 
S,pton.l..'r -'Sth uas v,rv xm t . Tl..- Dnrluun nun 
a.lvaiKv.l ,.n a Ina- from IMo.'j:st,rrt v.lla-r t.. My. •• 
Park (.'..rn.r at :< I'.m. hi shallow cohimns. with s,-ou!s 
ul front Thn. was ...ufiisr.l ti^'htin- in Hi.- \v..o.l i.> 
.„,,iips ,.f in.,,, striiimhii-: forward throiiuh thr inn.l. 
:,roN.> lo work roim.i and rush tlu- (..rinan niMrhin.- 
,,ui.s fn.m tlw S.T-it . K. C. Powrll — f St. Noot s 
Vvho handh'd his plato.-n with rxccptional .■ouraKc and 
ahihlv on this .lav. uoii the- DlstlIl^lnsh. .1 Conduct 
M.-.lal. On tlw ri^lit C • mp-nv. 'Jn.l l-.r-.t 
I'rrrv M C. to..k Maisoii isT.". aii.l tli.- faim railed 
T..i,.,ii,1 l^ntlii- l.y th.- roinl .ast of p! ..•t:st^''H village. 


The Last (^anipal^n. l^HS 

' *n lii< K n 1) i<'niiian\. I..I l,y Jinl l.i.ut. Hrv^-in. 
iouii(i pro;:!, s. nii),r (jilh. lilt, tor the I^^ltl^ll attack 
Iroiii tlic i,oril) uas stouli.x rrsistcd. .siill, tlir alttr- 
iiijoii was, on til.' wliok'. a satisfactc^ry on.' lor tin- 
Ki<,'htftiitli. lliaiiks !arj,'(ly to tlic ilinclion of opfra- 
fioiis li\ Li.iil. K. T. \V(il(lill, wiio was a\\ai(if(l >]>,■ 
Military (. ross. M\ |,r;s.i!itrs ami two li;:lit iiiacliiin - 
■iiiiis wiTc ra()tiiu(i and many (.crinans liad hftii 
killed and uound> d. 'ihc ilijrhltc-nlh liad 1.') casualties. 
.'■.liout T i'.M. C roiiipai.s lost Toiiijiitl Hcrtiic, winch 
was li(a\il\ slit lied and imatarcd l,y the cncrnv. 

I lie attack svas resumed next mormii},'. and the 
enemy liiiaily ejected from tiie wood, the Ei^xhteenth 
reacliiiii,' a line well easi of 'I'oU(|net Merthe without 
l'em<,' lieavily en^a;,'cd. l.osses amounted to i;{. nearly 
all wouiidcil. On the left touch was estalilished with 
the Kast Vorksliiremen of the iV.'nd nii<,'ade, while the 
rijiht Hank was thrown liaek to join with tiie Mfth 
Division, who had not adsaneed. That nitjht. in dark- 
ness and ram. tlie hattaliori inovtd to a new [)osition 
east of the wood in readiness to attack next rnornin;^' 
towards tlie IJivtr Lys south of Deuh iiiont. This 
advan.c was (,^ er muddy, of.'en j,'round and I) com- 
pany, on the ri^dit, were held u]) l.\- maeiiine-j,'uti 
hre; hut in the centre H company went all tlie way 
and pushed patrols still further. One lij,'ht maehiii*- 
il\\i\ was taken liy A eoinpan\ . 

On Oetoher 1st tfie ritfht of the line liad to swiiij,' 
li*rward to the riv»'r hank in conji ii<t ion witfi the 
division furtl'.er south; Imt the latl.r did not move 
and ]i and I) companies, who carn< d out their task 
:i; ii •■"^t of ."{ killed and I- wounded, had to provide 
for a defensive Hank to the n^dit. The day proved to 
I.e tine and the <M.od \isiliililv resiihed in heiivy hostile 
lull lii<- lat<r, which kiihd 12 men of the Kij;! teenfli 
and wiiimded Hi more. At iiitrht the haltalion were 
'-lie\ed and letiiined to the KMrd Hri^'ade at a (amp 
I" I ween .\eii\c Ktdise and Mount Keiniii(l. 

On Octolter Mh tin Ki^^hteenth wire in the line 
"am. relieving' a liattnlion of ^ ork and Lancasters 
..lid one conipanv of the Twnly-Ninlh. Metweeii 
!)< 111. inoni .ind Warnefoii patrols were actne. hut 


The Durliam l-'orccs in tin- I'lcld 

0,t„l,.-,, th.-lnHunshaiHir.lnv.rtntiu- 1.' I. Un>.« 
Sn,ts rus.lHTs Mini trn .lax- -.1 tra.niun ,„ ,i,v,s,.,nal 

reserve fdllowed. 

1. When, "ii 

11, e ir,tli. i!ie lulttalKMl up Miza.n and ernsse.l t!.e l-v^ "> V;'^ ,'' h 
l..„r.l l.r'.itre north .,f, the Hnt'sh lu, ha 
passed far ahead. On the n.urn.n^. of Oetoh.i IMl 
,„. i.attahon were a.lvan.'in^' 'Ver undevastat.d 
,,„„ntrv and at n,..l-day halted at the v,l a^e .d 
IJondues. on th.' Lille-TounHHni.' the d-- 
Imhted mhal-.tants jrav then, a heartv u.le.,ine. I he 
.a.'ht was spent n. Toureonit: and next day the ma eh 
was throned, Houha.x to Lannov .iurn.^' wueh the 
..ntluis.asn, of the -.eoph- rea.h.-. ds he.^'ht . He- 
fresh.n.i.ts of all kn>ds and httle presents ue . 
presse.l upon the .nen 'He InUets at l,annoy we.. 

luxurious. 1 . I 

()„ ()<tol..-r •JOth the Kijihteenth ...ov. d up to 
\„rd, another hattHhon of the n;'^^' ''"'•'"'f 
,h,- front, wln.h was west of the river Scheldt (hseau ). 
Leers \or.l was hmnd to !.<• withm ran-- of the 
(;ennan -shrapnel. I.ut .■on.panv train.nj,' was earn.-d 
„n here. Luut.-lol. v. Walton M.t. fron. the 1 <- h 
Durham L.^ht Infantry, arrive.! .a. net.,l,.r ••-..< to 
take teinp..rarv On O.-t.dur tlu- bat- 
talion went hack to wiii.h is m.'-th-.ast 
of Touiv.H.iK aiui just msul. th.- H.lyian ai.l 
two .lavs later to St.enl.rut;«.-. On Noveinher .<.d the 
Emhteenth moved t.. .•.mtinu.' Irainin- at Wonc.] 
,n .l.v.sional rcserv, . \W tlu- tun., that the ha ta hoi, 
came up I.. Miir.'ke <.n the sth was mu.h talk 
of the .•,; .Anuistue. Next .lav th. v mar. h.-.l 
lorwanl to Swev.^hem. tlw .hvisi.-u having' lak.-n over 
a se.tor furlh.r n..rth. Ii was ud. n.l.-.l that !<• 
Kudit.'.nth sh..ul<l parti.. m an attack tl,.- to .aplure th.' w....h'<i h.j.di -roun.i heyond 
'Huv.h: hut th.' (..rmans ha.l r.-liiv.l an-l !,•■ 
tahon wait.-.i ..n th.' hank .d the r.ver wlul.' th- 
,,u' .,,nslru.t..l a hri.l-.'. I h<- mt^h 
uas sp.ut at IJmv.u an.l Ih-' '.'-■n.l Hn-a.l. u.r. sidl 
.hei.i uh.u. d in v.M. OH \.A.nd..r imh. lli.' 

Ei;^lil<tiit li nsiiiiKil lliiii in. mil. lii> 1 r.iii'~|>« .| I had 
('^()^s^•(^ till- !i\ir liv |iMiit<inii liri(i;.'c at dav luf.'ik 
and fnlliiui-d 111 r- .ir "I tln' lul l.-ilimi. 'riuif was 
aiiotlur warm \s(1(<imii fur tlir Duriiaiiis at Uiiiaix, 
wliriT tlic iitu> of til. fdiiiin;,' Aniiist ice had l)Cfii 
Kctivcd witii dirp th.iiikfiiiiK s->. 

On the tiinriiiii;: cif the fattful NoMiidicr 11th tlic 
Ei<,'hti-inth niovrd t ast alumt U>nv niiUs to t'.'' villaj^f 
nf (^iitsiiau. 

The Nii!ct<fiith !iiaichi<l iiml hu.iid fnnii Tir- 
<i< j;hriii til Hci/.crlf (111 Srj)ti-iiilMl "Jiid alid (ill t!ic Mil 
when the ."i.'itll DiVlsiiili colilplctcd the r"h(f of the 
;i(it h Atiicricaii I)i\isio!i m the (.'hiidiks canal sector 
south of \'j)rcs tlic liattalion n,o\(il to a rc>cr\c 
|)()sition cast of Poi)crni<.'lic. It was not till Sc|itcnilicr 
I'JSh that th.' Diirhanis took o\( r tiic front line. Next 
nujrnin^' at dawn a post nnd( r I.anc-ldrpl. C'raiuiey 
capturf(l ."i .^axons, 'J of whom vcic u(iiindt'(i. 
During' the day the Nineteenth moved northwards, so 
that their h ft r( sled on the south <(li,'e of Zlilehckc 

'riu-, marked tlie (\tr>-nie left of the di\isional line 
uliicli was ad\aiiecd I. Odd yards Iwd days later niider 
(dvcr of an effective jirlillciy harrai;.-. On tht rit,'lif 
of the Ninct.cnth •.'nd Lieuf. U( id"s platoon went 
forward. 'I'lic ground had Imcii patrolled the ni^'hl 
lieforc and foimd clear of (icrniatr-. hut the cik my 
haii pushed out posts since and these ohstinately 
cDiitcsted th( advaiK c. '.'nd I>i(iit. Keid was hit and 
was never seen ai;ain ; tlu nun lost the precise direc- 
tion, hut advi.liced as far as a ruined i)nddin>r where, 
with the assistance of the siipjiort company, a post 
was sulise<pi(iitly estahlished. N( \l in the line were 
'Jnd laellt. 11. Sheple\ "■- platoon, who also encount( red 
a strong resistance. .Vfter n achin^r the ohjectuf the 
Duilianis were forced hack, liut afterwards rc^'aiiu d 
the yro'ind and held it. Here most of tlic casualties 
occurred and most of the prisoiMis \<.i\r t.ikcii. many 
(iermans Ikiul' killed .iiid wounded, "ind I. nut. Shep- 
l( V was awarded the Mihtarx lic^-. Further north 

I, lent. Dales t.'ot Ills plato '11 liiwald Ulthollt h( ll|(,' 

I'lu- I )urhain l-oiccs in the l-ickl 

I n;j!iiK<(l. Oil IIk' ' Nhtiiir l< II -JiKJ I, nut. (.. S. Lfjich's 
pliiUioii also cairiid Dill liif task withdut liilHlntnrf, 
liiit tills dIIkci- tii(i) icii a siiiall raid wliicli yiil<i<<l 
•s prisiiiitrs an. I two li^lit ii.acliinc-^iinr . and won hitii 
tli< MilitaiN 'I'la V. lio!r alTair ri-sultcd in -'."' 
.Saxoiis liciuii takni. including.' tiiosc liidint,' in slu-ll- 
liolcs and placi , tlii\ wnc a l! rru aids foiii d 
li\' patroK. ( tf till- \in<!itiilli I mtii wcii' killr<i and 

r_' WnlMldlll. 

'J'lic- liattalion \mI( nlnAcd on tin- Itlth and caiiir 
into till- iinr auam <ijld da>s laur. undt r a hfa\\ 
liarra;;c w!ii''li canned some casualtiis. 

Tlifii. on S( pli iiiiii I- -jNtli, Hritisli. Fri iii'ii and 
Hi l^'iaiis li(i_':,M to H)!l hack the (imnaii ariiiifs m 
HaiiiitTs. At ".•_'") s.M. till If opt lud an intense lioin- 
liardnieiit of the enini\ positions and ti\e minutes 
later tile infantry advanced. Tlie Ninetitiith were on 
the left of the ISth Laneashire Fusiliers, the KUtli 
Hfijiade liein^f in the centre of the divisional line. 
'I'he (n rnian lianain was no' heavy and the Diirhains 
haviin; taken the tortured mass of earth still called 
ilill ('i(». swept on. while Bavarians <.iine forward 
lliroiij.'h the misi ,,nd smoke to surn nder. At Klein 
/illeheke (.-.*<. -M. W . (.. Walker, of Salford. won the 
i)istini.'uislied Conduct Medal h> disposiH',' of some 
(Jerman snijH is. The rnh^e was won Imt I'nd Fieiit. 
]■". \V, lilaki. v.ho had l.c,n partiall\ passed licfore 
the tij.dit lenan. pushed forward ^vlth jiatrols lieyoiid 
the olijcctiM'. capluriii;.'- a niacliinc-^'un and still more 
prisoners, lie won the Military Cross. 

'I'hr ITth Fani-ashire Fusiliers came lhroiii,'h at a 
(piarli r to ten in the inorninji. and had to carr\' on 
the attack witlioiii aitilh-ry suppoit, as it was ini- 

posslhle to ;m I Hie LMllls forward (|uieklv enoll«jll 
ihioindi the niiid. Til. l-'n^ilieis Were clucked on 
Hasseville 1^ ek li\ lliaehllie-uun tile from the Use on 
which the remaiii' of the villai.'e of Zand\oordc stood. 
Here the line iiiuaimd for the iiii.dit. rations, water 
and ammunihon hemj' hiou!,dit uji i>> pack animals. 
'Ihe Xinifi'nll: ha.d ^'dfeird Idlle and m.anv prisoners 
.•iiid liiTl L'uns, t rench-m. -'I ars and niaehiiic-'Mins of 
llojii iinl lii'a\-.' I'dihie, ial'i (|'ltli- ol ;,ii,i,iii- 

;; 1 1 

The Last ^ iainpai^ii. 1^1 S 

ml lull. '>ij,'ti,illiii;i mill". r;in;:r tiiiiiir> ;iim1 .i MiirililiLiiit 
NM re .'iiHiiif,' llicir iropliir^ ui tiic dav. 

ZiiiHlvoordc fell til the lo'.tli l{nt,'ii{!'- I'li tin- aft< r- 
iKjim of Sfj)tt'inii<T "-".itli ami the Ninttt tiilli 1i»ik oMf 
positions on the ri(li,'<- near the \ illai,'(' in tin (\tniiij.'. 
I'apt. K. A. Parkr. wlio acconiplishcd liiw \\n;k as 
adjutant (iuiirij,' tlusr da>s. and I^itiit. J. >!iarj), a 
(■oini)any coniniandi;- xsliosr i,'allanli\ and nntiativc 
wcrr scr\ marked, u> ic ladi .luatil' d tlir Militaiy 
( ross. 

Tilt lotth Hn<^ad'' took up the ad\'anrc mi tlu' 
ixtniii;.' of Scpttnditr ;i(»th. Tlic Nim tci ntli rnarilii d 
lliroii^di I'cnclirirh n and d(|)loycd at Ainrrica caluirt-t. 
half-way lictuccn \Vfr\ic(j and tlic Mmin road. Willi 
the Istli I.aiH'asiiirc Fiisdicrs on tlir ri^dit. they ad- 
\anci'd to puree tlie stioni; and will ■<ii fended switch 
Inie ruinuui,' north-east to (ilieiuwe. on tlie Meniii road, 
liiit uncut wire and niachinf-},'uns lieM uji hotli liat- 
talions soon after tlie s!art. Darkness fell and Lan- 
cashires and Diirhanis sta\((l where the\' were for the 
niyht . 

At dawn another attempt was nia(h', hut fiie (.er- 
Mians, in " pill-hoxes "" and hehinil st(jnlly wire<l de- 
fences, Were too stronj/. All that c(.uld he done was 
to throw forward little ;^ioups of men lo estahlish 
ad\ance(l posts and thus ai)out "JOd \ards were i.'ain< <l. 

The (ierinan shell lire <,'iiw svorse now and m- 
ereased to a heavy hoinhardnicnt wh.en the 
Were relieved hy the 17th Lain ashire Fusiliers in the 
<\ciun;,'. By October Urd the Dnrhams had reached 
Zillehekc to r< s( and retit, Since the licL'innui},' of 
the oi)erations 2 oi!:cers iiad h-cn wounded, .uid losses 
III the ranks .inioiinted to IH. Scr;:!. W. St(;ddart. of 
Medowsley. had coiuniaiidcd a platoon with marked 
aliility since the tirst attack. lie aicoiiiitcd for one 
(ieriiian iiuichine-<;un ilctai'lumnt sin<,'le-hand( d and 

oil another nrcasion helped ti. <^'et in the Wdi:..ded 

iiiuiir lita\y shell tire, l-'or this j^'ond v.cnk lie reeei\til 
the Disiintiuished Conduct Medal. 

On Octoher .")tli ihe lolth liri'_'ade nlie\ed troops 
(if tli<- ;itith I)i\ision 111 front ol 'rerhand, luit ihe Niiie- 

leellth. heine l(sel\' I i,:l t .1 I loll , nliiv Ulpl'Ild to 

liu- Durliam l(<n.cs in tlir HcUl 

II, ..\r \S ^iikI \ r..|M|palU. s ll|. Iw III, \hnilt> mI 
Lirlr. Oil tii( 1 Itli 111- l.;itliill'.ll '"Uri litl.itr.l ll< Tr 
,,n Ihrir u,,\ up |mi ||i.' ii.\I ati.nk .iiid. ulnl'- n'"n- 
IKMlllli;: tin' ^'1..iiihI iM-.t ,l;i\. lapt. \\ . Sinilll u:is 
\\ nllllilcil . 

Tlir until l{i:-:i<l( ^iSM! n.iir tli'' i"."i ruuiiiu;; 
iiurtliwanl t.. l{i,ulris M- mu "u lli' nmiit of tin- 
lath ;inil vMTc sIu'IImI iirxt lui-nuii^ l.rluir tiic attack 
ua^ lauucliiil. A<l\aii.iu^' iHlmui .. iiv.piuj.' Iuirra>,'c, 
the ITth l.ancasliiiv hd tlir way until a Imc 
iiiiinnij.' sdiitli frmn Mdor/iflr ua-. i. aili<<l. i ln-ii the 
Niiii-tcrntli ami istli Laiica>-liiic I'lralu rs cam.' tlirnu^-ii 
uii tlir left and nj.'lit tn tak.' the lllt.'ll 
j.rr()Uii(l south ..I (.ull.';.'iirin whi.h . .\ < rim ikiii tlic 
^r(.-^'^l^M^ I.I thr iivrr Ia-s. 'I'lir lu. lining; wa^ liiir. Lut 
the hafl t.. ail\a"iicc ui a tiuck Um uluch uunlr 
It litlicult to krcji \ and V cMinpanir^ led 
th'' \inctfi-ii11i and. in t!'- lacr "f (onsidcral.U- •-hrll 
and inachinr-uiin liir. th. ..I.i.ct iv was reach. -d i.ii 

ill,, line of the han.lels IV.esellMMk. Sci : Water and 

Kap|,elhnek. wiieic a lew lielaian llllial .ll allt s W.Tc 

lound. -'iid laeiit. li. (haduuk. w ho cwintnanded uiie 

uf the support platMons. hd his men fmward with 

wieat dash thn.u^di a hnstil.- I.arraoe and leiuforct'i! 

\\\i- line wiiere men Were iiadly laided. He fec<M\e(i 

the Mihtarv Ser^-t. .J. K. H..herts(,n. M.M.. nf 

'I'liniion ('oiher\, distin-.'iiisiied hiniself on tins da>' hy 

leiiduii,' an allack ujion a t r..ulilesoiue niaehine-i.'un 

and sTn[)ei"s post. I'lio.:;.'!! the Duihaiu men were 

..leatU oulmnnliered. the maehine-i^un and .'» (.ermans 

wen ciptured an.; th.- i. luainder put to tli<iht. th.- 

ser;:e,iMt wiiimni_' tli-- I )is| mj/nishi'd (omluet Medal. 

In This advance many ahandon. d ti. hi ;;uns wer.' loiiiid, 

tof:<-thi-r with som.'' transport and inaeliine-}:uns uii- 

countalile. Th.- Nin. l.-.nth lost •..•nd I, nut. H. W. 

Jonian. M.C. LluI. II. \V. Dales, ami tlie diaplain, 

('a])!. .\. 11. w..uiid. d. ami casualties m th.' 

tanks anaiunted to, '.mi in all. 

'!'he Im.' was in.v. .•..ns,,|idati d, :-nd slroli'' pair. .Is loiw.iid in th.- dirctiou of lie- eohem. N.M 
,iu,inui;' iitlh' ad\auce look pla. . m older to 
make ).o.,d th.. pui . 'oUlh-.-:,st ot alld 

Ilu Last ( ianipaij^ii, H'l S 

SdhH.ii \\.il(r. .Str;,'t. K. SttK!.|;iil , D.l'.M.. .ilu.ns :i 
(li)U{,'lity tij,'littr. 111! ;m iitljick "\i twn f;iitiis ami can nil 

'll'lil. Ml' liail lifCIl i-llll ll\- rrspnllMlilr U'V tllr IMIitUIC 

iif tliii-f troiililcsoiiic iiia(liiii(-;,'iiiis (liiriiiLr liif prtxioiis 
iia\'s a(i\iinri' and iinw rttirtil s(\cnly v\(jiiiiilt'il, 
liaviiit,' won a hai' to liis dccurat um. 

On flic innrmn^' of Octolicr Itlth the Kir.tli Hri; 
came tliroUj.'li ami advanced the inic to the uesti rn 
i .'ink of the I,\s river by cleainit^ Hlsse^llt■I^ of the 
t iitiuN'. The Kll-th Hn^'ade came forwaid ai.'ani on 
Oetoher l.^th. On that ni<,'lit the lotith ma<!e ^-ood tl 
< rossiiij^'s of the l,\s and estahlished post-- 1,0(1(1 yard, 
lieyond the river. At 11 i-.m. |)oMtoon hrid^ies uer<- m 
position and the Nineteenth crossed with the test ^f 
the lOMh Hrit^ade and asseinliled in order to attack at 
dawn. .\t .")..•',(» A.M.. in tiiick mist, all three battalions 
went forwar<l under the nsiial creeping.' harra^'c. the 
Nineteenth heinj; on the left. The Diirhains reached 
the Aeliieke-C'ourt rai road without much op[)osition and 
advanced eastward, ineetinf,' many French and Hclt^iaii 
ci\ilians. Later, shrapnel and tnacliiiie-(;uii tire cansed 
many casualties, hut hefore noon W c<inii)Hny had 
liatrois in C'ourtrai. These were the first Hntish troops 
to enter the city. Some dermans W( re taken there lnit 
no tif,ditin<,' occurred and later in the day Z e<impany 
estaiilisjied a post in the (irande Place. 

The advance was resunicd at T a.m. m xt day 
t(-wards the rUl^^v south-west of .Swevei,'heni. Tlicre was 
no ^»( neral artillery preparation, hut each hattalion had 
Iwcj li( Id t'uns and some Vickers ''iins aftai'hed. Pro- 

ri'ss was slow as tlie {,'Uiuurs had to he called upon t 

I ) 

deai with the enemy hatferies and with farms which 
harhoured machine-{,'uns. It was half-past six m the 
eveiiin;.' hefore the hattalion reached its ap|)oiiited line. 
On the extreme left Lieut. \V. Iley found a row of 
douses not yet cleared hy the troo[)s on tiiat Hank of 
the Ninetei nth. He led a successful assault which 
routed the eniiiiy and made f,'ood the hnc, tni vshich 
service he reeened tlie Military Cross. 

KarK c,n Octolier I'lsf troop^ of the lit |)i\isi,,ii 
.idv.tiKid and the hatt.Jloii so,,n witlidnu to hiliels 
at C'ourtrai to relit. 

The Durham Forcfs in the \\M 

,...,.ul.,.r .hllH-ultv ..,.1 ua> aN^anlol li- Mihta 

|,a,l pr.Ar,! hiM.srlf a .nnii-auy (•..iniiiau. r, ..I -m ai 
.,,llantrv an.l nsuui.T. ,-. . .avcd tl..- .l-rurat ,nn 
^ Wh.lV al tuurtra, .l.afK tu tlu- nmnlur uf is. 
arnvMl. a>..l la.ut .-Lul. li. K. MrCul a^l. uf. tL. I at- 
tah.m f..r a tnu. nf .lutv in En-lan-l. 11.- uas muc! 
lly. Major I{. C. n. nf tl,.- IMl. Laurasln.v 

''" Tlu'Hr.tisl. uas unsv ntar Ihr nv. r S.^luLll aiul 
,1„. N.m'tr.uth ,an,r u. ....rth of Avrl^iun, on tlu 
,.v.-niM« ..f October -J' Tlu y ucn- o„ thr n-ht wl,.-. 
,lu. a.lvaiHv was rcsan,..! m tlu- .arly .nornin,' ;■ 
,),.,nl,.r ■•ilst. S..MU' <;-nirh r> lia.l lu ,-., l-r.-u^'ut 
,p ,„ Avrlj^lum, and .^imumI tir.; at tW (.vnuan poM- 
1,'..,„.,H ,1,;. .-ast Imnkof th. Sclu-ldt Ir.s than a 
.,uav This .■losi-raufz.- I.omluir.inuiit i.mst hayr br.n 

;,.rv'.kMnoral.s>n«, wh.k- an -"-'Ir*' '^f'^'rv "m,!*' 
furitur assi.t.d tlu- a.lvanrr of thr .nfan r> . .Mil., 
ilurl w.r,- (..nnans 'vlu. fon,ht stoutly W.-for. tlu- 
Nnut.'.nlh t<H,k IluKt,'.', Trapprlstraat aiul \\a*r- 
,na.-nh-. --'n.l Luut. H. Wo-.i won tlu- M.l.tarv Cross 
r.,, ,.,,Hhn{.' a .i.-t,rM,nu(l rush under lu-avy inac-hnu- 
.,„„ and artUUrv lir»- on farm Innl.hnus wlui.- .5«, a.ul ihn-.- n.a.-hnu--.ins w.r.- »f •>'• '^ 
s r, ^.M. a fnsh harraj,-.- can..- .iown and the su . . ss 
was .-xplodni to th. v.-ry hank of tlu- "v-' • . >l='.l'" 
KcnlviuU-, though wound, dw.r.t on w>th his -.:. , 
„„,.l tin- tiual h.n.t of tlu- adva.u-.- vsas rea.lud. lus 
. .uraj,- an.l d.votu.n ^aMun^ hnn th.- Md.tary 
,,,„,Sv. lLl^u..-and2,ulla.n,irMn.^^^^^^^ 
u.,„n,l.-d on tins .lay, "'n.! Luut. 1- W . Hlak.. M.(.. 
uas kdU.l. an.! .-asualtu-s n, 'I"' ■•^"'1<\^""";"'<^ ',';;, 
k.lU-.l an.l woun.k-.l. Tlu- hn.a.h- .-aptur.-.i ■"'■' '> ; '•'» 
(..nnans.^ <; ot1i..Ts. an.l s.v. ral tu-l.l .■nn . 

hftv-.i.'ht niachuu-f.'uns. nuu- tr.n.-h mortals and luo 

;,,„i.ulan.i' cars full of . lu-nry w.unul.'.l. 

Tlu- task of tlu- Nnut.-.-idh was n.^w n.-arly .nd-d^ 

On Nov.-.uh.r 1st tlu- haltalu.n nv.t.- rt-h.-v.-.l hy pan ot 

ll„. an.l -onu .f tlu- (^u..n ^ an.l wi'luir-vs 


Thr I.ast ( ianipaiKn. 1*^1 '^ 

III S\M > f;,'iirni Mtiil tlicii til (. ■iiii I rill. 'il.-('il. \\ . 

lit'^hy. D.S.O.. l{<i\:il In^li Kltlis. a^>illii((i ((Unliiaini 
111 \(i\(iiil)cr .'Jf'i. 

(lie lirij^Mili (•( iiK'f.'it r.ittd at Sta('<'','li('iii. nn t'nt i aiiil 
I a^t nf Cdurtrai, four (la>'. Liter and mh \i.\riiilnr '.tfli 
lllDVcd nff to fi'llnw the rrtlnii;: cnctllN'. 1 lir line of tllf 
Sclifldl had III I'll ali)Uiii<)!H(l hy .ac (.iTliiaiis iiiid llic 
\ iiiitii iilli cro^srd on tins da\ and spi nt tlic intjiil fit 
Hrnhriii. 'I'lir lottli Hrij.'iiilc now Icii tin- diMsioii and 
the nia!-(li was r( MiMicd at T A.M. on Novcrnlxr H)t!i, li> 
wliicli hour tlic transport and a tichl hatttry had crossed 
! h< ri\er. The prinei|)a! mads weri' rendered iinpass- 
ilile fiT \ehiehs liy reason of the hn;:e craters of inines 
lihiwii h\ the (.irinalis and detours liy had side load. 
1: I to further (httieiilt les ; hut ^.'ood [)ro;,'r( ss 
I \ ent iiall\ made. 

.\t Lonise-\l ;; ie llle tloojis Ueli leceivid Witll |o\ 
.Old thallkfllhiess, IJefore exeiiinj: t!ie l.stli Laiieasliire 
I'''lsiHers ueeii|iied ,in oiltpost hne Well heyolld thai 
\iila<.'e, wliieji liejd till' Nineteeiitli and the rest of the 
l>rii,'ade. The e\ ■lists, v, ho lid tile aiKanee, iiad en- 
coiinteied .1 few (.'rnian liorsenieii, luit there had lieeii 
no fii.;l.t 111;,'. 

The line nf tile l{i\(r Dflldre w;is ordered to lie 
-cenn d liefore tin- cessati.on of hoslilifies on Noveni- 
lier Iltii and t''e inareii was tlierefote resinned in tlie 
i!iornin'_r. (.Mlists lielil tiie li!idi:t -iuad at (iraininonl 
hefore M a.m. and at llial hour were l)ei,'inniii<: to ;;el 
into tomh Willi 111- (iieinv. 'I'iie iiifan1r\- arrived later 
and liie Xineteentii went into liiiUls at Everhccci. 

|{.-S.-M. W. C. Mason, of Shildon. a veteran uitli a 
lecord of alrnos' co.,tiniions active s(T\ice since An<,'ust, 
]'.>\l. \< as afterwards awarded tiie Distiiifiiiishcd C'oiwinel 
Medal. On Miaiiv oci asioiis he had displa\eii ^ri .it 
eallantrv undi r tni- and was a pattern of all the ■ oldni ly 

On tlu' Kcn'tiiel front the (■^ withdrew on 
.Vupiist ;{<»th and hy T o'clock iiest eveiun;: "Hr p.atrols 
were on tlie \'!erstr;iat switch line l;efween Kemniel 
village and N'eiivc K<^'lise. .Vs supjiort hattalion the 
Twentieth wt re not en'rat:ei!. .nd th- y relie\cd tiie 


riu- Durham I-orccs in the licld 

1 |(.:,li, Am. ,l<;Uls HI llir switch lll.r Hulll. uf Vi.t- 

.trai.t un tlu' niK-ht uf iuIkt ■-'iM. (.. H. J.; m- 
s<,n aii.l two luiiit: vv.Mind.'d iii th- ;.n..'.--. in.' 
A.n.rua... 1,:h1 Idtlr xh.. nt ihr -nr-nys .iisimMt.ons, 
l„„ ,„ tl„- -arlv munnn- -'f S. pt.m kt It. tl.r 
■ru.ntirtl. ha. I I- l^.k'- l'^"t ,n an attack v.liirl, was 
int.ndr.l tn ivarl. tl,.- \V> ts.ha, t.-\ ....rin. /. . I, loa.i. 
■I'iHH uas iin tunc for a pn-prr ncmnaissanr. ami Hi'' 

luttali.m -Avrr !,.v han.luai.p. .M>v a drlay m tl,. 
issur of A pr.'lnninarv iMauLanina nt ha.l l-.-.n 
.l.sp.UM.I with an.i tlw tvs.. assault r.ani>a.,Hs ,,f tl..' 
W.'ars,.!. vs u.,v f..rnnMu up Nv.-t of tl... l.^'l,t ra>Uva> 
uluu til. sln.pu.l a„.l n,a.l,u..-.;ui, iKuraor .an..' 

''"T; tl,.. I„nn..i a.Uan..- -lu.h f.^Hou.-.l '1- r'^''" 

.o.upanv svvun,. t nu.h t.. th. south an.l s,. ,.,•., 

h,..,v,|v-fvou, .■utila.l.- ),.-.• on thnr hft '-"'<■ -VV'. 
„„„..,. an.l , of th.. \.«.(»- h-l l-n kill... ... 

^^.„u,.i. .1 vvh. „ th. (..,,nai,s ,|.!iv.n-.l a r. .,nit , ! at ta.k 

riic Last ( ^ampaij^n, 191 S 

iiiiil >( Tfil . H. I'llili'-. of I\iii;;"s l,\n:i. uhu rcnj j^'aiiistd 
lin' (Dinpaiiy, was (ililii,t,i| tii (•(induct a n 1 irtiiiciit 
across the lailuay. 'Jnd Licul. I'. WoimI lir>iU','lil up 
two pl.itnoiis of the coiiijiaiiy in suiiport and Miccicdcd 
ni caiiymii llic line fotwaid ai,'aui. tliou;:!! losses wen 
severe. 1 he men hnuj: on doj^'t,'! dly in sh( il holes 
lii'tweeii the rail\va\' and the trench ^miction ealhd 
I'liriratory. Hei( I.'. (.. inians wcif tak< n liefon oider^ 
came to w dlidraw . 

Meanwlnle (apt. \. W. rurnliull had ;,'ot forward 
i;ipi<lly with tlie left eonipan> luit was not in touch with 
the (^ucen"s on that think. Tlic (.einiaiis counter- 
attacked down a tieiicji with l-..nilis and a wiliidraual 
hecainc ncc<ssar\. Imt the support coinpanx piis'ied up 
r( inforccincnfs so that a dcfensi\e tiank could lie formed 
throiii;!! Hois l'irr(' to the railuav. Hostile machinc- 
;,Miii lire was si, dcadiv that iiotlnn;,' more could lie done. 

On the ntrht think no touch could he ohtaiiied with 
tiic rj-'nd l{rii,'ade and another ad\aiite ahout ;• a.m. 
iiy twii platoons of the iesi i\e eoni|ian\ faileil lo cross 
the railway. 

In tins a( tion -'imI I.m iil-. |;. l.'ussell and .1. S. \\ ills 
Were killed, and (apt. W . |{. l')ppsteiii was mortalU 
\sounilc(i; "Jnd Lieut. IV I'. Conrath was wounded and 
niissmir; Lieut. -Col. .\. \. .\. dayer. D.S.O.. was 
parfutlly passed; and 'Jnd Lieiits. '1'. I|. Has, (it. C'. (i. 
Lowell. VV. W. Maelar' n. and Lnut. !■'. Hrunt were .ill 
vsoiindtd. Loss( s in the i.triks .'unounled to r_M . 

(apt. \. \\ . rurnliull and "Jiid Lunt. |-'. WDoil wi i( 
awarded t Ik Mildarv Cross. 'I'jie Dist int/uishi d ton- 
duct Medal was Won dy Ser;.d. I'lhhs and also li\ .^( i^'t. 
.L \\ . .Sherriff. of I'ilaiio Lain, for his work as |ihitoon 
coinmandt r. ( Orpl. .L (.. Wilkinson, of liishop .\iick- 
hmd. who ^'ot a Lt w is eiin into action at a critical tune 
and continued to liuhl d till holli his jej^s were hroken. 
received the same decoration. 

Major C. I'aniiall, M.( .. now a-sum((i ((iiumaiid of 
the 'I'wentieth. who wck relie\((j at ni^'ht and moved 
hack to Dickeluisch. Trainin},' was inlerrupted here liv 
hfid vveallx r and woikiiij.' piuties on the \ lerstraat 
switch line siiff'Ttil nii'htiv from ;;as shclhnj;. On 
."si ptcmher irdli the Wcarsideis vMihditvv to Liimhrrs 


The Durham l-Orccs in \hc licld 

r,,uiii< linn, tor i.iuskttry and la:'tirii tiniiii,^' 

ri.i-. -'Mil, nvIh-.. tl.r l•J^tl. Bi-.L-.-i'' at t arkr-l n . ■ 

tl„ ■.'.;i|, Unval rusii.rls ;„,.! tl,.- lOlh (^.irOH s. AH. 

au.l (• -•'.a.n.s ul tin Tw, nt, ha,l to t .« 
msUi lla„k uf tl,.- a.lva...- al.M.L' tl,.- In,,,.... ^'M-.a I • • 

,,„! Il„m,l, •.'„.! l..-,t. I,ax was -a-'l !!,.■ W .... s,.|.-, . 
Iiii'l leu casiialt |. s. 

■n„. nrxt st,-.^'.- „M-I,..l..l tl,.- .apt..!-.- ..r tl:.- -r.n..,.l 

.„„ll. ..f K.i.t.-w.l.l.-. ... .-...II. ..'•!..,.. vMtl. ^vl.l'■l' 

l|,.,.ll,.,„ uas t.. 1- lak.., a.,.i th. .•,•.-,„.: "^"; "^ 

,,,,,„ i),.„npa„N .,rti,,.l.a...ill../.rn,.a,i. 

f,,„„ n,,utl,.... lak..,- .'itt i, ., „,a.„,„(-t:.i,.s 

,,„| .,, .>f st.T.s. Th.-,v W.I-.- s,„„.- .■aM,alt..->. 

,,,„,„„ (,,„. A. T. H...wn.- k,ll..l a„.l •J.,.l i-H-..l. 

/,;,r,.|v,.,.r.i.- ri,i^.-. i.-.t far t.. tl,.- .,...ll,. 

()„ S.-pt...,ln,-:iOtl, t!,.- 1-Jltl, li..-a.i.- r,..,„,...<l tl.. 

,.,,,wav Tl.. w.-,T St, II .„ s„,,p.„t. t.,,1 I 
,„,„,„n,v ,.,..v..l ..p ..,, tl,.- n^ht t., a p.,s.t,..„ „.ar 
,,„'„,,■, ,.■„,„. ..r tlu .-anal. L.-,s vs.;-.- sh^lt. 
,',,„. ,.,„„ ,„„,, ,i„ ;,,,ivan.-._ a try..,:. .»... .< 

,.,,..,.1. wrn- „.m w. II f...uar.i .-I it..' t,n.,ps .„,, 

n.nk a„l l!..,v VV-' >'" "..u tl,.- |..|lnn,„. .Ia> • 

»„ ,),-.„.„,••_'„.! .1,.- a.iva,,.-.- ..f .1,. nst l),v,s,.,n w.,, 

ll,r (H-nnan I.,,.- M„.tl. ..i tl..' M."- .-a.L •■;-■; 

f„,,-,l ,...-,,•>. a„.lpnH.., was St, lsl..w " ^^ ' '. 

sMl.Ts .1,-1 i...t '■"",.■ n,t.. a.-t,.... l.,.t ha.l la...t- (.. 

Atk.Ms..,, a,..l Hla„ u..„„.l..l l.v slM-ll l,n a,„l t 

, MM, lilt., s III liif :•)!., ks. , . 1 .1, 1. 1 

,„ ,1,.. .■v..,„nj.'..f th. ...xt -lav t l,.-y ,-. l,.-v .•.! tl, - 
KO.S.W. ..f tl..- -tl. Div'^'"". :'t M..-1UW. a,..i,.!..l 
,.,,- ... a l.atlal...,. .,r tl,. :Utl, Dims,.... „. th.- -a 
,,,„„. ,,f ,h.- Th- l.attal ... u.n „..w ,1„.- t., 1. a^. 
;,.' l.,.i- a„.i th.y ,.-arh.-.i l-H. N „- ar A '-rh' - 
(Vtul,.-. s;h. v.h.r.- tram,,,- f.-r th-' .i'a' ^'"^"'l^ ^^"" 


The Last Campai^m, 19] S 

call fully carried dut over tlic Civiintrv towards Poptr- 
II. ^'hc. On Oct. .her i;5tli tlic Tw.iititth caiiic iij) hy 
ii;.'lit raiiua\- and hivotiack.'d at C'lapliam Junction oil 
the Mtnin road; at 11 i-.m. they lic^'an to assenihlc on 
taj)rs laid h\- an athanced party. Tlic attack was to 
move foiward north of Meiiiii until tlie Iiik^ of knolls to 
the north-east of tiiat town was rcache I and taken. 
Tills position was a coii'innation of that earned on the 
same dav li\- th.- Nmet. mth and the rest of tlic KlUh 
liii;.'a(h' operalin;,' on the !■ ft of the Ust Division. 

'i'hc l_tth l{ri;:a(!e had the Twentieth on the rif,'ht and 
the l''nsili(rs on the left, the (^iieeirs iieini,' in support. 
Tntil the see,, lid lift of the harrai;e the I'-'-.'nd Bri;,'a(le 
led the attack; then the l-_»lth were to yo throufjh. 
Iheic a thick mist .it .")..'{.") \.m. on OcIoIkt iJlth 
\siien the infantry advamiii. The en* iix put down a 
l)arra<:c vhieh eontaintd iimeli smoke so that it was 
cxtrcnielv diliicult to maintain touch .and direction, hut 
section commanders ^'of their men on in excellent style, 
thou!.'h for a tune one could not see more than \\\c 
>ards ahead. When the Diirliains ami riisiljers took 
'he lead soon aft-r s o'clock heavy niachinc-j;un tire 
from farm Imildm^s and (■ernian field j,'uns tiring' over 
open Slights at jioint-lilank raii<,'c Iimdcrtd tlu' ailvance. 
lint III'- two eiohlceri [iniimlers attai ' d to e.ich hat- 
'alion deal' with the (leriiiaii unimiers and the farms 
Were ;,'rac|iially outljankcd. l'ro;rress liecaine much 
ipiicker as (he mist chmd and 1) <omp,iny then luni 
to extend the liiie oil the ri^'ht of (' ciriniianv. At 
aliout II \.\i,, under the personal (hredion of Major ('. 
I'annall, M.C. this operation. mvoKinir a fresh atta<'k, 
v.a- siieci ssfully carried out and liv t cm. the whole of 

Hie o(i|.(tl\es had lieen tak'll. the elieniV Iea\in^' miic 

tield ;.:uns ami tlinw hovit/ers m this part of the lield. 
While the hattalioii (|uk in patrols piish(il forwanl o\ir 
the Coiirtrai towanls tin rner I,\s, •Jtid I, nut. 
I". It. I)a\ison .iccomplishint: dariiii,' and < ffective work. 
\cxt iiiorniic,' H company came forward and cleared 
the fjround in front, ihspite consideralile machmc-ijun 
fire. This operation, in which "Jnd I.iiut. D.ivison was 
JHTHlil to the fore, nuule l'oocI tlu wi ,t of the Lvs 
as far .is Wevel}.'!iem on the left. 


The Durham Forces in the Field 

Tl. Tuvntu.h w.r. ^vmHl^a^vn fm.u Uu- iHH. u t R 
,„,,nin^^ ..1 O.t.-lur luiv.n- lost t:q. . K Hraut. 

^vn.u.l.. (asualtir. M. th. ranks amountc 1 > .1 
...un.lMi. Major Pannall ^vas awarded ^-^ J^'^ 

M.ldarv Cross; la.ut. L. W M.-'plKrcson >;<-•;-»- 
1,.„1 ,i;,„.. ..artu'ularly -ood and (.'allan strict as 
si.nallui,. ntlir.r. a.ld.d a bar t.. 1;'\'''''7'^*'^'"- , , .^^.,_ 
Win!.' 111.- l.attari..n rcst.d m farms L.tNytn 
Moor/.-l- and (.ull.^hnn th. l^^rd l^^^ad- .arn.d .m 
,1„. advance a.iu.s tl.e Ly>. NMn-n th> A.arsidors 
,';,.,:(;;,,„„ (),,olur mh through (;ulk-t,d,..n, to 
M'ir.kc and .m to MarionrtteLrrj; it was to assist in 
taku.,- fonvard the line to the left hank of tlu- 

^'■''Karl'v on th. nu.r.nnj^ of the 21st the Wearsiders . ael> attaekin^ hattahon 11-.- >Ih -r^ 
weather n.ade la ..vy-oin^r a. ross th.' ph.n^d.e.l lie Is 
,„„ ,,,, ,,„rha.nsonthe r.^ht na t wHh n.. -.pposMt o 
,,11 aft.r the handet of Uroekenhoek was •' a'''^'- / ^^ 
l,,avv n,a<hnu -un and art.!!, ry lire hron^dit he B dish 
1; nners udo a.tion. hut the Wearsiders whose losses 
;..n- very sn.all. t.,ok l$av. -eniknok and erossed llu 

'"''nns last adsanee linked np vv^l' "'•• «7^''»"^ Z;'* 
,1,,. r.^iht. hut on the left the Queens had ''"1 ro. ».U 
„..;,tiMin« the Court ra,-Hossuyt eanal ^^-'^^^^^^ 
I ,„i loeks ,.f this waterway ha.l been destroyed I.n the 
,v. who put up a stont resistaneeat »!- raiway 
,,„„:,. -n./KuMlursuere put ...on the nt^ht of th. 
n,u...n-s. lad th-re was st ,il a lar^.-ap on the left of 
,he TNVenti.lh, so Major Tannal u.oved A eon.pan> 
f,.rwaid and ass.s, • .1 ,n eh-mt: th-- line, ^us,lle.s a;id 

The f.ast Campaijrn, 1918 

Dinhams cstahlishinp posts on th<' left .lef.Tisive flank 
%u.t of the canal. The afivancc had onlv cost the 
IwcntR'th -2 mm wouiulci, hut hcavv shell tire now <li,l 
(■<)nsi(lcral)lc dania-c, I) companv heinj,' tronhicd l)v a 
nnch niurtar in the w-.odcd jrronnds of the ciiAtear at 
Uossuyt just in front of their position. IJef(,re the end 
of the dav I'nd I i.Mif. J. W. Annstronj,' and 2 men had 
heen killed and -.'nd Lieiits. J. Wood and S. W 
Warwick and tr, otlurs wounded. 

I)nrin;,r ihe two foliowinf,' days, whil<- the other hat- 
alKms of th.. I,n;,'a(le str.Ac to ,ret forward on the left, 
the .weiitieth nnpro\ed their positions and pushed out 
FK Iro Is tu locate the ennny posts for the iRiiefit of the 
15ritish mmners. {)„ the ni-ht of October -Jlird the 
1 -th Cheshins came up in reli.'f ami the battalion 
move.l hack for a day's rest. The 1-Jtth Rri^'ade then 
took over a portion of the line to the north, relievinc 
troops of the •.",ith Division, and in the earlv morninp of 
Ihe •J.dl. the Iw.nti.'th relieved th. l()*h Queen's on the 
riuht of the line, which ran alon;,' the w,-stern slopes of 
the rid;,rc near the hamh-t of Kattestraet. On the crest 
w( re ihv (;ermans. who had to he driven off and followed 
• avtwards down to Av.l(,ri,cin an<l the western hank of 
the .Scheldt. Four minutes (xfore U a.m. tin Uritish 
I'arraKt; eanie down almost on the front lin.' in order to 
<ieal with any Cemiaii j.osts which mit,'ht have heen 
thrust forward. The eiu my retaliated with a eounter- 
l-arraue wh'rh caus.d many casualtie.-, before the attack 
was fairly started. There was stul-horn fi^'iitin;,' on this 
day: every farm contained machinc-f/unners and the 
sl..w projrr.'ss of the trooj.s on the rij/ht of the Twentietli 
I'loiijjht ^'allmu cnlilad.' lire from that flank. When the 
advance had reached the vicinity of \ ,.rk<"erlioek losses 
were so heavy (hat A and l\ comi)anies were replaced 
by C and I) eomi>ani<s from the ^uf)port line. The 
'i'wcntiefh were then able to ^et on down hill till the 
hamlets of Driesch and Uoseh were reached, but the 
< nemy resistance did not weaken and th<' line remained 
Iktc for the nn,'ht. The Wearsiders iiad lost 'Jnd Lieuts. 
W . M< bron and 1). !,a\ and •.".' men kill.d, while Capt 
I!, •.>„d I.icuU. .1. Apph'ton. !•'. Woo.] „nd 
I. nnnn-llv. M.( . \^ M., M.M.. and IN others'w,-,v 



Ihc Durham l-orccs in the \'\M 

vv,.un.l.-.l. Thr gu.rn^ r.^u^^' "l 

, un ritlxT Hank t. 

str<ii>;Mini tiif line. i ,1 r, ruir(i on tli< l«[t 

10 A.M. a jialrol i 11 

tlir Twcnti.tli w.T.- ll.)l.lHl 

■ T.iurnai-Aii.i.nanh 

Wh.ii lh.' Qn(.n"- 
(I .>n 
, til.' 

,|,„„st as far a. Ilnj-'J-"' ^vliu'li .-.ntnalK 
Nnu'tr.nth SUM..- .lays lat.-r- ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^_^ „,,, 

Tl,.. r.nia.n.l.r o th. " "^ , , ^^/^^ „.,, i.a.llv 

snuth.rn -'t^'^'-\;'^^.'r''' ;,,.:i tt Ivs luul Ik.m, 
.l„„,...d th..u,^li all l.n.l.'.s ■'>'", ,, (;,,.,uan 

"-->'i'.':i, ?;:::::.: T:n,:;:;;.r;;..:n..Mh....n|,.;- 

cn.ina liall. mta.^ 

tanun.nt -f tl..' tn-.l-s "Y^' V, „ WU Lank of th- , '-■'.»<':";.;:..';,. („;,li.. .ay LHM.t.- 

.,,. f,, 1111(1 t.' I'f "" ''"' 

Tlw tlst <«7',',';"',' , „ til.. n...!.t ..!• tl... -n.l a 

'•'•'''f7-v'w^:S- :v;';j^n .rossm. ti„. 

,,,,tr..l of II"' V 1 , . ,. wis ii.'t an lasv passaji.-. l.v a l.rok.n ';'''^-' ;,';;: /.livln-lit .but ,t -.s 

l,,l,,v,-,l that tli.M- vs. ..• ""'^r-,;,' ,,,,,.■ .1 .rn>^' tlu-s,. 
•'—'■'■• ■'■'r'''''n.iXk .■ >a:.lvnahavra,....n 
.lavs. Init at ' ='^V' aul .l,vn.l...i H-- ^'i^- 


iti\ with mu 

iiiuht oi tl" /'" "" ' , , I,, s.v.ral .lays 


was to r..IVr 111.' r .-a;;. .■ ■ ^^ ^ ,,^^,, ,i„. 

At .. x.M. "H N..v.Mnh.. . . . H i„„tal.on 

TT:^ V^^;\ K.'kl o . uliii.. tl,.. transp.,rt ns.-l a ,>on- 
"•":''V:':;' ;" :,^ m-. N.-t .lav th.; .nan , .as 

toon hi'.l^.- 

.nil" 1. t'n' I 

XLvwas.aus.Mlhva.>a..r,n.h. toa.l 


The r.ast ( ■aiiipai^n, I'M S 

wliicii iici'fssitatL'd a ditoiir. 'riu- nii,'lit uas s\)ru[ at 
Schcjorisse, where I'leiieh truups were already talkiiii,' 
of the Aniiistiee. On tlie nioriiins of Noveinher 11th 
C and 1) acted as advance ;.'uard. tlie hrii,'ade 
liaviuf,' i)assf(l throuj,'ii thi- I'.'ard Hnsjade, At alxnit 
'.>.;$() A.M. Coiiiiiel (iaver aiuiouiiccd that an ,\rniistice 
had h( en si;,'ni(i and eaiue into force at ele\cn ()*< loelc. 
When hostUities eea>ed tlie Tweiituth were alimil 
a mile and a (piarter west of Nederlirakej and the 
march cuntimicd thr'ou>,'h tiiis little town to lullets 


The Twent\ -Ninth (■intiiuitd lo provide workiiif,' 
parties for thi- ^'pres dt fences until .Srpteinher .")th, 
when they moved hack by \\'^\\\ railway to the vicinitv 
of Poperuiffhe. Training' continued here, and workni^' 
parties were still n(niired. hut on the l.'ith the hat- 
talioii took over a sector of the Vjires defences soutli 
of the Menin road. Knerijetic patroUiii!.' was neces- 
sary as the (.einialls weir su.,p((ted to lie ahout ti. 

At dawn (jii the ITth patroK uf llu hattalioii j.'ot into 
touch with several enemy posts and were forced to with- 
draw under close machin<-<,'iin tire and a liomhui;,' 
attack; hut L'nd Li.ut. A. Dean hai-.dled his men well 
and iu'ot m with only (! casualties, tirinijini: i>ack all the 
Wounded. This otlieer received the Military (.'ross ami 
I.ance-t'(,r|)l. A. XWioinhs an/1 Ptc. H. Hirch the Military 
Medi.l. At alioiit the same time a covering,' party, 
111 a moment of entliiisi.asm, tued tci nish a liosMe 
post. i)Ul the ( failed and si \<ral men did not 
let urn. 

On the iiiLdil oj .S,.pl,inli( r lltlh the T\\ent\ -Ninth 
mo\fd hack to c.inluiue training' at W'inm/eele. north- 
east of ('ass( I. .\hout a v.tek later came ,i move to 
Weiiin^helst. wlitre the Durhains were in rt serve 
when the IJth Division attaekid south of \'pns un the 
openiiij,' da\- of tin final ad\aiier. On (dtolier 1st tin' 
Twenty-Ninlh mo\.d up to take cver the line east of 
Messines ridire and ninniiu,' n.utriily north-east from 
Warnetoii. 'i'he hattaliou had a hui},' anil tiriiij,' manh 
ovel' had roads mUch colli'esli d with tiallle and tli<- 


The iHiiham I-'orccs iti the I'icld 

transport, liy sdinc luisluki'. \\a> st i.i fuiuaiil ti ti.i 
casttrii sl(»i)is of tlif rid^'c. when- il laiiif uii<ltr the 
(iiTiiiaii liarassiii^ liir. Tin- ni! iny artilltty slitllt-d 
thf forward area in tins pari I'f llif liiir iiiutasiii^ly. 
liaMllj,' excellent oiiscrxatlon po-ts m tile elllirelles of 
\Vervie() aiitl CoiriiiKs. In spile of tins and of the nnul 
the Twenty-Ninth settle<l in and strove to nnpro\c the 
trenches. Patrols were active ami the line of forward 
Kosis "'allied 'Mound, althoii"!: the em iiiv was on the 

On Octoher Mh -'n<l Lieut. W. Thomp-^oii nia<le a 
darinj; reconnaissance to the hanks of the i.ys. near 
Warneton. Tiidcr niachine-jrun lire the whole tune, he 
bronj^'ht in his pairol safely and deliveKd a \alual>le 
report, '-Mid Luiit. C. A. Carter did similar <jood work, 
shoutiiif: a (ierinan and lirinj:inj,' in important iilentitica- 
tions. Hoth these otlieers received the Military C ross. On 
Octoher .")th two sei'tions of No. S platoon were blown 
uj) in a dut:-out, prcsumalily by a delayed action niine, 
and IT men were killed. The battalion were relieved 
that nl^ht and spent four days i-.i siipjxirt positions, 
still liviiiL' in the mud under the heavy tire of the 

On October loth. uImii the Tweiity-Xmlh ( ame for- 
ward a<,Min, tires m Wervicq and the ramlom shooting,' 
of liis a'l-tillerv pointed to tlu' retirement of the enemy. 
Patrols were pushed out at once, but found the (nrmaiis 
on the alert. Many maehine-j;nns and treiicli mortars 
were discovered in position on the north outskirts of 
C'omines and \\esc of the town a pod of the Twenty- 
Ninth Wits rushad and eai)tured by the enemy in the 
mist soon after daybrt'ak on the TJlli. 

On October IMli the :<<ttli l)i\ision on the hit 
attacked, the Twenty-Ninth now very tired aii<l dirty, 
but still keen beint; ordered to send patrols across the 
Ias if the enemy oit|>ositioii weakened. \\ '■^■'•W a.m. 
tlie (icrmaiis were still holdmi: farms on the ri<.'lit b;uik 
of the river south-west of t'omines. Later i.i th.' morn- 
ini; the troops of the MOth Division n ai'hed \Vervic<i and 
jxdrols of the Twenty-Ninth ma<ie for tlie river at a 
point north-east of Coniincs. and also further east near 
(uxlshnis. These patrols reached the river bank un- 

'I'he Last Campaign, 1*>1S 

iiiok'stfd, and inspccl.c! [\\v hn.k.n !>n(l^t s. H,,sliic 
slieliinj,' i.iid niachiiu-j,'un lite, artivc tlir^dav lufcMc. 
had practically ceased and it appeared as llion^li tlie 
enemy had withdrawn from th,. town. To verifv this 
It was necessary for the sappers to l>iid<r<. the nver so 
that patrols could cross. Colon. 1 Hidi. y'uot Ihe trench 
mortars to (;j)en on the wire which could he st en on the 
ri{,'ht liank and, after an hour's homliardm<-nt , patrols, 
preceded hy scouts, jipproaehcd the remains of th,- rail- 
way \>ru\<iv oi)posilc the disliilerv and also the hrok.p 
l>ridj,'e at (iodshuis. .\t tiie latter pl.icr th,' j.'roiii.d 
pave nt) cover and tlic crossinj,' had to take place in full 
view of the en( tny, if he were still there. A Lewis mu,, 
team on the north hank eover<-d th.- sappers, who came. 
down and coninienced to erect a single diickhoard 
hridf,'e thirty inches wide. Hcfore the en<,'in<>ers had 
comph'ted their task the Lewis <,'unners cmss.-d th.- 
river, hut as they cstahlislud themselves on the south 
hank heavy inacliine-crun tire opened from the front 
and lioth Hanks. Yet two more st t-t ions wt re passed over 
and another i)!atoon were ready to follow. It was about 
•_' P.M. -A-lien heavy artillciy tire opened on the i)lace of 
crossing,', which was then shelled 'unceasiii;,'ly for three 
hours. The Lewis puns of the Twenty-N'inth nplicd 
valiantly, hut no more men crossed the river. Even- 
tually all troops had \o he withdrawn under shelter of 
the houses on the north l)ank of the Lys and hy his 
paliant work in assisting,' to cover the retirement Pte. \V. 
Allen, of Dcsford, won tlie Distinguished Conduct Medal. 
The new hridpe stood, still undamaged li\- tlu> <iiemy 

At the hridpe hy the distillery two Lewis puns 
covered the o|)erafions of the sai)i)ers hy fire from the 
railway emhanknient north of the river. Casualties 
here h>'came heavy as the Cerman tire increased dur- 
ing the afternoon and -Jiid Ln ut. C. .\. Carter, who led 
his j)latoon very pallantly, was killed. At hal'-past 
three operatio::s were sii>-pended. with the hridjM' not 
quite ('(Jinpletetl. 

No further attempt to cross the L\ s was made that 
nipht, hut a patrol reached the islaii.l formed l.y the 
Morte-Lys channel and the rixcr. and sustained several 


casuallKs from (..-nnan n.arluia -^muis. ui.ludii!- •Jn'l 
Lieut. A. Dean, M.C.wh.. %vaskill.'l. 

It Nvas iH.t t.ll :i A.M. nn O-tol-.r that h. 
( lir. slack.Mud. Tiu- Tu. uty-Nuitl, had ord. .- 
to adva.HT at r,.W a.m.. a .i.lllrult ta.k as .rs stood 
for thm- was oiilv th.- (indshuis l.ndor aval 1 lu 
reserve eoinpaiiv and two platoons .,} tl,<' K'ft .-.miMnv 
were to <Toss lare and advance .ouli.-. astuards helun.l 
u l.arra^^-. .\nollHT platoon svere to .nak.^ thr passa-^-- 
at the raihvav hrid-e. while an a-lvaiiee over M-.rte-lAs 
was to eiuleavoiu- to elear the i.-rniaii nia-'hine-uunners 
fr<.in the lious.-s on that of tlir tosMi. 

liiit the eiieniv had withdrawn and I'v 11 a.m. tn. 
tired Twentv-Niiith oeeupird tli.' line of the railuav 
south of Connnes an.l thr to Werv.rq-.sud on lie 
left The troops on the Ihuik were not yet over ti.e 
nver and so further a.lvaiici' was delayed until the .,.Ud 
Londons .ot forward on the and the Division 
followed suit on the left. The hat tah.on hn>- was tlu n 
a.liusted aeeordin^lv. In the .veiun- he loth Man- 
ehi'sters relieved th.. Twellt y-NlIlt h. uho W,re tak.n 
baek l.v hus as far a^ wh. re wet wratl.-f 
made a morass ..f th. ean.p an.l livini: under canvas 
was verv uueonifortahle. The TwciitvAmth had la-l 
in'.re than a f.u-tni-ht of di-'n>-, patrolhnj.' ti;.-htinL' 
an.l a.lvan.Mn- m niu.i and ha.l weath.T, niostly un.h r 
heavv lir.'. Coloiul IJidh v, M.C. who ha. a .-r.a 
s.HUve .,f mspirati.m to his tuv.l n. n and had haii.lle.l 
the situation with ^ivat skill -n O.toh, r It h was 
awar.h-.l th.' 1),0 ni-uish.-.l .^.rvuv Ord. r : -.'n. .1. nt . 
(• I Icffr, V a .■onipanv loiiiinand.r \\1h. .inl I'ai- 
„i thai .!:■•■.. r.v. IV. .1 th.- Mihl,.r\ 

tieularl> w 

Oi, ()et,.h.r isth th.' Tw.nty-Xinth .aie.- up h> l.-rrv 
to I.Uiet in Ha/.hrou.'k f.a't.,ry. On th.- n. Nt .lav. 
%shen of the Nint..-!,th .-nt.r.-.l C-nirtn:'. th.- 
Twentv-Ninth ni.>\( .1 up I.) Houe.i. 

The u.-xt t. n .iavs w. re spent 111 tiainui- at I uui.jh.-. 
near M..user..n. whos.- mh.d.itauts p.rov.-d to \'< v.-rv 
lu,spitahle. On O.-toh. r aist th.- Hsl I'.n-ad.- took ov.r 
,,„, i„„. ,„„l tlu- Twcntv-Nmth ni-.x.d to hreja.l. n- >v<- 
at l)..ttit,'ni.-s. Th.- . n.inv sli.-ll. d ih. .-.-i-t.-rn m.!.- .d 


'i'lic Last ( 'atnpai^n. I'^l S 

\\ns vill;ii,'f ami mi tlu- lu^'lit of .\(>\<'iiili(r "Jini 1) cniu- 
jiaiiy lost .'{ kill( (1 and Ji wuuiidtMi iii liillcts. Tlircr day^ 
luttT the liattalioii Uiok over a portmii of tlif front on 
\\tv ui'st hank of the riwr Schcliit, near Hflcliin. 
After tlirt'f days spent in rain and nnid nnd< r eoiisuier- 
ahle sliell tire tile Durliaiiis ucre reluAed and iiio\. d t" 
lleiscaux. near the Fr'-neli tiordei. wlu re news of the 
Armistice reached them. 


K\lil.V III Orlul.-r. I'.tls. liir Italian (nlinlli'ln Siipr, inn 
hi-oaii li> (•.-iil.iiiiilalr all nlfriisur and a t.'(inTal plan 
oi attack was somi dtciflcd iipnu. l.i ncral the Karl I'l 
(avail was i>ll"( ltd liic coiiiitiand nl a iiiixcd Itidiaii- 
Itndsli a!in\'. with wliiili it was iiiltiidcd to furcc tlir 

hlir i.r thr l'la\r riMI'. Tlir advalKr was ilicll to CDll- 

tiiiUf to the lavcir/a. ulufc a d< I. nsi\c Hank Wdiild lir 
foiiiH-d t,i j.rotrrt thr Itahaii l^iijlilh and Twelfth 
Aiinics as tii.y iiid\<' northward. At the saiiir time 
an olfcnsi\c was to l)c undcrtakin liotli in tin- Mount 
(■rapjia and in t!if Asiaj,'o sectors. 

'I'lic Twclftli ino\((l to .\r/.i},Miano on Oitohtr <ith 
and continued training; there till the IVth, when they 
( nlraiiied at NCcuza for Mestre and rcachtd iMllets 
at Miraiio tliat e\inin<;. '1 lie Ttii and •j;ird Divisions 
were now c .iieentrat in^' in tiie vicinity of Treviso for the 
coining' operations. On OctolK-r -."ind tlie Twclftli 
leached Tre\i-.o and inarched iiorthwaid to C'attiui next 

'TIic Hllllsll troops Were to forte' the l'ia\t' alintist 

due east of Spresiano, where the ri\tr hctl was over a 
mile wmIc ami containetl many islaiuis. '1 he chief of 
these, the (;ravi di Papadopoli, was iHytiini tlie main 
channel and was held as an advaiiceti position by the 
Austriaiis. Fapadtipoli was taken by troops of tlic 7tli 
l)ivisi.,n tui Ihc ni;,'lits of Octoher -.'.'ird and 'JUh a 
hriUiant tipcration. in wliieli the assistance^ of tlie Italian 
lioalnieii Nvas in\ aluahle. 

On the nioht of ()ctt)lur -jnli the Twt Iftli mt)vctl up 
tow.inis the river aiul liivouackcd in lields, hedges luini; 
used, as far as possible, to (H)iiceal the trotips from aerial 
o}>strvation. \e\t tlay Major E. Horrt)W, D.S.O.. went 
forwanl wiHi a small par'y tt) locate the plate for the 
passage of ilic Piave and tiie iirst asseiuMy point for the 
battalion. Rain fell in torrents tlurin},' this reeonnais- 


S.; 11. • .I'ser i 



— T —, 




»...■.,■ <%• 

J., i.-lj 

The Puiiiani l-<>rcc- ii' '1^' ''"-'l^' 

... In tlu thf Tu. mil Nv-iv k'Uul. ,1 tu tlir 

UU..1. that tlK- n,urat,n,.s u.n- ,..,>.„,..! ^ ' ^ 

following,' <i:»y- , ,1 .,, 1,1 I, .ink 

.,r thr I'.avr to Fapadopoli tur .•urn lit Nsa^ Lh, stim l on tl,. k'lt, wluiv '!,-■ .-.Mh IJn^'a.l. u it I ■ 
, s. Tins alfunh-a pa...,- to ( -p.nza ^f^^'^'; 

,„1„, ,;,,sv..l t.v boats luf..n. Pal..ui..pnl. wa- na.h .1. 
\!1 tlu- atta.k.n.' lintish tn.-.l.s ti-'i thi-> r.ait.- n,i ti.. 

i,,, in- soDii aft.Twani-. , 

Tlu- Tuvlfth a uu.,,1 ,n, al a tin 
, pnMtu.n .>n Itu- so.nh iMuk and Major .. u- 
,,.,a;lnCpartyalu-aaas!Kfor..or.anvc h. lat^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
,.„ni tu n.hcatr thnr runnin-.;,. pUuv nu tlu isla • 
II .. Austnan Inv was v.ry h-avy sl.rap.u! a.n - n 

;'.nt u.U. Two iMttaluns n.a-l- tl,. I--^^;/ /'J ' 
,,„. turn ..f thr l> .an..' an. at 1 1 ..«• • •■ 
uli. ,, th. \\h'->\ l-inhaniinrnt oprii.-.l, no! o tH' 

T; m;,r.v..lon.h; -VV;' H "V"" ';• "'^ th" 
,,,, „„,n,ui.' of tlu- -'Till C0I..M. I '1 .• ttu 
;;::j:;';;v:..:,,npa,n..san.ltiuo,lursfo!lo....lanl r 

'"'"•',", .,.,,,1 Divisu.H u." 01, th- 1. f of thr 7lh an.l 

,,.. M,;i^;;U!;:'f:n;,...ith,.ptv- i'f"/''"-.,'j::.i;;; 

l„u vith, tlu nth N.r. on that ll^'-''^ ■y'-' \'.'', , '' 
ll'v Tlu Ktth N.F. haa to In,n, a a.f.nM'.r Mank ms 

the a<l\aiu'.' prociH'dfil. 

Hv \.M. thf infantry vMr.- r 

I. is. TIm \ ha.l I- 


n. M-viral str.aii.s. vvln.'l. .t ua. hop.-.l v.. .v lonlahh . 

, 1 tin, attack an .arth.„ hnn-l, in s,m.r ,ihms as 

' 1 as ,•' f • t h.f..h. whuh ros.. st.Hply from th. nv.r 

, Th. .nn.ui.' l.ariaj<.' .amr <l'.wn al (hU a.m. 

iii.l til hurhaiiis \s. nt loiwar- . nn ,, 

Avat-rn,arlu,,.-,nnnnk.lh;aa,..luou,u..l 1 1 

l;,.lmt: .■.,,n,.any. uh,.tlu> tlu Austnau 

< ■! M l< \l \ II W Ml I III I I \\ I 


IMI \|i p\ I |. \ \i , 1(1 \ IK 

The Mctory In Italy, 1918 


C'fipt. CliarUs (.ihh»n>, M.C, D.C'.M . hcii. Ud a 
partv wlio cut a passajrc thmutrh, hut all tlu- iinn were 
killell anil hr was wiuiiidcd. Ptc. (i. Bruuii and Sti<:t . 
O'llara Irnt gallant assistanre and C coiupaiiy wtic 
niastcrs of tlu' first ol.jcct ivc soon after half-past, seven. 
I) company passed throii},'!) and advanced over fairly 
open <,'roiinil toward-; the next position. The enemy 
ii'ifantrv siiowed little spirit, hut his maehine-yimners 
were of sterner'f and foufrht skilfully in their con- 
crtte jjosts till rushed or surrounded. The second 
olijectiM' was won Ixfore '.» a.m. anil .\ and H com|)anit-. 
pushed on towards the next position, the road between 
C. I'adovan and f. liened.tti. This cultivated coiintrN 
enclosed land with lit dj,'es and liiiildiii<:s was all in 
favour of the defence, liut the skilled ti-zhters nf the 
Twelfth w,,iild not he deiiieil. .\ and H c..nii>ames 
reached their t,'oal li.for<- ele\en o'clock and consoli- 
dated the |)osili(,ii. On the ri^dit the Durliams were iii 
t.aich with the I'l'.ttli Hri},'ade and in tlu' afternoon lliey 
took over part of the line of the 11th N.K. on th. left. 
Tins siicc.'ss had < ost the Twi Ifth -Mid Lieuls. .1. llod;;- 
s,,n and Fisher and 'JT men killed; Capt. C. (.iliheiis, 
M.C, D.C.M.. •-'•id Lieuts. Smith and \Vail( and 111 
others wounded; :md 11 iiiissnm. Major H. St. .1. Carr 
West, servinu with the H'.ith Unmade, was killed while 
lallyin;.' troops on th.- iil'IiI of the Twelfth. Se^ral 
hundrt'i^l prisoners W( r. taken hy the hattalion and many 
machine-^uiis. tot^ctlier \Mth three 1,'uns of In avy calihre, 
tuo hea\y trench mortars, and two tank j,'uns. The 
|)h^'ht of the wounded carried hack across the tiercndy 
sliilldl l'ia\e hy Austrian prisoners who. from slu-er 
fri;rht, snliietimes dropped the stretchers into the suift- 
flowiii;,' current \\as not tiiviahlc. 

The advance was resumed at PJ.Md cm. next 
iiijr. when the loth N.r. had }.'oiie in on the left of the 
Durliams. Some of the Austrian reariruards f.iu^dit 
ohstinatelv ai 1 maihine-eun nests were always a 
liouhle, one parly of the Twelfth capturuif.' a strong 
point afl'r a liL'lit vsliieh last.d thri<-<iuarters of an 
h.iur, Here In Austiiaiis were fiken and thtei' anti- 
ainrafl yuns. The desired ohjectivt . Horiu'o Fin t(i 
C . (.uiol, was reached and hehl hy C and 1) (..mpiuiies. 


The Durham I-'orccs in the I'icUi 

ullii f^iillrllsllfil all nut| Uv.r. .■!;!'! (■.■i-M,lt!rs olllv 

ainoiintcd to ;! killcii and ;'.(i uoiiiid' d mi tlii^ day. 

At riiid'iii,'!it A ciiinpain. imdrr l/n u!. \\i!<v. v.ith a 
II!. .till. tl-iii(1i trdicli iiioiiar si-fliuii. pushid out and 
sci/.rd a (Tossing nv. r tin' Moiitic-uu) ii\<r. iiortli-fast ()f 
Miirfiii). a ditlicuil and danii-rniis ni.'c of uoil; wlncii 
lul[)fd tlif advaiiir consiilcralily nr\! day. 

Tin olijcctivc on O.'tolHi- '.".itli was tiu- C'.>nfj:!iano- 
Cainpo C.rvaio mad. Startiii- at S.:i() \.M. rapid pro- 
gress niad( at tirst. onl tli. country %va> ditiicnit 
and dirfclion hard to niamiain. TIh- An^trians wnr 
stron-rlv post.d on lli- lar l^ank of the Moiiticano and 
It was not till I I'.M. iliat A coMipanv', supportrd hy two 
l)latoons of (■ coinpanv. [on. d .1 passage >icar i'. Halln. 
Knrllirr to l!,.- hit 1) conipany and llic icnniiiidir of C 
.■oinpany \\< re still iu !d up mar \illa Hallii, so 15 com- 
pany uirr ord( nd to follow .\, rhan'."- front, and rlrar 
the north hank from the n-ht. 'riiis oin'ratioii was iiol 
successful until the arrival on 'hat tiank of t !.■■ llth N.I- . . 
iio'v eoniniandid h\ ^'■.lor i'.orrow. who had siici'v eded 
laeiit.-fol. St. Hill'. inaction. Kvery fa'mhonsc. 

hed!,rc ■•md dllell hei . :ne of the elicniy and proeless 
was"still slow, tint the whole l.rnradc froi.l was eleaie-l 
liy (!.;«> P.M. The Italian inhaliit.-mts rushed foilh from 

the houses to Welcome the i^lllish Iroops. 

.\ coinpain ami the two platoon-, of (.' company h.'d 
piisiicd aheai and r. lehed the hatl.ilioii ol.jcctivc. 
Tlicy nunihcied h-s than I-Ji> hayoiuts. and were com- 
pletilv is.ilaled. .Mtaek. d h\ ineatly superior numliers 
(liiy fell hack ;i<i(l yards, when tlie hattaiioii 
.|ii,uler> came up on the hit and were f(^rc. d to with- 
draw a;.'ain under closc-rain.ri' 'u.'.eliine-^'Un fire. Hut U 
compaiu were now in toiieli and whiii .larkness fell 
l„„it (1 r >1. a line w IS csi.dihshed about "JtlO yanU 



short of !h. ,,h|eetl\e. Here t alld 1> COmpailifS call 

ml,, p,,.ition. Casualti. s on tliis day iiumhercd -Js, 
laeut. W. M. IMenkiiisop heiiii.' fatally wnunded. The 
f'liciny iiiachinc-jzuniicrs had a,u';iin foiiLdit well; oin' <.'un 
was discoNered with four Austrian I'tlice'- ' '■■I 

atoiind it. 

\\^ ( :{ll v,M. ,,], (),l,,li(r .■'Ulii lliC wll.iie ,.f the 
Twelfth W.-re in pos.tloU close !<• "he (■ ,.li:o,,,-CM:ep,, 


The \'icrory in Italy. 191 S 

It rvaro loail en wlijch posts wrr, i stalilislu ri. So 
rou.izhly had tlic Austriaiis \<rrii liaiulloi that 1h(>- with- 
dn u i/t hue da\\n. aiiaiidoniiijif a vtvy ^tidii;: jx/sitioii 
ami a liatliT> of .•).'.) -,'iuis. Italian lavaiiy and cv (lists 
ii' w calm thrdu^h and tiic Totli Urinadr" nplat rd the 
(■■sth. \ ho sat down and discussed Ihc itions which 
liad at air ■■. cd. 'I'hc Twelfth, who had sustained (I 
niorc ca:>ualtus. now followed the a.d\:!M( e hy C\e. S. 
Fi-licc and Zoppe to lallets in Oisa^o. reaclied at s i'.m. 
Tills was a loiii,'. tiring march o\er had roads, hut no one 
f'''l '"d •■! siiiprisiiii,' perfoiniaiKc uhm it i> renieni- 
hcrcd that all ranks had Ix i n uct tlirou^'li since crossing 
the Piavc. had lain out in the- open in the fro>t and had 
hccii ti;^htii!i.' for three succosive davs. 

At l(».;j() \.M. iicxl da>- the Twelfth were called 
npon for a furiher effort, the 7(»lh Hri^ade In in<r held 
np near Sacile. In half an hour the Durhaiiis mo\7d off. 
hut found all opposition hi'en overcome. They 
hilletted af Saeile and remaiiit'd lli' re f.jr I-ao days. 

Ill this linal xiclorioiis advance the Twtifth had 
ca|)tnred ftiur t:-me!i howit/crs. four .").!• t,'iiiis. two anti- 
aircraft ■^uns, t\so heavy treiicli inoitars, tvs,. anti-tank 
i,'uns, f.irt- six machine-^'ims. seven wai^uus, (.uhtitn 
horses ami l.n.'n Auslnmis. hesidi s vast ijuanlities of 
stores and ainmiinit ion. Many hoiioiirs were won hv 
the iiatlalion. ['"or his li. rv coinaL'c. which alwavs h il 

llllll lilt,, the Ihiek iif the tl-ll!. I ,!< 11 ' .-I '( ,| . .1. |l. I'". . 

ll.ilfcrd. I/..^.(>.. ad<led a har lo his ()r<hr; Capl. 
(Jidhelis. vvh'isr proWi sn has heen recol'dcd. received the 
Distin^ruished .'Service (hder: I'apt. W. L. IIii:.'lies. M.l'.. 
\M>n a i'.ar to his cross for his tine 1,> ad. rship ilirouf.'lioiil 
the advance. lie I, d the liiial assault mh the troiihlc- 
soiiic stron;r point captured on Ociohcr •J.'stli. The 
Military Cross wi;s conferred upon Cipt. .Tulm Wilson, 
who was specia.lly proiniiieiit in the tirst ailaek across 
the I'lave. I'ic. (;. IJrown. who hi\s alreadv hei ii nun- 
tnned, rieeived the DistinyuisJK d Conduet Medal, as 
did Laiice-l'orpl. (;. Nelson. M.M.. f.,r .'allantry under 
tire diiruii; the ciilieal nininenl> of Octoher '.".itli. 
Lanre-Corpl. H. I), fty, ("orpl. W. V. Sliowell. I'tc \V. 
I.ewins. Seryt. W. I,ittlewood and .Serjjt. (a I'.-S.-M.) 
N\ . .Monk were each awarded a liar to liis Mihlarv 


'I he Durham I-orccs in the licld 

Medal. Si r<,'ts. A. K. Hicliiir(l>(iii. (i. Ritcliu'. and J. 
W. S'aikm^s. Coipls. W. Patt.T.Miii and S. Parkin; 
Lane* -( orpls. T. Mns(s. .1. McVcaiK and W. Newman; 
and IM.-. v. KiOiy. N. Mandhn. J. Niclioi and S. 
(■rrr\- U(in the Military Medal. 

'liie Italian decorations eonfi rred inelnded the Silver 
M. dal for S'alonr to Colonel Holford and Major 
IJori'.'w; the l?ronzr Medal for N'alonr to l.aiiee-Coriil. 
(,. \' Koii. !}.C.M., M.M., and the Cnic, di (imrni to 
( ;,|i!. .1. \Vilson. M.t'., --'nd Lieuts. \V. T. Cohill.'. and 
T. Snnthson: Major and (^r.-Mr. (.'h nients. O.Ii.K.; 
C.-S.-M. W. Woodhead. M.M.. and Lanee-l'orpl. H. 
D.ftv. M.M.; and Ptes. S. (.(rry. M.M.. and X. 
Maudlin. M.M. 

The Twelfth nio\ed from Saeile to Talpom do on :{rd. and th. Armisliee with th.- Anstnan^ 
<-ame into effe, t at ;i r.M. on tli-' followiim day. 



Im.s recurd of (Ik- S.rvi.v Oattalicus „f inav 
"dl conduck- at 11 A.M. on N<,vfmlKr llth., 
VNhcn tlu- ti^rhtuiu on the WVsttTu l''i.,iit .aiiif to 
an viui Ihe AniustKT pioclamu.l ll,,' ovtT- 
tlirovv of tfif GcTiiiaii arums, wlucii m.ant Uiat \\w pur- 
pose for w} .,, j,,^. .^.^.^^. ,^_.,_^_^,^ j^^^^j ,^^^^^ ^^^^^ _j ^^^^.^ _^^ 

last fufilicl. Nearly forty-tl.nv months had pass.,1 
suur (he Tenth, the lirst of our Servuv Hattahons, 
arnvfd .„ iTan.v; tlnreaftcr Durlia.n had Mut 
alion after hattalion Uil,, tlu- l.altle 'uie. Her ni. n 
tiad foU!,rht, endured, toil.-.l. and .lied ni the Ion- months 
of nionot.,nou,s trench uarfare ; <,n the hattieli.'lds .,f the 
Nomnie. Arras, Vp,vs and Cand.ra. ; ,n th,- (.ernian 
(Mfensive when lluir saerdiee averte.i disaster; and 
uuriiijr the linal victorious advance. 

Their survivors and successors in Franco and 
Ucignnn did not -reet the Arn.istice m the fashion that 
prevailed at lionie. '1 hey simply saw their anluous task 
'•"nie slowly and sur.-ly to an end made p.,ssil,|e r,v th.' 
sacrilice of those who went l,efor.\ is no nee.l to lollow Ihe Haltalions ihrou-h 
the succeeding months duiui^' the tedious tim.- of .fe- 
n.ol.disadon when the ranks j-rew thinner and thmn.r 
>"ild at last the cadre of each unit earn.' ' 
qiuctly, and almost as s.cntlv, as the ori^'inal 
liad crossed to France to tijrht. 

An honoured rdie of cVch .Seivi.v lJattali<m ..f (!,.■ 
Durham I.i^-ht l.dantry is a rnioi. Ila- th- ,i Km-'s 
(...lour. On November llth. ];.•_>(, ,[,, ,,,,,, „| ^,„;„. 
versary ..f the j-rantin;,' of th.^ Armistic,. to (.ermanv 

ic Colours of th,' T.nth. th.' Kleventh, th.- Tw.llth 
the Ihirt.-.-nth, th.- F..urte,t!fh. th.- Fift..nlh th.' th,- Tw.nt v-Nint h. th.- .".Ist. and the 
^.;Jnd are hein^r |u„i u|., witli ,iu,- .vrenionv. in th- 
U.upter House ..f Durham Cathedral. The Oo',.urs of 
V wo 

noiiie as 

The Durham I'orccs in the Field 

the Ei^'htciitli and the- NiiHtfciitli alituiiv hang tlioir ; 
that of til.- Twfiitiflh is in pruud possession of the 
Parisli Cliiiifh of liishopwrarnioiitli, SuiulLrlaiKi. 

\o StTvicc IJattahon of Durham wtro anions the 
troops who marched to the Uhme, hut early \u January. 
r.n'.t. tlie 'rwentietli went by train to C.ermany and 
loined the Ainiv of ()(eui)ation. They were afterwards 
brigaded willi "the :)lst and .'jlMid Durliam Light In- 
fant r\. forming tlie :ird N(jrthern brigade of the ;}rd 
North.rii DivisTon of the British Army of th.e Uhme. 

The .'i-Jnd Durham Liglit Infantry were at Catteriek 
I'amp at llu' hegmning of March. I'.M'.i. and entrained 
nil the •_'nd Un- l)over. They crossed next day to Dun- 
isenpie and w.r<' coiiveyi d by rail to Cologne, which was 
reached on the tith. Two days later tiiey took o\vr the 
military guards of tiie city, l)eing the tirst of the young 
battalions to perform this duty. On March Ktth 
Cieiicral I'lumer inspected the guards, whom he pro- 
nounced •• verv clean, and smart, and soldierly." 

The ,")lst Hattahon. travelling by the same route, 
arrived in tdlogne two days after the .TJnd and took 
over the guards from the latter on March 11th. The 
two battidioiis and the Twentieth then performed this 
duiv m rotation. 

()n April tth Lieut .-Col. J. A. Tupman was suc- 
ceeded in the command of the ,")lst by Lieut. -Col. IL J. 
Curling. l).S.()., and Lieut.-Col. .1. IL Muir. D.S.O., 
commanding the ,")-.'nd. was rei'faeed by Lieut.-Col. C. 
W. Krizeli. D.S.O.. M.C. 

The :):ird Battalion arrived from England on April 
"Mil. but were at once reduced to cadre strength, i;t 
oilic. rs and "JIT men joining the .Mst and It otlicers and 
•iO."> men going to the .")'Jnd Battalion. 

'Ihese young soldiers who scrvi'd in the garrison of 
th( occupied territory well maintained tlie reputation of 
the British Army m Circumstances which could not be 
otlierwisc than dillieult. Durham has every reason to 
be prinid of them. 


^'•Ml<"> ' " I III M 1)1 Kll Wl I K.m IM \N I K'l 
l!'»||l \/i .1 ! I i<\ |;l(|ij(,i . (,u| .)(,M. 




lOth (S.) Bn. the Durham Light Infantry 

Anii^s battle, 132, 148 

— mid, II If) 

— soit(»r, 27, IKj 
Hriciult', coinpositioii of, 7 
CaiiuTon (lovcrt line, 19.) 
Casiiillifs, Arrasl),\tlle,13:i.i:il.l 

— Arras raid, imi 

— Arras sector, 27, 1"(') 

— Cameron Covert line, 1'.':! 

— ClK^-risy sector, lii7 

— Delville Wood, f.7. OS, 7ii. 7 

— Gapaard sector, 208 

- (-ioudl)ert; sector, 239 
■ (lucudeeourt, 7'.', H2 

— Hoo«e, 11-17 

— Inverness Copse, LSI 

— Oct.. 1915, to end of, 2.'> 

— I'ilcketn sector, 20 

— Wieltje sector, 20 
Cavalry at Arras battle, i:i3 
Clu''risy sector, 107 
Colour, Kinsi's, 30i9 
Coniniand and clian^;es in sunie, 

10, 27, 239 
Complinienled bv ti.O.C. 1!. 

— by (;.(). C. Div., 2lo 
Delville Wood, 0-7 
Disbandnient, 2to 
ICinbarkation for I'r nice, 1 1 
I-arewell of Col. Morant, 24n 


le,. 20.S 

I-'orin.dion, 1 
I'ranee, arriv.d in, 11 
( sector, 208 
( Hetreil, 1917, 1U7 
(ioildberL; sector, 239 
(inendecourt, 79 
Honours, .Mberl Me. I d, 2') 

— Ar.-as batlle. 131 

— raid, I'lO 

— Delville Wood, 0,9 

— (iueudeco'jrt, 82 

— l!oo;;e, \'>, 17 

— Inverness (;o|>se, 181 

— Pilckeni sector, 2ii 

— various, 20. 27 
Una A,', U-17 
Inv.ision w.irnin,', 8 
Inverness Copse, 177 
I'ilckeni sector, 2''i 
H.dd, .\rras. U)i\ 

St. Llloi seelor. 2') 
Soniliie battle, 07, 79 
Som; on the march. 241 
Tanks, 103, 178, 179 
Tr.iinint; at home, 7 
Trenches, first tour in. 14 
Vendeuil sector, JPi 
W.incourt line. 1 IS 
Wieltje sector. 2) 
Ypres, 3rd battle, 177, I'cj 

11th (S.) Bn. the Durham Light Infantry (Pioneers) 

Armistice. 338 
C.\nibrai batlle, 21 S 
t;arnoy, l'i8 

Casu.dties, C.itnbrii battle. 


C.isualties (Cuntirutfil) 
--(ierinan 0!^cn^ive, Mirch. I9IS 

' I .erman Hclrc it. 1917, l'<" 

- ( lUillemont, 71, 7 I 



11th IS.) Bn. Ihc Duiham Lisht Infantry IPioneers) 
[r(/iililiu> ii\ 

Mcliutiriu' SCI tor, luT 
llutioiirs.(liTin.ii) uircn.iv.-, Miriti. 
I'.iis. ■Jii''. UT'i, '^Tl 

- - ll.ili.iii. l'i'» 

— V|iri-, lird li.nU. J'lT 
Jcc's tli-l. (..Mil III ()ir.-n- 

Nivf, .M..r<h, I'ls. J'M 
I.,iMUfrii.irrk. -"•"> 
I , iVilltif sniiil . 1 , . 'JH 

Ci^u.illii's {rorlt'ii'.l, 

— i.ttis, :w7 

— 1,1'sUiufs, 7'.t 

— Ic 'Irjiisloy, '.t'JI 

— - Niirciill siitur, I'.'i 

— Witlljf sfitiT. 2<.). li>7 

— Yitns. :5r<l l.nltU-, 2»:>, 207 
Cliiviilry at (ioiiziaui (Hirt. 'SS.1 
r.nldiir. Kiiii; ^. :*>'>' _ ,_ 

C.nMim.ilKl .ilitl <li:iti-cs ill saliu'. H. l.<ns sctm-^. .',-'.. ^'. 

•>~ 'J-'l. '-I'.". 'i7<l, 2S.'». 3ii7 1.. sl'.iiifs, ,H 

C.uipliiiM nl"..l' l.x (.A>X- I>iv.. I-'" 1' •liMiislwy. 7". '.'1 
I) (..iiii>:iii>, r,.rni.m (iirmsiM'. 

M.rvti, I'JIH. 'iHX 
i;iiil).irk:ilinii for I'r.iiin, 17 
I'lfurluiix Ml till. JH 
1 (.riiMliciii. 1 

I'r.iiHi', i-iiilMi'.^.ilion Ini. 17 
(,,f.> .^11 ;i Us. I.fiis. '-'"' 
( OlTripiM-, M.ilili. I'.'l'* 

■jr. I 
M.-tr.-.l. r.'lT. I'll 
(,!i.liiv.ll sr. t..r. Jll 
(■|iin/.i';ui. .iiir, , --'1 
( lUUlfin.ii.l . 71 

M lulMiiuc. nin\<' t<.w.iiiK, 3:i8 
Mi/.ioii^. 'J7'i 
M,.rv,.) snl..i, 1"^ 
Ni.n 111! si. Imi. 1'.". 1' . 
riliki-ni M'l till', -'S 
I'i,lrll■<•l^. nurunnist-d as. 8 
i;r.,r^Miiis.'.l as I'i.iiiciTs, S 

- Ill :i r..|U|ianirs. 21'- 
s.ilK-Saillis.l s.-.l..r. Ill'' 
SiiMlIllf l.altl.-. 7'i. 7H. '.'1 
Tanks, 2i>'-.. JIH, -1'.'. 2'rJ 
■Iraiiiiii'.; ..t li.iinc. s 
Tnii. Ills, lirst i.i. 1"^ 

II.illl NoMlll SI' 


■tor, arrival in, Wu-llji' sc.l..r. 

s. 1.1- 

Vpri-s. :{r.t lialll-. i"l 

12th (S ) Bn. the Durham Light Ir.ianlrv 

.\riiuMilii-rfs. si'cliir N. ..I. IM 
— sector S. of. IS. 2'.i 
.\rmisfici'. .\iistrian. :ii'i8 
,\sia^o sector, 2')^ 
.Austrian .\riiiisti< c, 'M>X 

()lfcnsiv(. 2ri:! 
n.iililT Woml. .'.I 
Hrii)ailc. cdiiipi.sitii.n '.f. '' 
t'.iloliiii- sector. 2'.t 
Casiialt '.s, AiiiH'iii. jrcs. sc.tor N. 
of. ll'i 

— .\rinciiti(Vcs. sector S. of. 2'' 

— .Viistri.iM OlTensive, 2at") 

C, isiiallics ir-nilinu'd) 
.- Il.iililt Woo.l, .".1. r.7 

— Klein Zill.lieke r.ii.l. 1''^ 
._ lo S.irs. Iii2 

— Mirtiiipuiili, 9ii, '.11 

— M.iiiii Hoa.l, ion 

Mr-sines IliUIc. 1.'.2. UV.i 

— I'i.ive l.allle. :ii..') 7 

— I'oziiVes. t")2 

-- r.i'iite! liiK'. I'.'I 

^- S.)nUlleb.illle(...Mili..nal),f.7. W 

— Zillebeke sector. 111. l'>2 
Colour. Kinn's, 3i>'J 



12th (S.) Bn. ihc Durham Light Ii.iaiui' 

(I'liiiin.iP'l .!iir| ilKin^i's ir, ^ ■ ,. , i 

li\ 11!. 2't9, 2.'i2 
(■i.iii|iliniciiliil by ("..().<.. ii.l. . '■ . 

- I.y C.O.C. Oiv., r,3 
l.^t.iir.>i. 1!) 
I'orm.itio:!, 1 
Fnincc, in. 18 
liliojp.n- niir^c. 2.'il 
Hill till. 1,j1 

Honours, .\ustri.iii Oif. ,, : . 
— MitililT Wood. .W 

I'niuli. Ill, l.-,2 

Mill i;>. 1.2 

- il:ili;ill, .ilxS 

.'.I. ill Zillelickf i.ii.l. li.s 
"• Sars, In:; 

- M.fiin Hi), 1(1, l,s,s. I'j'i 

- Ml ssincs l).i(tlf. lt;3 
I'l.ive l).iltlc, .'{07 

• I'uziircs, fj.t 
>^(iiiirneb;itll.(a(Miti.) tlT. 11' 
\ irioii<;, :il. HI. \',->, 2ii;( 
/.illrbikf --i.idr. I'll 

It.ilv, .irri\.il in, ^.,1 

Kliiii ZilU-bi'kr sector, Jt'iS 

li- S.irs, liMi 

M rliiipuicli, '."• 

-Mi'iiin fto.i.l. ISS 

.M'jssiiiPS b.itlli'. Ml 

.Miiiitrllo softor. ;2;H-<i 

MmilU.iiiis. (Icpii l^n.- rr.iip, 2'.'i 

inovi- to, 2') • 
1 I .vc bntlb', :H'>J 
I'u/.idri'., (U 

H.iiil, Kiel 1 /Mhbokr-. liis 
\W\tU'\ line, I'M 
HiviiT.i, rei-oijiioii on, 2;!ii 
Sonime b.iltl.', .'):i. ('>!. i\-, u\, 

Sona on lli< li ; 1 

Souchcz sect, litfl 

Trainini! at hosnc, 9 
i lonclus, 'irst tour in. i 
^ prcs, 3ril battle of. tHS. I'.tl 
/,i!l< bi'ke siTtor, 11". I'll 

13th (S.) Bn. the Durham Light Infantry 

AiiucnlitM-is s, 1 1 111- .\. (,f. 1 1 1 

— sector S. iif, IS. :;i 
Arniivlice, jiiT 
Asi.iro sc'-tor, 2,'i2 

\ii tri.i.'i Oirell^i\.•. 2'):} 
liaililf Wo. 1,1, ,-,7 
Hraii.riMiir I.Mie, ;j:ij 
r-.i,..uli', eoniposition cf. ,i. ,; 
• ^ilonnc sector, .(2 
(Casualties, Arnientieres, secloi 
of, 18. 31. 32 

- - \sia(;o sector. 2.")2 
- \iistriaii Oiieiisive, 25ij 

'■• i'iir \Noo(|, .57. .58 
I iloiiin- sector. 32, 33 
i.crman r.iiil Mill 
I. '51 

C.iMl.lil U-s !:■ ,!ltrill<-,i ) 

'Ui^h Woi.l, 90 
!\lein Zilkbeke sector, liiS 
l.ast Canip.iiun. 331-3, 33.5. 3.{»"> 
le Sars. 103 

M;irrh, 191il, tot.J to, .32 
Mtnin Hoad. ISti, 187 
<1 Mcssines battle, If. J 

•iontcllo sector. 232, 231 
■ IniisliT .\llc_\, »il-ot; 
I'uzidrts, G3 

- KluIcI line, 195. I9l> 

- SoUcliez sector, 33 
Colour, KinK"s, 363 
Oiumand and change-, iu ^ uoe. '•. 

;t3. 31. 05. Ill, 211'.., 250, 252, 
t:U, 331, 3.'55 


13lh (S.i Bn 


the Durham Light Iniantry irontinued) 

Ml t'lr 

r.oini>l)iiKiiU<l l'> arlill'-iv. 

Div.. IKS 
Fsl.iin.".. l'.> 
l-'orm;itii)n, 1 
IViiiicf, ;irriv;il in, l** 

— return t">, -•''•'■' 
Iliuh Wonil. HS 
Hill •)!•. tiiTin.iii 1 ' 
Honnicliy. ;i:»:J 
Honours. Arnu-iiliii' 

(if, 31, :i'i 

- - Auslriiin OlTiiisive, 237 

- ■ B.iilitI \V<io<l. ■■>< 
. Ikluian, 2:» 

~- (i.nii;m r;iitl, li". ■ 

— Hifih Wood, H'.> 

- Last CansiKiinr-, ^'3 J- 7 

— le Siirs, UM 

-- Mt-nin Ho:"!, 187, lit''. -35 

- Mcssincb luillle, 105 
Minister Alley, 04. 00, ol Hiimnnc Society, l".t 
Soiaiue bailie (.i.l.lilioiiul). 
^ou<■lu•/ riiUI. .U 

^various, M- H-'. 1 
lluiidlnn Stelliinu. 33.". 
Italv, ariival iis 231 
Kenny, I'te. l.. V.C, 31 


KKin ZilUl..!.' ^crlr.r. If.S 
l.;^^l Can 
le Sars, 1 
Meiiin Ui..i.l. 1^ > 
Messines Ir.ilUe, H.l 
\ onlfllo se<tor, 2 
Mount. lin"!. ni'iM- 
Munsler All'^ 
I'ozltres, 03 
H.iiil, Arnic.itieri- - 
■ (.ernun. Hill '■ 
Kleii! Zillehek' 

■:t. borrol. l''.i 
■ irelu/, 33 
H.ornanis.ilion of 2j11> H'' ' 

lUutel lino, lit") 
Uiviera, reo.-plion on, 230 
St. Henlii, 333 

Souiine battle, j7. 63. 88. 100 
SoUtlu'Z seitor, 33 
r,,nKs. tMti. 3:ci 

i , j-jthDlv.,331 

Trenehes, »rst tour in, 18 
Youens. 2n<l Lieut. F.. V.C. K.S 
Vpres. 3rit battle. 185. lii.. 
/illebekc sector, 111 

Mth 'S ' Bn. the in..;. am Lighi IniatUry 

.Xrirentit'ris '.vitor, 31 

.\rras b.iiile, 137 

Hrl(ia»le. composition of. 1". 'I 

Cambrai battle. 223 

Cainbrin sector. 113 

(■.antaiii(i. 225 

Casualties, .\rras battle. 1 i 

C.nibrai l»attle. 22".. : 

Canibriii .".ectjr. lit 

Giiicby-Lesliteufs roail. < , 

llaniel sector. 113 
— Lens sector, 210, 211 

l..,>u..Uies ic'^iim:,':' 
lo 'I'ranslo;- . 
Loos battle, 
l.oosbector. 11-"). I Jl. 1 
(, 70 
si.xn!onthstoJuiie3«tli. i'b... 

Wiclljc sector, 35 

valry »i f.ambrai battle, 225 
I .,loiir. Klmi'i. •''*»'•* 
( oiiimana uml chai-HCS in 
: • I 



14th (S.) Bn. the Durham Light hiiantiy {fontii ml) 

i:onii)liin«'ntc<l by G.O.C. Div., 22'J 

l>i!>l);iii<lnit'nt, '21'! 
Dxn.miitt M.I ti.,;^; lie. l.'t'.i 
I'lnhnrkiitioi) for Frnii' • 
IVirniafioii, 2 
l-'r;inci', iirrival in, 2't 
(ias attack, Wirllj^^.st ' 
Maiml scctDr, 1 12 
Honours. Arras bat t If. li i 

Canilirai liattif, 2_''>. 2J^ 

i.ambriii r.iiils, li;;. 1 1 I 

li- Transloy, '.> I 

loos raids. IT'i 

various, 3«i, 111. 11. 

Wieltjf sec-tor, ;r> 
l-isci'llfs, (;ai : \ " ' . ' \ I 

l.iiis stdor. 21u 
It: Translov, ",t3 

I.OOS baltli. _ ' 

- sdtor. 111. l.'ij, Itift, 21it 
I.oiivrral, tr(t;r!i(<; iiiir, 2i:i 
Mari'oinK, 2- 
Noreuil Sfitu. . . ,_ 
Novel .\\\v\, .If., Ill 
i'ilckcni siHlor. .('• 
I'locRsteert sector. ;i 
i.)iia(, 7 I 
Itaiil, Ilinul. 1 i:i 
Itaids, Canilirin. li:i. 1 1 I 

- I.urmun, 2M 

- loos, im, 17" 
Soniine battle, 71. '.! 
Tanks, 221. 22.5 
Tr.iiiiint^ at lionic, in 

Iransftr to Irtlh Hilc, «lh r>iv., :il 
Trcnihcs, lirsl tour in, .( I 
Wieltjc s.diir. .;.',. 112 

iDili S ' Bii. the Durham Light Infantry 

Arnicntieres sector, 'Si 

.\iinistice, 330 

Arras h.ittle. l.TI, U» 

siitor. 11.') 
Ij.miirr, M. (Uitlilicrl's. ll'i 
n.i/.t'Mliu-U'-l'itil Woo'l. .'iS 
liiaurtvoir Lii:c, ;(2t> 
Hrii/atlc, coinpositiun of. Id. 211 
Itullecourt sector, 212 
'.auibrin sector, U.'i, Uii 
Kasuallifs, Arnu'nIiiTes sect' 

Arras I iltle, l:i7. 112 
- \rras NCI lor. 1 1 > 

llj/ciilin le-Tclit W- 

' .iinl)rin sector, 1 1 '< 

I pctiy sector, 21 1 

nnan Olleusive, .Marcli 

' > rniari Ollensive, April, lit KS.2N'> 
(.•rniaii OlfcnsiNc, .\l.iv,l»»18,3t(:j 
— OiJcuUccuurt. (54, Hii 

I'.isii. lilies (oiiiiiiiwili 
llalllcl sector. .'K'8 
Last Cainpuigii. 'Vl^. 

l.oos b.iitle. 2! 
Itculel, 1!I2 
- iieutel !• - I '■.. i :, 
SoniMi' hjly 1*1) 

f.aiiroy, .I'll 
• ;iialiel Hill, 2t>'», :i2l 
ilolour, Kin^i's. 309 
litininianil .mil diaiii^es in s.mb 
It!, IS, 115, lltl, I'll. 2 
■i|,l ■.; : II. _■ .■_■ 

' ' I [ ' H . ." li h ' • 1 1 1 . ■ i 1 . » I Kt.\ .. 1 J : 

i Inibaik.ition for l-ranre, 2-1 
lipeliv hcctoi. 21.1 
I'ontaiue sector, l.'i'i 
I'orniutiun. 2 
France, arriv.d in, 2i( 






l.Tih IS.) Bn the Du.-ham Lichl Infantry i''""'"''''0 

111' ran 1 :■(-■( tnr, :is 
(..•mi;in Oirensive, Mnrdt. iji- 
201 1 
(»!iii!'-i\c, April, l'.»18, 2X'. 
utTciiMVi-, May. I'.IIS, U'.is 
- Mill, 211 
• •iicudcK' 
ll.itntl •.ftl.r. ,M.s 
II.'MVisul*', I'lc. M., V.f... 112 
lUrv.l.o.i ridjic. 302 
lIuiM.urs. Ariiirnliirt's srdor. :', 
■r.!s iiiitllc, 135. IMT. ll.i 
..■l-i:m, 214 

:,,,|.«i Hi!i,, 2r>i 

! ,(iu-ii. ; - ■■ 'S 

li.iitrl. 101. I'lJ 
I 'utct linf, r>7 
.iiiiiM.* lii'itlo (.! :>■ 
I i-l Ciinp:u>:n, .T21 
! iiin)!il-ri>iit;iiii<». :{:iit 
I. Oil.' si'clor, ZS'. 
l...i,s It.ittli', 2" 

I .Ili'^PIlhof I':i' 

MiiMiimont. ,TjI 
I'.iix-du-N.inl. T2.S 
Haul, (liriiiM::. Jll 
I'.-iifrl, I'tu 
H.utel liiH , i'i<; 

Soinmc !■ 

I'D. I.' 

: i.-ou; :iH 

- (..rniaii i)ii> iiM\e, Miinii. I'-US- Tanks, 8.".. m... HI, ;!.:■'> 

2'iii, 2t'>l, 2«^ Tr.iininii ill lioiiic. in 
i.<rinan()ITiMislvc,M:iy. l'J18.30.J Trcnclus lirsl luiir m. :i.. 

i.irinan r:ii'i 'ii Vtii<l<uii-'-nii-I{ois. 32.S 

(,ii«ii<Ut<.',, 32") 

! I Cluirn^M. ^ -■■' '•■"'■■• '"" ' '" 

!Cth (Kj Bn. tlie Dull. am Liglu Inlantry 
I (irmatniii. | 

1/th (R ) B.i the Durliam Light In ar.lrv 
I onn.iiiiiii, i 

i8th <S.) Bn. the Hiu , am Lijih; Infantry (1st Co':nty) 

.Nnui -lUf, ;11j 
Arras li.iMlf. lit 
Avillc IJi|,:P. -ii^X 
i'lcaiiiiioiit naiml snlur. |2 
Urit'Mdi', <om|>fixiUon of, 11, 2l.'i 
rasuallir-- V" ■• •■■tdr sl.nui. 


>iu-. 1 n. •> 

i.iii Ollinui-, Marrh. 1 '1- 

t.aMi.iilirs uvi;r<((il/ii/) 

f.fnnan raid. 117 
ll.irllopools bonili iiliiicni, 11 
! libuli'rne sector. 118 
I ist r,.Mup:il,'!n. 31(t. 311 
I lato Uiicjuc. 31(1. 311. 31 I 
Illume battle, .'>2 
•ur. Kind's. 37i> 
I iiiiii.iiid and chaii«i 
117, 24.'>. 2 jr.. 2H.' 

(..I mail OlienslVf. April, I'MS h'-'s, misMiiiicr. 311 
2<,o. 2"tl ' M''. 39 




18th (S.) Bn. the Durham 


J-;ml).'irk..lioii fur i::\[>t. :.);i 

— for Frniirc, I ! 
rt-sthulicrf si'clur, \\~ 
I'iril r.^irdc Stclluii;;. 1 ]■) 
I"orin.ilton, 2 

I"r:itu-c, ;irriv:il in. 1 1 
(.Mvrollo. 113. 171 
• itrnmn f)lfiMMvc, Mipili, ]'Mh J.s i 
-- OtTciisur. \|.nl. 1" l.s, 'j^s 
r.ii«l. 117 

— - FU'trcrit, 1017. ] ]•■ 
(livenrhy sr.tur. 1 17 
llii-tlopoiils Ixiinli.irciiiirul. 11 
11. li,<l<Tnf scclor, 118 
linriDiirs, l-ir.'' G;inlf Strllurii.'. 121 

il'Tinnn Offensive. M.irili. nus. 


--(icrniiin Offinsivr, .April. HUS. 
29(1. 2'.>1 

- (iermaii OfTensivc. rns. .'i'l'i 
• CiCTtiinn r lUl, 117 

- ('lomtiHTourt r.ilil. us 

— I.:i>.t «; iiiipMiiiii. :jiii. .(11 

— Pi.iif n.-<>. ;t)n, ■ I. n I .,-, 

Lipht Infantry (1st Courityi 

II III il } 

Huntor-Wtstoirs mrssiiL'r. "'2 
I.n<it Cimpal^n, .^^S 
Mctorcti, ;j()0, .T1C> 
MiiMloslioro', 11 
M>i>rnni'villr, 2>i.'} 
Nt'iivi- C.linpelle ';cctiM-. 1 ii, 

I Mlltc Istll'MC, 2.SS 

I'lili- nocquc, ;{(»(> i", 
rioc^slcerf Wnoil. .sin 

I'..l\fl, riPrill:!!!. 117 

- CioniiMccourl, 1 IS 

lif ori!:inisatioii i)f britsidr, JJ.'i 

- of ilivisiitii, 24'> 
Scm- scrfor. 12 
SolliniP hitllf. IS 
Sonu oil the ni.irrli. 2!1 
Suez (;;in:il (tofcnr«"5, )ii 
Training at home, n 
IniMsfer to 03r<l . ajst I .n 

Treiichi^, Hrvt tmir ui. 1_' 
\ iiiiy liiif. 171, ;2I2. 21 1 

V..., ,...■ t., I- M,.,t. •>■, 

19th (S> Bn. the Dur'- 11 I.r'lit Infantry ' 'nd County) 

Armistice, :i|'» 
ArpMs sector. 122 
li.intiini ■' :t 

- slaiKl.inl iijiolislied. !_'_' 
Mnuadc, roitiposltioii 1 

Casualties, .\rri!s scrtor. r.'J 

- Ci-rm III Olfi'iisivc. M.ucti, I'ns, 

27ii. 277 

- (iiriii.ui (tifeiisivt', .\()ril. l"is. 

2H3, 2'.»4 

- (ierni.iii, 172 

— Gillenioiit Farm. 2t'i 
-Last Cimpai»!ti, 311 «■>, 3is 

— Les Trols .Sauv.u'cs., 

— I.ovre sector, :IIT 

r.isu.jK ?> {conliiiiir'l] 
■ l.on)!u?viil, ("ill 
• Martinsart sector, .'ild 
Soimiie haitle, fil. 711 
Ypres. 3rrl battle, iiy. j , 1 
t.idoiir, Kinu's, 370 
Ciimm.iiiil and dianiies in same. ; 
1 ' '■■'. 122 I, l'»s, 2»fi. :nf. 
'.«. 3t!t 
(ourtral entered. .347 
Ijiiliarkation for France, 12 
Fiivl^res Wo. III. 275 
IVsthuliert scrt'ir. 13 
I lenrli.Hx \citiir, j.t 
Formal ii-M. .3 
Fr.incc. arrival in, 42 



19th (S.l Bn the Durham Light Ir'Titry (2nd County) 

l.-.T. 1:1 

(■.;uihc Wooil 
German ()llci> 


— OITcTisive. Alinl. I'.ilS. U.i 

— riiils, 122. 172 

— Hitri;it. r.il7. li ! 
Cilliiiiiml F.irm, 211 
Il.ilijii'niirt sector, 171 
Ilni'.iiirs. (WTiii.m olTrii'-iv.'. M n'.!;, 

I'JLS, 27ti 
-- (icrnuin r.iiil. 172 
-- Ilouthulst Hd.ul r.iiil. 217 
— I.ii'-l C.imii.iiuii. :ii:i ■' 

l.ihnns Ml tor, 12.') 

l.ocrc r^iid. 'M~ 
Kliin /.i!U'li«k< , :(ll 
Kotkuit, 197 
I ist c.lnlp;li^;l^ :!i:i 
[..ivfiitic siTlor, 11 
l.i's Trois Siiuva^jis, l.'ifi 

l.tlions sector. 12:$ 
Minli. 1 OH, l.oire sectnr, .i\h 
I.()nuiic^;il. (in 
M.iUhorii ri(l^;«^. 7ii 
N'.irtinsart Mitrir, :U'- 
MontaulKin. '>'i 
OlIli^ilOM livtr sccl'ir. \'i'i 
I'n<..l:-a|, l<tS, 21''. 
H.iid. llmilhulst Ho. Ml. 217 
- I.orrr. :{i7 

— M.irliii-.irt. .iV'> 
H.iiiK., 122 

—, 122. 172 
Hirlifbouri-'-St. \ .'.isl si'itfir, IH 
S itiiinc Ijattle, y.K 711 
Tr.iiiiiiii; at lioMi.'. 12 
Transfer tn l.ilth H.U-.. 21(1 
Trt-nrlies, lir>.t I'Oir in, -li 
Tr.nix, 277 
Vprcs. ;tnl h d\W, r,t7 

20lh (S.) Bn. the Durham Light Infantry 

Arnuaitiors. m.Io, N -'.■ IL 121 ..-Mi.lnnmltM l.v ArtHlrrv. wrU 

Uois Carrr. :J3m - "v l,.0.<:. IM-. 2H1 

Hoss.nt. :i5^, -»»■ ^^-Of"- "'^ • " 

Hrit;a.'?. o.niposition .if. i:!. 23S KmiIj arUalioa for l.-r.;;u-.', 1.; 

C.lsualt■'<•^, .\rnicntk^rfs. sintor N. FIits, S7 

of. 4.». 1"2.') l-orni.itioii, ,; 

(■..■r'.n.iu OlT.■n^i^.■, M m h. lUs. Iranc... .rnx..! in. 13 

'>''S 2.S1 — return to, 238 

-lier'nnnOn.'iiMvr, April. I'll s.2'.H-, <„ oitensivo, M nvl,. I-JIS. 27S 

_ „ ,1^ .,.5- oil.nsivo, April, rus. 2'r. 

— last c'm'p.nun. :t.-.l. 3.V2. 3.-. I-'- i •• rni.uiy. in. 37u 

— Mess'acsbattli-. ItVi. It'.l. It'i.'i. Hi" HiH ^i"'- '-9J 

— St. ITci sector, IJ.".. I2(i tin Mctor. 1..7 
-Sclierpen'KTrt v.ct..r. 31S. 31" Nrmertier.. --.lor N 

— .Soninie l..itlle. 87. «S. <:'.). I"" "'. >•. 12.5 

— \lire.. :<nl h.ilMe. 1:1 li. IM 1 rem li, r.7 
Colour, Kin^;'s, ;t7it 
Coinin.ind mil ihancjes in same, 3. 

KH 'i.t. IJ I, 1"7. :37. 3M. 3'a! 


,. niian ( >l[eiiviN e, M r. li. I'll^. 

278. 2Kii 
ItilU. 237 


20th (S.) Bn. the Durham Liglit Infantry ■.,„/,„,„■■ 

Il'iiiours {C'inlimied; 

■ - I., 1st (;.imi),jiL:n. ;i:)i. a.'jj 

Mrisjius ll.ltllr, Itio 

- Soiiiiiii' b.itllf, 8r.. ',»',(. i.iM 
vanmi-. 157 

"Spies. :tr,l I,., HI,', 17,;. HI, 
1 1 lUlliciu. :i:i2 
lt.i|\ . an in, 'J.iii 
l^.isl C.inipaiimi. iil'.t 
MessiiH's liattlo. l',;!, ii, , 
.Monh'Uo M'ctdi-, :i3il 
Xicujiort H.iiris bL-ttor, Ji:. 

liihls. Aiiiuiit lures, siitur .\. iif, 

St. l;|oi sr.lnr, IJ,-,. l-,7 

^1 lirldt. lirst across, aiti 
>i licrpc nhiT^ sccfiir, lilS 
.SdUIUU' tli\ 8t). !',S 

Tdwcr ll.inilits. i,sj 
Tr.imin^; it 1 n. rj 

Ir.iiisfiT to r^ltli iKif.. -jis 
rrftic-ln'.s. lirst tour in. | | 
Yprt's ilif'iRi's, 2'.to. Ml 

- .')ril liattU'. 17.1. 182 

21st (R.) Bn. the Durluim Liglu Infantry 

i onil.itinii, 1 

22nd (S) Bn the Durham Light Infantry (3rd County; 


.Msi.rLcii l,y 1 7t|) In, 111. ,11, |.,M|,t 

liif.iiitrv, :jiH) 
Hois lies liutlis, jui 
lloueli.ivesiu's, 128 
<:.iiiil)rin sector. I2ii 
i^isuallli-.s, Houv li.ivcsiios. 1,;, 

- C^anihnii sutur, rjti 

— CiiTin.tii (MTiiisive, .M.irili. 1 M.s, 

27.'}, 271 

— 'icriiKia Dilciisivc, .Vpiil. I'.u.s. 

297. 2<t8 
trcntiaii Oltinsiv.', M,i\, nus 
:ii 1.") 

1.1 IJoisscllf, .1,1 

Ic Tr.insloy, ;iO '.18 
I'lnci^slfcrt sct.t(,'i. 21ii 

Soilinir lilttle. O.f. '.IN 

- ^ iwjs, .(,,1 ij.ittli , 2ii2. 2ii| 

— 2illcbcko stitor, 172. 17:i 
(Colour, Kind's, 3(V» 

Coiiini.inij .iml ( liaii;.:i.s in s.iiiU', I. 

13, 27,}. 290 
Coiiiphiiic'iicl i,v (;.i.;,_ )j;i, (,,,,|, 


(ajnipliiuciilctl (ciintiitni;i\ 

— by C.-in-C, 203 

— by (i.O.C. 23'<l n<l.' . 2«i| 
l.inbarkation for l-ram ,■, .1 1 
I'oriii.itioii. u 

I'r.iiicc, arri\ J in, ( | 
'■"' Ollcnsivc, .^Iarlll. I'.MH. 

— Olli.-nsivc, .\]inl. ru.s. 2'.tti 

— OfTcnsiM'. .M.I'.. iiiiH. :;iii 

—, 1,117. l.ii 
'•irnicnurt, 301 
M.iiiiulicck l)iiili;i-il, 2<K\ 
H,irl)oi;iii^ri-s, 273 
ll"iii)urs, lJcl;;i,iii, 21s 

— UouchavcsMC's, l.U 

■ Gcrnian O-msiN , .M.inli, ins 
1272 .-) 
— (jcnn.i.i oitfiisivc .\pril. VJ\ti. 
2!»7, 2'JS 

— v.irious, 218 

— Ypres .N.iliciil. 2" I 
Ic I'ruiisloy, It,', 

— sector. 12; 




22nd (S.) Bn. ihe Durham Light Infantry Urd County) 
(Pioneers) (<""'""i '1) 

Miriiii Ho.iiJ, I'.tit Sumiui: b.itUi', jj, '.K> 

IMoi'-sltirl sector, 2U\ rr.iiiiiii;^ ;it hoiri\ i;{ 

H.nicourt sctlor, l.:7 \ivi-s s.ili.nt. i:,s ITU. JlT- U 1 . 

Hcort;;inisjti<in ill .i '•i.iii]);iiiif-. Jl'.i — :jr>.l b.ittU. I'r,! 

23rd (R.) Bn. the Durham Light Infantry 

llU lll.ll K'il. I 

J5th (Works) Bn. the Durham Light Infaj 'ry 
Foriiialioii. '■ 

29th (S ) Bn. the Du-ham Light Infantry 
.\rini>lin>. :ii.l l.nil...rK.lhHi l^.r l-raiar. :U'.' 

,;, l(/riii.i'i"ri. ;tl'.' 

1 r. Hire, ill i\ il en. :il'» 

iiiiihliiir, liS'.t 

lloii.inr^, L^isl {■.,iiiii>.ii:.;ii, ;t')7, :!•>" 

I..I1I1I11.11H1 chiiiincs in s.'mc. Last C.iiiip.iiuii, :i.'i7 

.,,,, ,i|, Vprcs ilrffiiccs. '.','!'>. :>r)7 

CasuallifS. KasI (. unpn^ii 

:i.')S Cii 

t.nldur, Kiiin's, i()'.) 
Ciiiinni's, li.l'.t 

51si (G.) Bn. the Durhan\ Light Infantry 

(.nloui. w\n-.\, :u\:) i,.iin.iii\, .(fuv.ii v. :;7o 

(:„iim:,uKl, ili.m-i' m. :i7>i onuui. :, 

52nd iG.i Bn. the Durham Light Infantry 

(> , .irri\.il in. J7' 
orii-lM. .'i 

C.jluur, l\iii>;'s, :tii',t 
(.uiuiiMiv.l. rli,ui"c ill. :i"" 

53rd (YS.) Bn. the Durham Light Infantry 

(„riii.iiiy. .,iii\..l 111. :;:< Kiihutiun, :;Vit 
uru'iii, .'i 


l„i,,x (,1.1111' ^v^l.■ln. 1 ^"lu OK ;h.' iii.Tdi. -Il 

I ,pii|.m.nt. l...itlo. 1.,.; ^i'lril "f t''^' rf>iuit>. 7 

(;llt. 0.m.itV>. to N.aion, 'i,,-. clMLotn- of. 7 

K'Irli'-iiu's apiKMl lor rorriiilN. 1 - .liili. ullu -, 'i 
JU'rriiiliir.;. 1. '- 
— I'.iiliJiutiil.iiy Coiiuiiillcc. .'l 




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